Chapter 6 Ancient Roman Notes by dandanhuanghuang

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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity
Global 9
Unit Questions
Section 1 : The Roman World Takes Shape

Aim: What values formed the basis of Roman society and government

Topic                   Notes/ Vocabulary

Roman Civilization             Unifying the Land
Arises in Italy                     o Italian Peninsula located on the Med
                                    o Easier to unify than Greece
                                    o Appenine Mountains less rugged
                                    o Broad fertile plains in north and west
                               Early People
                               800 B.C : Latins
                                    o Indo-European
                                    o migrated into Italy 1100-800 BCE
                                    o settled along Tiber River
                                    o known as the 7 hills (becomes Rome)
                                  Etruscans
                                    o settled north of Rome
                                    o controlled much of northern & central Italy
                                    o provided Romans w/ much information
                                         alphabet from Greeks
                                         arch
                                         gods & goddesses




The Romans Establish           Drove out Etruscan rulers in 509 BC
a Republic                     Founded a republic: “that which belongs to the people”
                                    o People choose the officials
                                    o Structuring the Republic
                                    o Senate
                                             300 members: all patricians: members of landing
                                                 holding elite
                                             Nominates two consuls:
                                             Supervise government, command armies, only serve
                                                 one term
                                             Event of war: choose dictator
                                             Example: Cinncinatus
                               Plebeians fight for rights
                                    o Farmers, merchants and artisans who made up majority of
                                       population
                                    o Gained rights to elect tribunes: own officials
                                   o Tribunes could veto: “I forbid” block laws
                               450BC 12 Tables or Roman Law


                               Family was basic unit
Characterizing Roman           Male had absolute power in household
Society                        The Role of women began to change over time
                               Could own property, run businesses
                               Most worked at home
                               Roman educate most children
                               Girls and boys from upper class learned to read and write
                               Polytheistic religion



                               Armies expanded Roman power
The Roman Republic
                               270 B.C, controlled much of Italian Peninsula
Grows
                               Basic military unit: legion: 5000 men
                               Values of loyalty, courage and respect
                               Conquered people had to lay taxes and supply soldiers
                               Few gained citizenship
                               Build a network of military and trade roads
                               “All Roads Lead to Rome!”


Section 2: From Republic to Empire

Aim: What factors led to the decline of the Roman Republic and the Rise of the Roman Empire?


Rome Grows through             As Rome grew, conflict with Carthage
Conquest                       264- 146 B.C Punic Wars
                                    o 1st war: Rome defeats Carthage
                                    o 2nd War: Hannibal crosses the Alps into Italy
                                    o Wins for 15 years
                                    o Rome sends army to Carthage and destroys it
                                    o Senator Cato: “Carthage must be destroyed”
                               Romans committed to imperialism: establishing control over foreign
                                lands
                                    o 133 B.C Rome controlled the entire Med: Mare Nostrum: Our
                                       Sea
                                    o Incredible fortunes into Rome
                                    o Wealthy families built latifundias: huge farming estates
                                    o Captured people served as slaves
                                    o Small farmers fell into debt, forced to move to Rome
                               Gap between rich and poor widened
                               Attempts at reform: Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
                              o   Elected a tribune: called for land redistribution
                              o   Both brothers killed: saw as threat to Republic




The Roman Republic        Rome plunged into civil wars
                               o Who should hold power? Senate/ political leaders/ military
                                   generals
                               o Legions became loyal to commanders b/c commanders
                                   provided more benefits
                               o Julius Caesar vs. Pompey
                               o 58 B.C. Caesar dominated Gaul , Senate ordered Caesar to
                                   disband army
                               o Caesar crossed Rubicon River, crushed all opposing armies
                               o “Veni, Vedi, Vici”- “I came, I saw, I conquered”
                               o Declared himself dictator
                          48- 44 BC Caesar Reforms
                               o Public works: employed jobless and gave public land to poor
                               o Granted Roman citizenship to more people
                               o Now Julian Calendar
                               o Caesar killed led to new civil wars
                          Mark Antony vs. Octavian
                          31 B.C Octavian defeated Antony




The Age of the Roman      Senate declares Octavian: Augustus: Exalted One
Empire Dawns                  o Declared princep: first citizen
                              o Laid foundation or stable government
                              o Well trained civil service system
                              o Ordered census: population count
                              o Postal service and issued new coins
                              o Built roads and temples
                          Emperors Vary
                              o Caligula and Nero were two early poor emperors
                              o Nero persecuted Christians
                              o 96- 180 AD good emperors
                              o Hadrian: Codified law, Hadrian’s Wall in Britain
                              o Marcus Aurelius
                          Pax Romana: 200 years of Roman peace and prosperity, Golden Age
                              o Trade flowed freely
                              o Entertainment: “bread and circuses”
                              o Circus Maximus, Coliseum
Section 3: The Roman Achievement

Aim: Describe the cultural achievements of Ancient Rome


                               Rome absorbed ideas from Greek colonists
Romans Write                   Adopted Greek and Hellenistic achievements
Literature, History            Gave birth to Greco- Roman civilization
and Philosophy                 Literature
                                    o Virgil: epic poem the Aeneid
                                    o Shows Rome’s heroic past
                                    o Tells how Aeneas escaped from Troy to find Rome
                                    o Goal: arouse patriotism and unite Rome after civil wars
                                    o Wrote satires: Horace: poke fun at Rome
                               Roman Historians
                                    o Livy: Goal: arouse patriotism  told stories of Cincinnatus
                                    o Tacitus  wrote bitterly about emperors
                               Marcus Auerelius adopted Greek philosophy




                               Based on Greek and Etruscan models
Roman art and                  Stressed realism: portraying subjects how they actually looked
architecture develop                o Focused on characteristics
                                    o Some sculpture was idealistic: mostly of emperors
                               Mosaics: chips of colored stone or glass
                               Architecture: emphasized grandeur
                               Columns and arches
                               Used concrete, example: Pantheon



                               Excelled in engineering
Science and Math
                               Built roads, bridges, harbors
                               Aqueducts: bridge like stone structures that carried water from hills
                                into Roman city
                               Public baths
                               Ptolemy: proposed idea that earth was center of world (accepted for
                                1500 years)
                               Galen: medical text
                               Pliny the Elder




New Law Codes                  Began as civil law: applied to citizens
                               Law of nations: applied to all people under Roman rule, citizens and
                                      non- citizens
                                     Innocent until proven guilty
                                     Accused allowed to face the accuser
                                     Evidence
                                     Judges allowed to interpret laws
                                     Penalties varied according to social class


Section 4: The Rise of Christianity

Aim: How did Christianity emerge and become the official religion of the Roman Empire?


Early Empire includes                Various religious beliefs coexisted
Diverse Religions                    Early religion: polytheistic, similar to Greeks
                                     Cult of Isis: offered women equal status
                                     63 B.C. Romans conquered Judea: home to most Jewish followers
                                     Zealots wanted to revolt against Romans and form independent state
                                     66 A.D Romans crushed a rebellion
                                     Many left Judea and scattered
                                     Waiting for a messiah: or anointed king from God



                                     Christianity began to develop
Jesus proclaims his
                                     Information comes from first four books of the New Testament: The
teachings
                                      Gospels
                                     Jesus born 4 B.C
                                          o 12 disciples helped to spread morals and messages
                                          o Beliefs:
                                                    Monotheistic
                                                    10 Commandments
                                          o Supported Jewish prophets
                                          o Goal: bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who
                                              believed him
                                          o Emphasized God’s need for justice, morality and service
                                          o Condemned to death: To Romans, Jesus was a threat



                                     Christ= “anointed one”
The Message of
                                     Followers became known as Christians
Christianity Spreads
                                     Paul: Jew from Asia Minor, most influential role in spreading
                                      Christianity
                                          o Vision speaking with Jesus: mission to spread faith
                                          o Set up churches in the Med, Asia Minor, Greece
                                          o Letters from Paul became part of New Testament
                      Christians persecuted throughout the Roman Empire
                           o Nero used Christians as scapegoats for social/ economic
                               problems in empire
                           o Martyrs: people who die for their beliefs
                           o Poor and oppressed found comfort in Jesus’ message
                      “The blood of the martyr is the seed of the Church”



                      313 AD: Constantine issues Edict of Milan
Rome embraces             o Granted freedom to of worship to Roman citizens
Christianity          Theodosius: Christianity became official religion



                      To join had to be baptized: blessed with holy water
The Early Church           o Sins forgiven by God
Develops                   o Women worked as missionaries
                      Clergy: group of men who conducted Christian ceremonies
                      Diocese: consisted of Christian community and clergy
                      Bishop: high ranking church official
                           o Bishops of Antioch, Rome, Alexandria, Jerusalem and
                                Constantinople became patriarchs
                           o Bishops of Rome came to be known as popes: claimed
                                authority over all others
                      Heresies: beliefs contrary to the church
                      Augustine: combined Church doctrine with Greco- Roman philosophy
Section 5: The Long Decline

Aim: How did military, political, social and economic factors combine to cause the fall of the Western
Roman Empire?

Topic                    Notes/ Vocabulary

The Roman Empire                 Emperors consistently overthrown: political violence and instability
Divides                          High taxes to support army and government hurt businessmen and
                                  small farmers
                                 Over- cultivation of farmland
                                 Farmers had to move and work on large estates
                                 284: Diocletian divided the empire
                                 Tried to fix prices of goods and prevent inflation
                                 312 Constantine
                                 Granted religious toleration to Christians
                                 New capital, Constantinople



                                 200AD wars in east Asia force the Huns to move east
Invaders Threaten the
                                 Huns pushed Germanic tribes east
Roman Empire
                                 378 overrun by Visigoths
                                 410 Rome was plundered
                                 476 Odoacer ousted emperor in Rome



Problems                         Roman soldiers hired mercenaries to fight
                                 Little loyalty to Rome
                                 Roman government became oppressive and authoritarian
                                 Corrupt officials undermined loyalty
                                 Dividing empire prevented unity
                                 Heavier taxes required to support empire
                                 Reliance on slave labor prevented technological improvements
                                 Widening gap between rich and poor
                                 Epidemics
                                 Decline of patriotism
                                 Overall: Fall of Rome was a long gradual process, not one significant
                                  event

								
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