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Anthropology Rodney Mileski Eighth Grade Social Studies What is Anthropology? The study of humankind everywhere, throughout time, seeks to produce reliable knowledge about people and their behavior, both about the things that make them different and the things they all share in common. What makes us different? What makes us the same? Subfields of Anthropology Franz Boas German-American anthropologist Franz Boas, a professor at Columbia University in New York City for 37 years, helped pioneer modern anthropology. He advocated the theories that there is no pure race and that no race is superior to any other. • The University of Rochester was the first college or university to carry credit for a general anthropology course (1879). • Prior to this the Western Hemisphere was restricted to its geographical horizon. • With the advancements in transportation and technology, the world was reachable to explore and study. • This introduced the anthropologist to the study of ethnography. • Ethnography is the systematic description of a particular culture based on firsthand observations. • The technique of learning a people’s culture through direct participation in their everyday life over an extended period of time. • These types of anthropologists are ethnologists. Physical Anthropologist Also referred to as biological anthropology, focuses on humans as biological organisms, and one of its main interests is human evolution. Biological evolution is the natural process by which new and more complex organisms develop over time. (Human Evolution and Darwinism) Non-Academic careers in physical anthropology (Website) Cultural Anthropology The branch of anthropology that focuses on human behavior. Anthropologists welcome the contributions from other disciplines (psychology, economics, sociology, and biology) to reach the common goal of understanding humanity. Forensic Anthropology Forensic anthropologists specialize in the analysis of human corpses or remains for legal investigations. In this photo, a forensics team working for the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia examine human remains on a hillside near Srebrenica in northeastern Bosnia. Forensic analysis helps investigators determine how large numbers of civilians died i the Yugoslav Wars of Succession (1991-1995), information needed to convict those responsible for the killings. Forensic Archaeology Web-site Archaeology The branch of cultural anthropology that studies material remains in order to describe and explain human behavior. While history tells us something of the horrors of slavery in North America, the full horror is revealed only by archaeological investigation of the African burial ground in New York. Even young children were worked so far beyond their ability to endure that their spines actually fractured. The Ohio Historical Society (Serpent Mound) Located on the west bank of the Nile River on the outskirts of Cairo, the pyramids at Giza, Egypt, rank as some of the best-known monuments in the world. The ancient Egyptians constructed the pyramids to serve as royal tombs. Built without the use of cranes, pulleys, or lifting tackle, the massive structures stand as testaments to the engineering skills of their makers. . Archaeology fieldwork website Linguistic Anthropology The branch of cultural anthropology that studies human languages. Linguists may deal with the description of a language or with the history of languages (the way language develops and changes with passage of time). American anthropologist Margaret Mead spent many years studying how culture influences individual personality. Mead lived among the Samoan people during 1925 and 1926 to observe their way of life and the types of personalities common in their cultural group. Her 1928 book, Coming of Age in Samoa, provoked a great debate among sociocultural anthropologists regarding the proper method and interpretation of field research. Mead’s approach to studying groups of people, which focused on the individual people and groups with whom she lived, earned her much criticism from anthropologists who believed that research must rely more directly on statistical research and the incorporation of cross-cultural and testable hypotheses. Ethnohistory The study of cultures of the recent past through oral histories, accounts left by explorers, missionaries, and traders, and through analysis of such records as land titles, birth and death records, and other archival materials. They recognize that they have obligations to three sets of people 1. Those whom they study. 2. Those who fund the research. 3. Those in the profession who expect us to publish our findings so that they may be used to further our knowledge. !!! The first responsibility clearly is to his or her informants and their people. !!! Informants are members of a society in which the ethnographer works who help interpret what she or he sees taking place. Activity #1 All students are required to do this activity from the website linked at the bottom of this slide. First click on the topic archaeology for the glossary words. I want you to write down and define ten (10) words we did not cover in class. Second, I want you to click on cultural anthropology. I want you to choose ten (10) words to define that we did not cover in class. Last, I want you to click on physical anthropology. I want you to choose ten (10) words to define that we have not covered in class. I want all of the definitions (25) hand-written and turned in by the required date. Anthropology glossary website Activity #2 The students will be required to work from the website linked on the slide titled Physical Anthropologist. The title is Non-Academic careers in Physical Anthropology. The students are required to hand-write five professions the website suggests are careers in non-academic physical anthropology. The students will be required to explain in detail what that profession entails and if he or she can see themselves pursuing that type of career (Explain why or why not). Activity #3 Bibarch website 1. Click on to the website above. 2. Click on to the link for Concepts and Theory. 3. Click on Scientific Archaeology. 4. Click on the chart next to scientific method. The students are required to hand-write the formula (chart) for the Scientific Method (The Process of Conducting Scientific Inquiry) as it is given on this website. I stress that it must be exactly like the one on the website and study it before you hand it in on the required due date. Activity #4 The students will be watching the video series Faces of Culture. The students will be required to follow a worksheet as the video is playing. They will hand in the worksheet and write a short essay about what was most interesting about the video. Activity #5 The students will be responsible for the material we covered in our readings and the material that was covered on the previous activities. The test will be a combination of multiple choice, matching, and short essays.
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