"The Ontological Argument"
The problem of evil and suffering No Title Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Activities Assessment Homework Indicates lessons taught before the summer holidays 1 The Devil For pupils to Pupils will be able to Pupils will be booked into A series of Pupils are to investigate the assess the relevance the computer room and questions for prepare for varied role of the and significance of the given a research sheet to pupils to next lesson devil from different devil to the modern guide them. They will be answer will where they will religious and cultural world in its various required to question who assess their be required to traditions, through forms. and what the devil is from knowledge and give a various media. different religious and understanding presentation cultural traditions, from the on an example literature, poetry and lesson. of evil – image paintings. / film / event / person of A series of questions for their choice. pupils to answer will assess It must include their knowledge and an explanation understanding from the to justify lesson. their selection. Pupils will then answer the questions provided on the worksheet. 2 Evil – pupil To understand the Pupils will be aware Pupils will deliver their Peer / teacher Write an delivery concept of evil numerous examples of presentations. assessment of answer to (natural and moral) evil and how they pupils’ explain initial ultimately resulted in Then divide the examples presentations thoughts on suffering. provided between moral and and verbal why this is Pupils will be able to natural evil (check their responses to regarded as distinguish between understandings of these the being a strong examples of natural and terms from GCSE). discussions. argument for moral evil the non- Discuss suffering being the existence of consequence of evil. Pupils God. provide some suggestions. Give consideration and thought to the problem of evil and suffering as being the strongest argument for the non-existence of God. 3 An To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – pupils to draw an Self Pupils to find introduction logical and evidential explain and contrast image of God in the middle assessment of out more about to the problem of evil the differing views of a page and then mind map how many of the view argument about how to approach His attributes around the God’s propounded by the problem of evil and outside. attributes are J L Mackie suffering challenged from his essay: PPP – an introduction to the through this Evil and basis of the argument and argument. Omnipotence key terms such as ‘logical (1955) problem of evil’ and Teacher ‘evidential problem of evil’. assessment of http://faculty. Pupils are to make notes in pupils’ unlv.edu/jwood their books. understanding /unlv/evilomnip of the key otence.pdf Plenary – Refer back to the ideas and initial mind map – how many principles in of these qualities at first the lesson glance still appear to applicable to God? 4 Irenaeus To understand Pupils will be able to This lesson is taken from A Teacher / Continue wider religious responses to outline the key Thinker’s Guide to Evil by peer reading of this the problem of evil features of Irenaeus’ Peter Vardy and Julie Arliss assessment of topic and theodicies (p54-8) the decoding / further unpacking develop notes. Task - Pupils will work in exercise and small groups to decode and questions for interpret clues which discussion. explain Irenaeus’ theodicy. When correctly ordered and unpacked the clues will explain the presence of evil; in the world according to Irenaeus. Task – A series of questions for pupils to discuss initially in their groups. Plenary – whole class, teacher led discussion of the key points of Irenaeus’ theodicy 5 Augustine To understand Pupils will be able to Starter – Brief game of Teacher Research religious responses to outline the key Pictionary. Pupils nominate assessment of Gnosticism and the problem of evil features of Augustine’s themselves to come to the pupils’ Manichaean theodicy board and draw the understanding theology. E.g. following things: of the text. light / Adam and Eve darkness; good Garden of Eden Peer / evil; soul / Angel assessment of body. Jesus’ resurrection the image interpretation How has Task – pupils will be given a exercise in Augustine sheet of text which outlines the plenary. based his ideas the main features of on these Augustine’s theodicy. We historical will read through this approaches? together as a class and answer any initial questions. In addition, read further Task – Students will be around given a sheet of A4 plain Augustine’s paper. They need to theodicy to transfer the key points develop your from the text into images notes. and use of key words only. Plenary – Pupils will pair up and decode the images to reveal the explanation of Augustine’s theodicy. 6 God on Trial To understand Pupils will be able to Starter – speed dating Self and peer Do wider religious responses to refer to the specific questions on the Holocaust assessment of reading around the problem of evil example of the and Jews’ experiences. speed dating the treatment holocaust and look at questions. of the Jews how victims viewed Task – Pupils watch the DVD during the their experiences and God and Trial and identify Peer / teacher Holocaust. evaluate whether or the key arguments that are assessment of not they held God to be raised when the Jews put questions responsible at the end God on Trial for allowing identified and of the trial the Holocaust and suffering placed on the of millions. grid. Plenary – Discuss the points Teacher / raised in the documentary peer / self and evaluate the conclusion assessment of they reached to find God the guilty but still agreed to conclusions have faith and continue the reached by Jewish religion in the face the Jews in of death. the trial. 7 God on Trial To understand Pupils will be able to religious responses to refer to the specific the problem of evil example of the See outline from previous See lesson 6 See lesson 6 holocaust and look at lesson. how victims viewed their experiences and evaluate whether or not they held God to be responsible at the end of the trial 8 A positive To understand that Pupils will be able to Starter – pupil brainstorm – Self / teacher Write a approach to there can be some make reference to can they identify any assessment of paragraph suffering positive outcome to specific examples positive outcomes to the key issues explaining the extreme suffering where individuals have suffering from their lives? raised in the positive overcome their documentary outcomes suffering and found Pupils will watch the identified something positive documentary – The Boy from the from their experiences Whose Skin Fell Off suffering in the 50 minutes documentary. You Tube or Channel 4 Pupils will need to identify ways in which the boy manages to find something positive from such a traumatic experience. Plenary – discuss the key points addressed from the documentary. 9 Bible To understand Pupils will be able to Starter – 20 questions – Peer / self / Pupils should research religious context to refer directly to quiz to recap learning on the teacher ensure they the problem of evil Genesis chapters 1-3 course to this point. assessment of keep reading and the implications of the starter around this its contents Task – pupils are to work and plenary topic and independently and reach questions. through their chapters 1-3 of Genesis. notes over the They are to make notes and Self summer hols. pick out the key themes assessment of Next year will from these chapters the notes begin with the regarding the creation and taken assumption Fall. developing that they are knowledge and knowledgeable Plenary – Pupils take it in understanding. of the basis turns to ask one another and they will questions on what they have not be read and learnt from the revisited. lesson. 10 Augustinian To understand Pupils will be able to Starter – find someone who Peer / Self Students tradition religious responses to describe how various …. assessment of should begin the problem of evil philosophers have the starter working developed Augustine’s Task – pupils are to draw a exercise in through the theodicy. table in their books with 3 finding sheet which columns – Aquinas, Calvin someone to contains their and Leibniz. Pupils make answer their essay question notes from the PPP. questions for this unit correctly. and key words Task – begin to think of the / philosophers. strengths and weaknesses Teacher of Augustine’s theodicy (to assessment of Also continue be continued for homework pupils’ thinking about and will form the basis of understanding the relative next lesson). through strengths and effective weaknesses of Q&A during the delivery of Augustinian the PPP. theodicy. 11 Augustinian To understand Pupils will be able to Task – divide pupils into Peer and Students are tradition religious responses to describe, analyse and pairs and give them a sheet teacher to continue the problem of evil evaluate the strengths which explains the assessment of their wider and weaknesses of strengths and weaknesses pupil’s reading of the Augustine’s theodicies of Augustinian theodicies. understanding philosophers In addition they will also of strengths identified and each have an A3 worksheet and the on which to write their weaknesses. Augustinian notes. The first one is theodicy in modeled for them general. Plenary – whole class discussion –do the strengths or weaknesses hold more ground when considering the Augustinian theodicy? 12 Free-will To understand Pupils will be able to Pupils will need to be Peer / self Students are defence religious responses to describe, analyse and booked into the computer assessment of to continue the problem of evil evaluate the strengths room for this lesson. the word chain their wider and weaknesses of the starter. reading of the free will defence Starter – Word association philosophers theory game. 3 words are provided Self / teacher identified and as starters and students assessment of the free will work around the room the defence saying words associated independent theory in with the one that was given task to be general. before them: Free; Will; completed Defence. under close supervision. Task – students are to work independently through the Self / peer / task sheet provided on the teacher free will defence theory. assessment of There is an outline of the plenary quiz. argument provided and strengths and weaknesses already identified. Students will need to read these and then independently research in more detail the philosophers identified in bold. Plenary – Pupils are to individually write 3 questions which will be handed to the teacher. Pupils will then be tested in groups. 13 Irenaean / To understand Pupils will be able to Starter – 30 seconds Peer / teacher Venn diagram Hick religious responses to describe, analyse and against the clock. PPP shows assessment of showing the the problem of evil evaluate the strengths key words or images that we pupil similarities and and weaknesses of studied before the summer responses in differences Irenaeus’ and Hick’s holidays. Pupils are the starter. between theodicies randomly selected to Irenaean / explain each of the slides. Teacher / self Hick and assessment of Augustine. A Task – Discuss – why do the text and table will be students think that Hick’s distinction provided to theodicy is called the ‘Vale between and help them. of Soul-making’? development of the Pupils will also Task – give students the strengths and need to make a sheet that explains Hick’s weaknesses of finger puppet! development of the Hick’s Irenaean theodicy. We will approach. read through this together and discuss any issues raised. Task – as a class we need to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. They are typed onto a card sort and pupils can colour code these and stick them into their books. They should highlight the key words to help them learn them. For added impact they can draw scales and work out whether the strengths or weaknesses outweigh one another in the argument. 14 Is free will a To evaluate whether Pupils will have Starter – in three groups, Peer / teacher Work back satisfactory free will is a assessed the evidence students answer the key assessment of through the explanation satisfactory and reached an question from the starter completed for the explanation for the informed decision as to perspective allocated to through their text and existence of existence of evil in a whether or not free them – Augustinian, free will suggestions. identify the evil in a world created by God will is a satisfactory defence and Irenaean / analysis and world explanation for the Hick. These ideas will be Self evaluation. created by problem of evil and combined and written up on assessment of God? suffering the board for students to fill the gaps write in their books. There and teacher will be a prize for the team assessment of with the most convincing their answers. response. Teacher Task – fill in the blank assessment of words (taken from p88-9 of their focus on the textbook). Pupils will be the analysis given a sheet with blanks and evaluation. spaces and the answers will be shown on the board. They have to work out which word fits in which gap. This will provide them with analysis and evaluation on whether or not free will provides a satisfactory explanation for the issue of evil and suffering. Check the answers through with the class. Task – script and practice a finger puppet play (in two groups). They should focus their attention on the analysis and evaluation / arguments playing off each other. Plenary – watch finger puppet plays. 15 Process To evaluate the Pupils will have Starter – Pupils will be given Peer Continue thought success of process assessed the evidence an envelope which contains assessment of reading around thought as a and reached an numbers and answers. starter where this topic and response to the informed decision as to Working in pairs, they will they work in adding to problem of evil whether or not process need to listen carefully to pairs to notes. thought is a the 15 questions they are identify the satisfactory read and find an correct explanation for the appropriate answer. These answers. problem of evil and are to be put on the table suffering with the correct number. Self assessment of Task – Pupils will then be including all given an A3 sheet on which terms in notes to record this introduction. on A3 sheets. Pupils are to complete two boxes – ‘Process thought Peer / teacher defined’ and ‘God’s role in assessment of creation’. dividing quotes into Task - pupils will be given a sub-headings. sheet containing quotes that they have to divide Peer / self / into 3 categories – ‘God’s teacher role in creation’, ‘God assessment of suffers as well’ and ‘The plenary purpose of evil in process questions. thought’. These will then be talked through and stuck on the sheets with pupils adding additional notes. Task – as a class, consider the strengths and weakness of process thought, recording these in note form on the A3 sheet. Plenary – quick fire questions. Pupils take it in turns to answer and ask questions based on what they have studied this lesson. 16 Is natural or To evaluate whether Pupils will have Starter – Standing votes – Self Read the story moral evil natural or moral evil evaluated and Pupils stand up or stay assessment of of Job in the the greatest poses the greater concluded whether or seated if they agree / their book of Job in challenge to challenge to faith in not moral evil or natural disagree with statement: justification in the Old faith? God evil is the greatest the starter Testament. challenge to faith The Devil is responsible for statements. evil and suffering. Write an Peer / account of Augustine justifies God by Teacher Job’s suffering explaining evil as a privation. assessment of and the the debate reasons given Hick is convincing with his content and for his assertion that human successful suffering. disregard of God’s wishes team. are what causes evil and What was suffering. Job’s understanding Process Theodicy is right to of the cause tackle head on the quantity of his of suffering in the world. suffering by the end of the Natural evil, as opposed to story? moral evil, is the greatest challenge to faith. Task – divide students into two equal size groups and allocate one to argue for moral and the other to argue for natural evil. Allow students time to prepare their arguments (incorporating Augustine’s theodicy, Hick’s theodicy and Process theodicy) and then they will debate the key question. Plenary – PPP delivery of the conclusions for the unit and hear pupil’s final thoughts. 17 Summary To evaluate the Pupils will be able to Students will need to have Self / peer Pupils will need lesson 1 success of the give group responses to digital cameras pre-booked assessment of to produce a theodicies and the main theories for this lesson images mind map / process thought as a covered in the evil and captured. summary sheet response to the suffering unit and show Students’ task, working in of the whole problem of evil their relevance to groups, is to produce a Self / peer / topic. modern day living story board with text and teacher images that reflects their assessment of work on evil and suffering. concepts and They should aim to include scripts. references to Augustinian tradition, free-will defence, Irenaean / Hick’s theodicies and process thought. One lesson will be available to get their thoughts and ideas together; then take the required pictures. The second lesson will involve actually producing the final piece on sugar paper which can be used for display above notice boards. Plenary – Pupils will be able to examine one another’s work and identify the responses to evil and suffering. 18 Summary To evaluate the Pupils will be able to Pupils will need lesson 2 success of the give group responses to to complete theodicies and the main theories See outline of previous See lesson 16 the essay process thought as a covered in the evil and lesson. question response to the suffering unit and show provided at problem of evil their relevance to the start of modern day living the year demonstrating evidence of wider reading and analysis / evaluation throughout. The Ontological Argument 1 An To recap the basic Pupils will be able to use Give pupils a copy of pp vi- Peer and Pupils to introduction principles of key terms with viii of A2 AQA book. teacher remind to philosophy and the confidence and give assessment as themselves of philosophical nature of examples to support Read through and discuss we review key the attributes reasoning philosophical their explanations with pupils. As they are terms with of the God of arguments. reading they need to try to accurate classical theism provide other examples and explanation in preparation draw on knowledge acquired of starting the from Year 12. OA. Task – design a wall display Give pupils a which is informative and will copy of the be a source of reference sheets – the for pupils throughout the OA taking it year as they progress in further their studies. 2 Anselm’s To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – laminated Peer Research versions of OA as presented by explain and develop the sentence arranged in assessment of Gaunilo’s the OA Anselm two parts of Anselm’s groups. The ontological starter and criticism of version of the OA argument has the form of a plenary. Anselm’s deductive proof, an example version of the of an a priori argument. It Teacher OA – answer seeks to prove the assessment of the questions existence of God from the argument provided in understanding of the when preparation to attributes of the God of delivered discuss his classical theism. through PPP – contribution Q&A. next lesson. PPP delivery of Anselm’s Use this versions of the OA. It will website: be accompanied with a http://www.for quote sheet, glue and dham.edu/halsa scissors, that pupils can ll/basis/anselm stick in at the appropriate -gaunilo.html place in their notes. As we plus others to work through the PPP and put text into develop the argument, context and aid pupils will need to work out understanding which quote fits where in of the key the sequence. points. Plenary – give each pupil a sentence on a card (a part of Anselm’s arguments, they have to work out what order they go in and stand in a line to read the argument out in its entirety.) 3 Taking the To understand how Pupils will be able to Starter – check pupil’s Self Further argument Gaunilo and critically assess answers of the questions assessment of reading of further – Descartes Gaunilo’s criticism to set for H/W in order to their Descartes Gaunilo and contribute to and Anselm’s version of the explore Gaunilo’s response homework contribution to Descartes develop the OA OA to Anselm’s version of the task. the OA. OA. Pupils will also be able Teacher Also to start to explain and develop PPP – outlining Descartes’ assessment of drafting a the OA as presented by contribution to the their script for role Descartes ontological argument understanding play next of Descartes’ lesson between Plenary – flash up a series argument and Anselm, Gaunilo of images and key words. their and Descartes. Pupils have to take it in contributions turns to say which in the plenary. philosopher they are related to. 4 Anselm and To evaluate the OA Pupils will be able to 2 camcorders are required Peer Produce a Descartes – as presented by compare and contrast for this lesson assessment of written version a summary Anselm and the different versions the starter of the script to Descartes of the OA and be able Starter – Beat the activity. be kept in their to confidently Teacher. A pupil sits with folders. distinguish between their back to the board and Peer them has one minute to try to assessment of identify all the words script content written on the board on the given category. (Another student is at the board crossing out identified words.)Then swap for another person to take their place. A priori Anselm – 1st version Gaunilo Anselm – 2nd version Descartes Pupils will then divide into two groups to script and perform a role play involving these characters. They will be put onto the VLE for use with revision later in the year. They can record it around the school. The key words from the starter are to be used as the basis of their content. If there is time we can watch them over the coming lessons in class. 5 Key To identify and begin Pupils will have begun to Book pupils into a computer Self Pupils should objections to understand the have developed room or the library where assessment of continue to to the OA key objections to understanding of who they can research Aquinas, knowledge read around the OA criticized the OA and Hume, Kant, Russell’s, acquired these on what grounds Gottlob Frege and Davies through the philosophers to contributions to the OA in lesson and find out how preparation for discussion homework. they criticized next lesson. Pupils to the OA. identify areas They may find it sensible to of uncertainty divide into pairs and which can be allocated the research addressed in between them then share the following findings before next lesson lessons. 6 Key To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – divide pupils into Self and peer Using a pencil, objections key objections to explain how the 2 groups. From the assessment pupils can add to the OA – the OA definition of God can research they have done so throughout to their sheets the form the basis of far and their understanding the lesson on by identifying Definition of criticism of the OA of the argument to date, on the group which part of God what grounds could the OA tasks. the OA be criticized? They can (Anselm of have 10 minutes to discuss Teacher Descates and and pull together their assessment in which part of ideas before we feed back guiding and their as a whole class. prompting arguments) pupils to help they Task – give each pupil an them make specifically envelope. In this will be a links and address their series of pictures, quotes, expand on criticisms to. key terms, explanations and their viewpoints on how understanding philosophers criticize the OA. They will be working independently but can also confer with the other people on their table to help divide the material under 3 headings – these will not yet have been revealed to them. They need to critically evaluate the material to find connections and try to identify the correct philosopher to their viewpoints. After about 10 minutes I will check their progress to hear their ideas. Task – pupils to each be given a sheet of A3 paper, glue, scissors and colouring pencils and the headings will be confirmed if not already deduced by this stage in the lesson. They are to stick the relevant material under the correct heading leaving space around each one for annotation and adding notes. Contributions are to be colour coded for ease of revision. If possible, students should identify who said what and add the pictures. PPP - Discuss the initial section with pupils – how Aquinas and Hume contribute by arguing that the error with the OA lies in the definition of God. Plenary – hot seat two pupils and introduce them as Aquinas and Hume. They need to talk for one minute to explain their relevant contributions to criticizing the OA. Class can have the opportunity to ask questions if they do not think the explanation is thorough enough. 7 Key To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – pupils will be Self For each objections key objections to explain how using given a picture of Aquinas assessment of philosopher to the OA – the OA existence as a and one of Hume. From the starter they are to try Existence as predicate can form the quotes flashed up on the activity and to devise an a predicate basis of criticism of the board they have to hold up plenary. active revision OA the correct picture to strategy to Possibility of identify their contributions Teacher help them deriving Pupils will be able to to criticising the OA. assessment remember the existence explain how deriving through specific claims from existence claims from PPP – to add details and effective contributors by definition definitions can be said help explain the Q&A to help philosophers in to challenge the OA philosopher’s criticisms of pupils develop criticizing the the OA. Pupils will have the understanding OA. opportunity to make notes of the key and identify areas of contributiors. uncertainty. Plenary – human bar graph – ‘the criticisms of the OA make it unreasonable as a basis upon which to prove God’s existence’. 8 Key To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – pupils to share Peer Complete the objections key objections to apply the criticisms to their homework ideas – assessment of story board to the OA – the OA the OA with confidence active strategies for starter and continue an and have assessed how helping them remember the activity where reading around assessment effectively they criticisms of the OA. they share these topics to of the contribute. ideas. further develop objections Task – assessment activity. subject Pupils will work Self knowledge. independently to solve the assessment of clues provided and identify assessment the next link in the chain. activity. On the way they will obtain symbols and letters which Teacher can be applied to the puzzle assessment of to reveal the hidden their message. Prize for the storyboards. first person to complete the task. Task – Pupils are to design a cartoon storyboard of the objections to the OA. OR Pupils can play charades by acting out the objections in groups. The rest in the class need to decide which objection is being shown. 9 Responses to To evaluate how far Pupils will have begun to Book pupils into a computer Peer Continue to the the argument makes understand how support room or the library where assessment read around objections it reasonable to for the OA has been they can research the will be the believe in God. presented in recent responses to the objections through how philosophers times; how an agreed in preparation for much they can who have To evaluate the understanding of the discussion over the next initially contributed success of the definition of the word two lessons: understand recent support argument as proof of ‘God’ makes it a logical and explain in for the OA in God’s existence argument to prove God’s Norman Malcolm – A relation to preparation for existence development of the the support next lesson. necessary existence of God given to the OA. Alvin Plantinga – possible world and maximal greatness Charles Hartshorne – Whether existence is a property John Hick - The meaning of necessary existence Pupils may again find it easier to divide into pairs and share the work between them, sharing ideas and research before the following lesson. 10 Responses to To evaluate how far Pupils will have begun to Starter – In groups, give Self and peer Continue to the the argument makes understand how support pupils a series of questions assessment of read around objections it reasonable to for the OA has been that they have to divide the group the support for believe in God. presented in recent into 4 categories (as yet work and the OA from times; how an agreed unnamed). Only after their these 4 To evaluate the understanding of the thinking time can they be individual philosophers. success of the definition of the word revealed as: written argument as proof of ‘God’ makes it a logical A development of responses. God’s existence argument to prove God’s the necessary existence existence of God Teacher Possible assessment of worlds(maximal their greatness and justification maximal excellence) and Whether existence explanations is a property of how The meaning of effective the necessary existence support is. Task – on scrap paper, pupils are to answer the questions to the best of their abilities from research done last lesson or at home. They are not allowed to look at these notes in the lesson. They are only working in rough. Task – give pupils a series of key words / terms which pupils divide under the previous headings. Check the locations and talk through with pupils as a brief overview. Task - This should jog their memory to then allow them to attempt to develop their initial answers (still in rough). This work needs to be brought to next lesson. Plenary – from what they understand so far, subjectively rank the support for the OA in order of importance. They can discuss this in their groups and try to convince others of their opinion. 11 Responses to To evaluate how far Pupils will have begun to Pupils will spend this lesson Pupils will the the argument makes understand how support consolidating their have traffic objections it reasonable to for the OA has been understanding from last lights on the believe in God. presented in recent lesson. table to times; how an agreed reflect their To evaluate the understanding of the They will walk into the room level of success of the definition of the word to find the tables arranged understanding argument as proof of ‘God’ makes it a logical in 4 groups. On each table . They should God’s existence argument to prove God’s will be the questions from work firstly existence last lesson and a series of on the basis information sheets which of peer and expand their knowledge and self understanding of the assessment to support for the OA based analyse their on the same 4 philosophers. understanding The sheets will come from a and then call series of sources – internet for support. and books. The plenary Pupils are tasked with will involve reading them through in everybody and groups to discuss the thorough answers to the questions. Q&A which Then individually they are will require to make notes and fully pupils to complete responses to their develop and questions. They work justify their around the tables and swap thoughts. every 10 minutes. Plenary – Are they reasonable responses to the objections? Discuss Does the OA have any weight with these approaches behind it? Discuss 12 The To assess the Pupils will be able to Starter – write a definition significance relationship between critically evaluate the of FAITH on a post it and of the OA faith and reason as relationship between place it on the board. They for faith reflected in the OA faith and reason as then need to select a reflected in the OA volunteer from the class To assess the who will come up to the significance or front and select what they failure of the think the best definition is argument for faith – chocolate for the definition chosen and the person who comes up. Provide pupils with a handout on the significance of OA for faith. They are to read, annotate and highlight the text in preparation for discussion in the second half of the lesson. Pupils are to undertake the Distillation activity on p97 of the teacher’s toolkit to summarise the text in 10 key words. These must be agreed on by the class. Pupils will need to explain each word as they suggest them and then justify their level of importance when placed on the board. Traffic lights will be available throughout the lesson for students to indicate their confidence and understanding of the material discussed. This will inform the basis of planning and evaluation for next lesson. 13 General To consider overall Pupils will be able to Starter – PPP draw Peer Prepare for conclusions general conclusions justify general together the general assessment of timed essay by and to the OA and its conclusions to the OA conclusions of the OA the puzzle completing Summary effectiveness. and analyse its task when summary sheet. sheet effectiveness in proving Task – Beyond Belief – undertaking They should To develop pupil’s God’s existence. Students read the the verbal also review the techniques in statements and have to explanations. model answer answering exam style Pupils will identify decide where to put them and the questions. strategies for writing on the grid. They should Self marking essays of high quality in fill all 16 boxes and have 4 assessment of criteria at philosophy. in the bin at the bottom. their summary home. Take it in turns to turn the sheets. card over (face down on table), read out to class, justify thoughts and place on the grid. The next person can move this card by justifying themselves or take a new card. Repeat process until all on grid. Task – pupils are to be presented with a puzzle – key words, images and arrows which, when arranged correctly, form a mind map of the key components of the OA. Pupils should work around the class taking a term to explain the term. Task – pupils use the skeleton frame provided on the mind map to expand and produce their own summary sheets. Plenary – AQA have produced an exemplar answer on a similar question. Distribute this to pupils to read the comments and discuss. It will help in their preparation for their timed essay. Pupils can also have a copy of the levels and mark generic mark scheme. 14 Timed essay To prepare pupils for Pupils will develop exam Pupils are to write their Essays will be exam style questions style technique and essays under exam formally and formally assess have confidence in conditions. marked and their understanding writing essays under targets set of the OA. timed conditions to A2 (a) Explain the for standards. traditional forms of improvement. the ontological argument as put forward by Anselm and Descartes. (30 marks) (b) ‘The ontological argument is only in the mind and is therefore a weak argument.’ Discuss (20 marks) Religious Language 15 An To understand Pupils should be aware Starter – movie maker Self Pupils are to introduction terminology of the key themes which gives an overview of assessment of learn the key to Religious associated with the addressed in this unit the topic. This is to be the starter words and their Language religious language and have a basic grasp accompanied with a layers activity with definitions unit. of the key terms which of truth worksheet which the layers of will be encountered in will assess their knowledge truth To be given an their study of religious of the unit prior to study, worksheet. introduction to the language identify areas they would religious language like to be developed and Self / peer unit. then record what they assessment of understand from the movie the maker. balderdash game with the Task – PPP introduction definitions. from p21 of new textbook. Pupils are to make notes in Self their books. assessment of the bingo Task – balderdash – pupils plenary are divided into teams and activity. allocated words. They will be given the correct definition and they have to make up two fake definitions. They read these out and the other people have to guess which is the correct definition. Points scored by team reading out if they guess the wrong one and other teams score points if they correctly guess. Task - Write these onto their glossary sheets. Plenary – game of bingo where the key terms are put onto a grid. I will read out the definitions and they have to guess which the correct term is. Prize for the winner. 16 The To understand the Pupils will understand Starter – Logical Self Further Verification problem of the the difficulties Positivists. Read out a assessment of reading on AJ Principle meaningfulness of associated with using passage which pupils have the starter Ayer – religious language language as a means of to put into images and then activity. Language, conveying knowledge. repeat back afterwards. Truth and To understand the They will then write them in Teacher Logic. verification Pupils will evaluate full sentences in their assessment principle whether or not it is books. through the possible to talk PPP delivery To assess whether meaningfully about God Task – PPP delivery which and effective it is possible to talk in the context of outlines the verification Q&A. meaningfully about equivocal language. principle. God Peer Task – pupils make a list of assessment of statements that are the discussion meaningful because they topics and the can be verified. Then make activities. a list of statements that the logical positivists would consider meaningless because they cannot be verified. Task – PPP introduction to AJ Ayer and his contribution to the VP. Outline the strong and weak form of the VP. Assess their understanding of this by doing the ‘Think about’ exercise on p23 of new textbook. Plenary – do first activity on p24 of new textbook 17 The To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – pupils will be Peer Write a Falsification responses to the VP assess whether the FP given a sentence that has assessment of summary of the Principle has any more impact on been broken up and written the starter differences To assess whether religious language and onto laminated cards. activity. between the VP it is possible to talk allow meaningful talk Working as a group they and FP meaningfully about about God have to arrange these into Teacher / God sentences which give an self introduction to the FP. assessment of the passages Task – explain the approach through taken by Flew through the effective use of the two passages Q&A. (death of a thousand qualifications and the parable of the gardener.) These will be printed on A4 sheets for the pupils to annotate and highlight as we work through them. Additional notes will be provided through the chapter photocopied from the Stiver book. Plenary – discuss the similarities and differences between VP and FP. Write up results on a Venn diagram. 18 The university To understand the Pupils will be able to Pupils will need access to Pupils will Continue their debate responses to the VP assess whether the FP computers for this lesson. review their reading and has any more impact on progress research To assess whether religious language and Pupils will need to use their independently it is possible to talk allow meaningful talk Stiver article and additional and assist one meaningfully about about God sources to research the another to God following philosophers and find suitable how they contributed to material for the religious language research. debate: Swinburne – Toys in the cupboard Hare – the murderous don and Bliks Hick – eschatological verification and the celestial city Mitchell – the parable of the freedom fighter 19 The university To understand the Pupils will be able to Seminar style lesson where Self Research debate cont. responses to the VP assess whether the FP we will discuss the assessment of Aquinas’ has any more impact on philosophers they have their (analogy of To assess whether religious language and previously researched. understanding proportion and it is possible to talk allow meaningful talk of the attribution) meaningfully about about God Pupils will be given a sheet parables. and Ian God of A4 paper containing Ramsey’s some images (toy story, Teacher (models and ‘Allo ‘Allo, Celestial city and assessment of qualifiers) a murderous don). As we their views on discuss they are to record contribution. religious their notes on these language sheets. They will be able to Peer draw connections between assessment of the parables and develop the critical thinking. connections. Plenary – through the PPP display a series of extracts from Mitchell, Hick, Hare, Flew and Swinburne. They have to hold up the correct name to identify the correct philosopher. 20 Responses to To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – St John of the Peer Get three the different views of give examples of how Cross – what do all these assessment of definitions and Verification religious language philosophers describe statements have in the role play examples of Principle God and analyse how common? – Discuss the activities. each of these: To evaluate the effective these advantages and Myth different views of approaches are. disadvantages of the via Metaphor religious language negativa Symbol To evaluate how PPP – delivery of content successful are the (Aquinas and Ramsey) in various conjunction with pupils explanations of the reading from homework. nature of religious language Plenary – pupils are divided into two groups to act out role play on Aquinas’ analogical view and Ramsey’s models and qualifiers – a debate between the two philosophers on the best way to describe God. 21 Metaphor / To evaluate how Pupils will be able to Starter – Pupils will be Peer Complete any Symbol successfully analyse the given a series of questions assessment of remaining tasks religion has effectiveness of how on cards as they enter the the starter from lesson Myth responded to the religion has responded room. Walk around asking activity challenge of the VP to the challenge of the the question, answering Wider reading VP from metaphor / question and swapping. Main task will on To evaluate how symbol and myth. Continue for 5 mins. be assessed Wittgenstein in successful are the by peers and preparation of various Task – run around. teacher a seminar style explanations of the Pupil will be working in pairs before moving lesson nature of religious – groups of 4. Number on. language themselves. Around room are information sheets and Plenary will be at the front of the room peer and self are a series of different assessed. styles of questions. E.g. traditional questions and also this is the answer, now formulate 2 / 3 questions. Pupils will take it in turns to move around the room . Write on scrap paper. Have to show me answers for each set of questions before moving onto to the next set. Against the clock. Prize for winners. Activity - Consider the word ‘king’. Do you think that it would have the same symbolic impact in modern society as it would in the days of Henry VIII? List other words that have lost their impact or changed their meaning in recent times. Activity - Look at the painting of Christ as ‘The Light of the World’ by William Holman Hunt (1827- 1910). Write down the message you think that Holman Hunt is trying to convey by his use of Christian symbolism. Activity - Read Genesis Chapters 1-3. Write your own description of God’s creation of everything and the fall of Adam and Eve. List examples from Genesis 1-3 that match the themes found in creation myths. Activity - The verification and falsification principles seek to demonstrate why it is not possible to talk meaningfully about God, and the challenges suggest why it is possible. How successful are the arguments defending the meaningfulness of religious language? Plenary – discuss and bring together. 22 Wittgenstein To assess whether Pupils will be able to Starter – PPP activity in Teacher Continue wider it is possible to talk demonstrate and pairs of things we do with assessment of reading of meaningfully about critically evaluate language and what language the PP Wittgenstein God Wittgenstein’s changing is. through views on the effective meaningfulness of Task – PPP Introduction to Q&A. Religious Language Wittgenstein – puzzles of how we look at things. Peer assessment of Task - Pupils will be given a the charades sheet which contains a and picture of Wittgenstein and blockbusters his two books – Tractatus plenary. and Philsophical Investigations. Using the statements provided on the card they are to decide which era they belong to and then use them to annotate around the edge of the pictures to demonstrate the change in views that Wittgenstein underwent throughout his career in relation to religious language. Task – 20 things we do with language according to Wittgenstein. Pupils to divide into 4 groups and act out / play charades while the rest of the class are to guess which language game is being played. Plenary – Religious Language Blockbusters taken from RE Stuff 23 Conclusions To consider overall Pupils will be able to pull Starter – Test Peer and Students will and summary general conclusions together the whole unit understanding of key terms teacher be presented sheet to the Religious on Religious Language from the unit in pairs – use assessment of with an essay Language argument and critically evaluate the question / answer cards the title and told and its the effectiveness of from RE stuff. contributions to prepare an effectiveness. the argument. made to outline for Task – work with the pupils developing the homework. To develop pupil’s to draw together a large mind maps and techniques in mind map of all the aspects drawing answering exam of this unit. Talk through together the style questions. the major shifts and draw connections attention to how the argument flows over time. Task – pupils are to identify put a key onto their mind maps – meaningful and meaningless approach to religious language. Plenary – draw links together between the philosopher’s approaches (especially the university debate). 24 Timed essay To prepare pupils Pupils will develop exam Pupils are to write their Essays will be for exam style style technique and essays under exam formally questions and have confidence in conditions. marked and formally assess writing essays under targets set their understanding timed conditions to A2 (a) Explain why it is for of the Religious standards. difficult to talk improvement. Language argument. meaningfully about God (30 marks) (b) Assess the claim that the purpose of religious language is not to describe God but to evoke a sense of His presence (20 marks) Body, Soul and Personal Identity 25 An To understand Pupils should be aware Starter – pupils will be Self / peer Using the introduction terminology of the key themes given a series of quotes / and teacher internet and / to Body, Soul associated with the addressed in this unit ideas / key words / assessment of or library, find and Personal Body, Soul and and have a basic grasp philosophers that they have the starter out more about Identity Personal Identity of the key terms which to match up and then place activity. different unit. will be encountered in in a time line. understandings their study of religious Peer / of the term To be given an language Task – Discussion of quote teacher ‘soul’. introduction to the to define death – ‘the assessment of Body, Soul and complete and permanent the quote Personal Identity cessation of all vital discussion unit. functions in a living creature, the end of life.’ Self reflection of Task – Pupils need to the answers complete a worksheet of to the key key questions / themes questions. associated with this unit of work. They will fill in their Self personal responses first assessment of and then wonder around the word asking two other people search and their views on the question. glossary Plenary – Pupils will be given a word search and they have to work out the key words from the clues provided and write these on their glossary sheets. 26 Materialism To be able to Pupils will be able to Starter – speed dating Self Look on VLE to explain the define materialism and activity where pupils pair up assessment of access quote differing views provide support for this to ask one another the starter from Gilbert about the nature argument from Richard predetermined questions. activity. Ryle and add to and existence of Dawkins. They answer one another’s their notes. soul and body and and then swap cards and Teacher the body / soul continue the process for 5 assessment of Do ‘think about’ relationship mins. the lesson activity on p5 content of lecture Task – Write the answers through notes. to these questions into effective books to explain the basis Q&A and pupil of materialism. responses in the plenary. Task – PPP delivery of content. Plenary – plenary squares 27 Materialism To be able to Pupils will be able to Pupil will need access to Teacher will Research Plato explain the provide evidence of computers for this lesson. oversee in preparation differing views wider reading to the research and for next lesson. about the nature examiner in the form of Starter – joke – ‘What did keep pupils on In particular and existence of philosophical one behaviorist say to task. Plenary they need to soul and body and behaviorism. another behaviorist after discussion will read about the the body / soul they had sex?’ …. ‘How was involve all Allegory of the relationship it for me!’ Discuss students to Cave and the assess their Theory of the Pupils are to research the understanding Forms. alternative approach that Gilbert Ryle argued for – Philosophical Behaviorism. Consider the strengths and weakness of this approach. Plenary – A discussion of their findings. 28 Dualism – To be able to Pupils will be able to Starter – give pupils a mind Peer Use the sheets Plato and explain the explain the differing map overview of the lesson assessment of provided – Plato Aristotle differing views views of Plato and with pictures, numbers and the starter to and Aristotle – about the nature Aristotle in relation to key words. Pupils sit back see what they The Body/Soul and existence of the body / soul to back and have to produce in Distinction to soul and body and distinction, referring to describe what they can see their drawing add to their A3 the body / soul key terms such as while the other one draws. and how clear mind maps. relationship dualism and monism. They then swap after a their couple of minutes and keep explanations adding to the same mind are when map. (It will be based engaging with around the title – Plato and the material. Aristotle will be one of the offshoots.) Teacher assessment of Task – Give each pupil a their copy of the mind map which understanding they stick onto A3 paper. through Around the edge they make effective notes while I help them Q&A and deconstruct and work notes made through with explanation. during mind There is a PPP which will map help develop their subject exploration. knowledge of some aspects. Self Plenary – pupils identify assessment of shapes which match the the plenary to content for Plato and match the Aristotle e.g. triangle – 3 concepts to aspects of the soul. shapes. 29 Dualism – To be able to Pupils will be able to Starter – verbal football Peer and Pupils to read Descartes and explain the explain the differing p168 teacher’s toolkit. teacher through Aquinas differing views views of Descartes and Questions are on Plato and assessment of extension notes about the nature Aquinas in relation to Aristotle’s views of the soul the starter on Substance and existence of the body / soul activity to see Dualism – pp10- soul and body and distinction. PPP – Introduction to if they can 18 Philosophy the body / soul Descartes. correctly of Mind – A relationship Pupils will be able to answer the Beginner’s draw a comparison Task – Who, Where, When, questions in Guide by Ian between the different Why, What. In groups, their groups. Ravenscroft dualist approaches we pupils are to read the have studies in the last passage provided and make Peer two lessons. notes using this approach. assessment of It may be helpful to the main task highlight each colour to summarise differently and then notes. summarise the notes. Peer / Task – script a role play teacher between Plato, Aristotle, assessment of Descartes and Aquinas the plenary to assess the Plenary – perform the role depth and play to the rest of the accuracy of class. their content in role play. 30 Dualism: To be able to Pupils will be able to Starter – Pupils are shown a Self Pupils are to Other explain the explain and analyse the PPP slide with a grid where assessment of produce a mind approaches: differing views effectiveness of these key words from the unit the starter to map summary Epiphenomena about the nature approaches to the body studied so far have been see if they sheet to lism and existence of / soul relationship. jumbled up. They have to can remember explain the Parallelism soul and body and join them together to form the key terms differing views the body / soul the words. Prize for the / philosophers about the relationship first person to correctly and are able nature and identify them all. There is to spell them existence of a false tile in there to make correctly. soul and body it harder. and the body / Peer soul Task – divide pupils into two assessment of relationship i.e. groups. Allocate each a the main task the whole of topic (epiphenomenalism when this unit to this and parallelism) and give reviewing the point in time. them the summary sheets pictures and and highlighters. Already questioning. on the table will be sugar paper and coloured pens. Teacher Pupils are to be given time assessment of to read their sheets and the feedback then transfer this to discuss the information onto the sugar strengths and paper using key words, weaknesses of images and numbers only. these No sentences are to be approaches. written. Peer / self When the drawings are assessment of completed, one student is the find to remain at the table while someone who the others go to the other plenary. table and ask questions to draw out the information represented. They are to take this back to their original table to share and discuss with the rest of their team. Pupils are to make notes in their books. Task – when they have got an outline of the arguments pupils should discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments in their groups to feed back as a whole class discussion. Plenary – Find someone who …. Pupils fill in the spaces themselves to identify the area for questioning. They then go around the room until all their questions are satisfactorily answered. Only one answer per person. 31 Resurrection To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – 3-2-1 starter Teacher Research the different notions critically evaluate the (see PPP) assessment strengths and of personal identity notion of resurrection through the weaknesses of and personal as a method of personal PPP delivery of content delivery of John Hick’s existence, identity and personal through images. the PPP to Replica Theory particularly post existence. draw out their mortem Plenary – card sort – Plato, knowledge and Swinburne, Hick and understanding To evaluate the Dawkins whilst at the evidence for same time survival after identifying death pupil misconception Self assessment of the plenary exercise. 32 Immortality To understand the Pupils will be able to Starter – Give each pupil a Self http://plato.st of the soul different notions question what form is piece of scrap paper that assessment of anford.edu/ent of personal identity recognizable after they fold over to hide 6 the starter ries/locke/supp and personal death and what is sections. Show clues and activity to lement.html existence, required to continue for they have to write a word identify the particularly post it to be the same to respond to each clue. word. Pupils are to mortem person. Fold paper ever after every read this clue to hide the word. Prize Peer section of the To evaluate the Pupils will have for the person who guesses assessment website to evidence for evaluated the scientific the word at the earliest through the extend their survival after theories of clue. activities and knowledge and death consciousness. plenary. understanding Task – PPP to work through of Locke the content with further. instructions for activities included: Think about activity. Rearrange the puzzle to form John Locke’s Cobbler and the Prince story. Read and highlight the sheet on scientific theories of consciousness Assess the criticisms of various approaches. Plenary – Stand up, Hand up, Pair up – walk around room and talking with people in turn identifying the key points from the lesson. If there are any areas of misconception these can be raised at this time. If they are unable to be clarified they can write them on a post-it and hand it to me. 33 Reincarnation To understand the Pupils will have Pupils will need access to Peer Continue / Rebirth different notions developed knowledge the computer room this assessment of research and of personal identity and understanding of lesson. their preparation Research and personal the different notions contributions towards their existence, of personal identity and Pupils are to use the pages to the task. presentations particularly post personal existence, provided as a basis for mortem particularly post their research. This Teacher mortem, evaluating information should form assessment of To evaluate the evidence for survival the basis of their their evidence for after death. presentation. The ‘think attempts to survival after about’ tasks can be used by research and death the pupils. gather evidence The presentation is to involve the use of ICT and they are also to produce a summary sheet which is to be distributed during the lesson to save the audience having to make notes. Reincarnation – p19-20 Rebirth – p20-22 Comparative Religion – Reincarnation in world religions: www.comparativereligion.co m/reincarnation.html The article presents the reincarnation theory in the major eastern religions and some of its possible inconsistencies 34 Reincarnation To understand the Pupils will have Pupils will need access to Peer Continue / Rebirth different notions developed knowledge the computer room this assessment of research and of personal identity and understanding of lesson. their preparation Research and personal the different notions contributions towards their existence, of personal identity and Pupils are to use the pages to the task. presentations particularly post personal existence, provided as a basis for mortem particularly post their research. This Teacher mortem, evaluating information should form assessment of To evaluate the evidence for survival the basis of their their evidence for after death. presentation. The ‘think attempts to survival after about’ tasks can be used by research and death the pupils. gather evidence The presentation is to involve the use of ICT and they are also to produce a summary sheet which is to be distributed during the lesson to save the audience having to make notes. Reincarnation – p19-20 Rebirth – p20-22 35 Reincarnation To understand the Pupils will have Pupils will deliver their Peer / http://people.p / Rebirth different notions developed knowledge presentations in groups to teacher wf.cam.ac.uk/d of personal identity and understanding of the rest of the class. assessment of hm11/Swinburn Presentations and personal the different notions the e.html existence, of personal identity and Task – stand up, sit down. presentations particularly post personal existence, Everyone stands up and This web page mortem particularly post chooses a bit of content Teacher has Swinburne’s mortem, evaluating from the lesson that they assessment - contribution to To evaluate the evidence for survival keep thinking about. Plenary ‘An Afterlife’, a evidence for after death. Teacher gives suggestions identifies symposium that survival after of what they are thinking errors as well was part of death and students sit down if as deep ‘Death: a Live they were thinking the understanding Issue’, a same thing. Keep repeating Humanist the process until everyone Philosophers’ is sat down. Also involve Group students in guessing each conference on others. Ask why they death and dying chose them. held at King’s College London Plenary – Pupils are to do on 19 October the plenary based on the 2002. It topic they didn’t research / presents do their presentation on. Swinburne’s Acrostic poem on arguments for reincarnation. Make the the possibility chain on rebirth. See PPP. of life after Read chains / poems to rest death. of class. 36 Ghosts / To understand the Pupils will be able to As pupils enter the room Peer http://www.lea Spiritualism different notions assess the possibility of there will be a You Tube assessment of deru.com/truth of personal identity ghosts and spiritualism clip of ghost playing – the the paired /1truth28.html and personal providing evidence for soundtrack with selected task and existence, post mortem existence. scenes from the film criticisms. Professor particularly post relating to the character as Peter Kreeft mortem a ghost. Teacher considers the http://www.youtube.com/w assessment of reasons for To evaluate the atch?v=P_uBQ9jvAZU their accepting that evidence for 3 minutes 40 seconds contributions there is life survival after to whole class after death. death Task – Pupils are to take a discussions Recommended double page in their book and reading by and divide it into three understanding AQA. columns: The theory; ghosts of the PPP and and spiritualism plenary. PPP – link to previous lessons and put into context. Pupils are to make notes in their first column. Task – Pupils are to be divided into pairs. One allocated a sheet with information on ghosts, the other a sheet with information on spiritualism. They must identify the key points and make notes in the relevant columns. Task – discuss the possible criticisms of both approaches. Task – whole class discussion and note taking of criticisms. Supplemented by You tube clips of Dr Deepak Chopra. http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=UN4o9Et7WF8 1 minute 8 seconds http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=QnL2mku4OCQ&fea ture=related 5 minutes 16 seconds Plenary – discussion of whether or not the notion of a personal post-mortem existence is coherent. 37 Near Death To understand what Pupils will be able to Starter – define near- Teacher www.cinemind.c Experiences is meant by a near- critically evaluate the death experience. assessment of om/atwater/. death experience evidence for and the definition Dr Atwater’s against NDE and decide PPP to work through for the website To evaluate the whether or not it is material and activities. plenary. evidence for reasonable to believe in Search You survival after the existence of life Card sort to provide Peer Tube for other death after death. evidence for and against assessment of videos of her near death experiences. the features discussing her of NDEs. research. Plenary – evaluate each column and decide whether Self Research Pam or not NDE’s make it assessment of Reynolds in reasonable to believe in the the card sort more details. existence of life after activity and death. plenary Add contributions information to also your columns monitored by teacher and peers. 38 Summary To assess whether Pupils will be able to Starter – Alphabet check – Self Review their lesson the notion of soul is make an informed Pupils are given a sheet assessment of notes and coherent and decision on the notion with 3 columns – Letters of their identify areas whether there are of whether or not the the alphabet A-Z, Word understanding of reasonable grounds soul is coherent and and Context. Pupils need to from the misconception / for belief in the whether or not there think of a word from the whole unit via uncertainty. existence of a soul are reasonable grounds unit to fit each letter and the starter for belief in the explain how it fits the activity. Prepare to pull existence of a soul. topic. it all together Effective next lesson, Task – PPP summary notes questioning of reviewing the assessing the notion of the notes to material on whether or not the soul is assess body / soul coherent and whether or whether or from the start not there are reasonable not there are of the unit. grounds for belief in the reasonable existence of a soul. grounds for belief of a Task – Pupils are to produce soul. a mind map to pull together and show the connections Self within this unit. assessment of their mind maps. 39 Review lesson To review the Body, Pupils will be able to Divide pupils into three Teacher Writing their Soul and Personal successfully contribute teams. Place tables around assessment of essay at home. Identity unit with a to the discussions and the edge of the room with a their thorough quizzes, having big space in the middle. contributions assessment of confidence in their Name plaques and plastic to questions / pupil’s knowledge knowledge and wallets are to be placed on group work and understanding understanding. the tables. Value continuum and signs are to be stuck to discussions. opposite ends of the room. Peer Starter – pupils work in assessment of their teams to do the card their work in sort activities in the plastic groups to wallets. When they have answer completed theirs they move questions and around to the other tables arrange card to peer assess their sorts. answers. (Collect in card sorts and replace with summary sheets) Task – Quick fire question round to be answered in teams. Task – Pupils are to put the scholars in chronological order. Task – Value Continuum – Place summary cards on the line in responding to the statements at either end of the room. Finish with a discussion of what they personally think. Plenary – synoptic approach – find similarities and make connections between the approaches.