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					Passage 1
     There have been many great inventions, things that changed the way we live.
The first great invention was one that is still very important today… the wheel. This
made it easier to carry heavy things and to travel long distances.
     For hundreds of years after that there were few inventions that had as much effect
as the wheel. Then in the early 1800's the world started to change. There was little
unknown land left in the world. People didn't have to explore much anymore. They
began to work instead to make life better.
      In the second half of the 19th century many inventions were made. Among them
were the camera, the electric light and the radio. These all became a big part of our life
today.
     The first part of the 20th century saw more great inventions. The helicopter in
1909. Sound movies in 1926. The computer in 1928. And jet planes in 1930. This was
also a time when a new material was first made. Nylon came out in 1935. It changed
the kind of clothes people wear.
     The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over
diseases. They worked very well. They made people healthier and let them live long
lives. By the 1960's most people could expect to live to be at least 60.
     By this time most people had a very good life. Of course new inventions
continued to be made. But man now had a desire to explore again. The world is known
to man but the stars are not yet. Man began looking for ways to go into space. Russia
made the first step. Then the United States took a step. Since then other countries,
including China and Japan, have made their steps into space.
     In 1969 man took his biggest step away from earth. Americans first walked on the
moon. This is certainly just beginning though. New inventions will someday allow us
to do things we have never yet dreamed of.

1.__________inventions had had as much effect as the wheel before the 19th century.
  A. Quite a number of     B. Some      C. Few        D. Many other

2.. Nylon came out nearly at the same time as __________.
   A. the radio         B the camera      C jet planes   D the movies

3. People can live longer lives because __________ to help people cure diseases
   have worked very well.
   A. doctors          B new methods C medicines         D new hospitals

4. By the 1960's ______________.
   A. people knew everything about the world
   B. people could live longer.
  C. only the moon was still unknown
  D. the world as a whole was known to man

5. We can safely come to the conclusion that people's lives will be made even
    better through ______________.
    A. new discoveries
    B. greater inventions
    C. better ways to help get over disease
    D. all of the above

Passage 2
     Early in the 16th century men were trying to reach Asia by traveling west from
Europe. In order to find Asia they had to find a way past South America. The man who
eventually found the way from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific was Ferdinand
Magellan.
    Magellan sailed from Seville in August 1519 with five ships and about 280 men.
Fourteen months later, after spending the severe winter on the coast of Patagonia, he
discovered the channel which is now called Magellan's Strait. In November 1520, after
many months of dangers from rocks and storms, the three remaining ships entered the
ocean on the other side of South America.
    They then continued, hoping to reach Asia. But they did not see any land until
they reached the islands off the coast of Asia. Before they arrived at these islands, later
known as the Philippines, men were dying of starvation. While they were staying in
the Philippines, Magellan was killed in battle. The remaining officers then had to get
back to Spain. They decided to sail round Africa. After many difficulties, one ship with
eighteen men sailed into Seville three years after leaving. They were all that remained
of Magellan's expectation. However, their achievement was great. They were the first
men to sail round the world.

1. The purpose of Magellan's expectation was ______.
    A. To sail round the world
    B. To find navigation lane from the Atlantic to the Pacific
    C. To make a voyage to Asia
    D. To carry them to Philippines
2. The time Magellan Strait was discovered was ______.
    A. in August 1519
    B. in October 1520
    C. in November 1520
    D. not mentioned
3. The number of the ships lost on the whole expedition was ______.
    A. two
    B. three
    C. four
    D. five
4. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage concerning the expedition ?
    A. Lack of navigation equipment.
    B. Sever winter in Patagonia.
    C. The death of Magellan.
    D. Dangers from rocks and storms.
5. The best title for this passage is ______.
    A. The discovery of Magellan's Strait
    B. The Discovery of the Philippines
    C. The Most Dangerous Expedition in Navigation
    D. The First Expedition to Asia
Passage 3
      A rich American went into a shop in London. He wanted very much to buy a
nice-looking gold watch. He saw one that he liked, but the owner of the shop asked
five hundred U.S. dollars for it. Suddenly a young man came to the shop, snatched the
watch out of the owner's hands, and ran away with it. It all happened in a few seconds.
When the owner ran into the street, the thief was already lost among the crowds.
     The American went on. At the next corner he saw the young thief with the stolen
watch in his hand. "Do you want to buy a fine watch, minister?" he whispered. "It's
only a hundred dollars."
     "It's clear the thief doesn't know I saw him stealing the watch," the American
thought. He paid at once and went back to his hotel with the watch. He couldn't help
telling his friend about his good luck.
     His friend too a look at the watch and laughed, saying, "You've been made a fool
of. This watch isn't worth even ten dollars. I'm sure that the shop owner and the thief
planned this together. Why don't you ask the police to help you get your money
back?"
     The rich man decided not. He thought he'd better keep quiet about it.
1. A young man snatched the watch out of the owner's hand, so ______.
   A. he must have taken it very quickly
   B. he must have taken it gently
   C. he must have taken it without any force
   D. he must have taken it without any haste
2. The thief stood at the next corner, for ______.
   A. he knew that the American must pass here
   B. he thought that it was a quiet place
   C. he though that he wouldn't be seen there by the police
   D. he used to stand there after stealing a watch
3. The American bought the watch at once, because he thought ______.
   A. the watch was very nice
   B. the watch was very cheap
   C. the thief was very silly
   D. it was a stolen watch
4. The American told his friend the whole story, because he thought ______.
   A. the story was funny
   B. the story was interesting
   C. the watch was a nice one
   D. he was very luck
5. The American didn't ask the police to help him to get his money back, because
______.
   A. he wanted to get it back by himself
   B. he didn't know the way to the police
   C. he was very rich
   D. it was a stolen watch, and it might bring him trouble

Passage 4
     Some skyscrapers now being built will have built-in devices to help firemen in
rescuing people from top floors. Steel bars, much like the rails trains run on , are
firmly attached to the outer walls. The rails run straight up the walls between rows of
windows.
     During a fire alert at a skyscraper with this device, a special fire engine will
arrive. Instead of an extension ladder, the engine will carry a light metal box. On its
front is a window; on the back are a door opening and four special wheels. An electric
motor that turns the wheels receives its supply of power from the fire engine through
a long cable.
     The firemen handle the box so that the wheels grip two adjacent rails on the
building. The motor is switched on. The box, with a fireman inside, runs up the wall
of the skyscraper where people await rescue at the windows.
1. Built-in devices on skyscrapers are meant to help people awaiting rescue
from______.
A. elevators or lifts                      B. television towers
C. the upper floors                        D. the lower floors
2. Steel rails for the device must be attached___________.
A. firmly                                 B. straight up the walls
C. straight across the walls              D. both A and B
3. The rescue equipment grips the rails by ____________.
A. steel hooks                            B. two special wheels
C. four special wheels                    D. The article does not say.
4. The power moving the equipment up the rails is ________.
A. steam         B. electricity     C. gravity      D. human energy
5. What’s the author’s attitude towards this new device?
A. The author doesn’t say          B. supportive
C. negative                            D. very supportive




 Passage 5
  I'm usually fairly skeptical about any research that concludes that people are either happier or
unhappier or more or less certain of themselves than they were 50 years ago. While any of these
statements might be true, they are practically impossible to prove scientifically. Still, I was struck
by a report which concluded that today's children are significantly more anxious than children in
the 1950s. In fact, the analysis showed, normal children aged 9 to 17 exhibit a higher level of
anxiety today than children who were treated for mental illness 50 years ago.
  Why are America's kids so stressed? The report cites two main causes: increasing physical
isolation -- brought on by high divorce rates and less involvement in community, among other
things -- and a growing perception that the world is a more dangerous place.
  Given that we can't turn the clock back, adults can still do plenty to help the next generation
cope.
  At the top of the list is nurturing ( 培育 ) a better appreciation of the limits of individualism.
No child is an island. Strengthening social ties helps build communities and protect individuals
against stress.
  To help kids build stronger connections with others, you can pull the plug on TVs and
computers. Your family will thank you later. They will have more time for face-to-face
relationships, and they will get more sleep.
  Limit the amount of virtual (虚拟的) violence your children are exposed to. It's not just video
games and movies; children see a lot of murder and crime on the local news.
  Keep your expectations for your children reasonable. Many highly successful people never
attended Harvard or Yale.
  Make exercise part of your daily routine. It will help you cope with your own anxieties and
provide a good model for your kids. Sometimes anxiety is unavoidable. But it doesn't have to ruin
your life.
1. The author thinks that the conclusions of any research about people's state of mind are______.

    A) surprising                                             B) confusing

    C) illogical                                              D) questionable

2. What does the author mean when he says, "we can't turn the clock back" (Line 1, Para. 3)?

    A) It's impossible to slow down the pace of change.

    B) The social reality children are facing cannot be changed.

    C) Lessons learned from the past should not be forgotten.

    D) It's impossible to forget the past.

3. According to an analysis, compared with normal children today, children treated as mentally ill
    50 years ago____.

    A) were less isolated physically

    B) were probably less self-centered

    C) probably suffered less from anxiety

    D) were considered less individualistic

4. The first and most important thing parents should do to help their children is ____.

    A) to provide them with a safer environment

    B) to lower their expectations for them

    C) to get them more involved socially

    D) to set a good model for them to follow

5. What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?

    A) Anxiety, though unavoidable, can be coped with.

    B) Children's anxiety has been enormously exaggerated.

    C) Children's anxiety can be eliminated with more parental care.

    D) Anxiety, if properly controlled, may help children become mature.
Passage 6
   Most of us grow up taking certain things for granted. We tend to assume that experts and
religious leaders tell us “the truth”. We tend to believe that things advertised on television or in
newspapers can’t be bad for us.
      However, encouragement of critical thinking in students is one of the goals of most colleges
and universities. Few professors require students to share the professors’ own beliefs. In general,
professors are more concerned that students learn to question and critically examine the arguments
of others, including some of their own beliefs or values. This does not mean that professors insist
that you change your beliefs, either. It does mean, however, that professors will usually ask you to
support the views you express in class or in your writing.
      If your premises (前提)are shaky, or if your arguments are not logical, professors personally
point out the false reasoning in your arguments. Most professors want you to learn to recognize
the premises of your arguments, to examine whether you really accept these premises, and to
understand whether or not you draw logical conclusions. Put it this way: Professors don’t tell you


      On the other hand, if you intend to disagree with your professors in class, you should be
prepared to offer a strong argument in support of your ideas. Arguing just for the sake of arguing
usually does not promote a critical examination of ideas. Many professors interpret it as


1. In the first paragraph, the writer

    A) easily accept certain things without a second thought
   C) are forming their views during their growth



2. Now

   A) criticize others

   B) share professors’ beliefs

   C) give their own ideas




   A) creative                                                B) firm




   A) choice of their premises



   C) skills of drawing conclusions




   A) argue mainly for the sake of arguing



   C) support your idea with sound reasoning

   D) examine others’ ide
Passage 7
  The food we eat seems to have profound effects on our health. Although science has made
enormous steps in making food more fit to eat, it has, at the same time, made many food unfit to
eat. Some research has shown that perhaps eighty percent of all human illnesses are related to diet
and forty percent of cancer is related to the diet as well, especially cancer of the colon. Different
cultures are prone to contract certain illnesses because of the food that is characteristic in these
cultures.
  That food is related to illnesses is not a new discovery. In 1945, government researchers
realized that nitrates and nitrites, commonly used to preserve color in meats, and other food
addictives, caused cancer. Yet, these carcinogenic addictives remain in our food, and it becomes
more difficult all the time to know which things on the packaging labels of processed food are
helpful or harmful. The addictives which we eat are not all so direct. Farmers often give penicillin
to cows and poultry and because of this, penicillin has been found in the milk of treated cows.
Sometimes similar drugs are administered (given) to animals not for medical purposes, but for
financial reasons. The farmers are simply trying to fatten the animals in order to obtain a higher
price on the market. Although the Food and Drug Administration has tried repeatedly to control
these procedures, the practices continue.
1. How has science done a disservice to mankind?

   A) Because of science, disease caused by contaminated food has been virtually done away

       with.

  B) It has caused a lack of information, concerning the value of food.

  C) As a result of scientific intervention, some potentially harmful substances have been added

     to our food.

  D) The scientists have preserved the color of meats, but not of vegetables.

2. What are nitrates used for?

   A) They preserve flavor in packaged food.

   B) They preserve the color of meats.

   C) They are the objects of research.

   D) They cause the animals to become fatter.

3. What does FDA mean as an organization?

  A) Food Direct Addictives

  B) Final Difficult Analysis

  C) Food and Drug Administration

 D) Federal Dairy Addictives

4. The word “carcinogenic” means nearly the same as ____.

   A) trouble-making                                            B) color-retaining

   C) money-making                                             D) cancer-causing

5. Which of the following statement is not true?

   A) Drugs are always given to animals for medical reasons.

   B) Some of the addictives in our food are added to the food itself and some are given to the

      living animals.

   C) Researchers have known the potential hazards of food addictives for over thirty-five years.
   D) Food can cause forty percent of cancer in the world.
Passage 8
  Loneliness is a curious thing. Most of us can remember feeling most lonely when we are not in
fact alone at all, but when we are surrounded by people. Everyone has experienced, at some time,
that nuttier sense of isolation that comes over you when you are at a party or in an audience at a
lecture. It suddenly seems to you as if everybody knows everybody else; everybody is sure of
himself; everybody, that is, except you.
  This feeling of loneliness which can overcome you when you are in a crowd is very difficult to
get rid of. People living alone are advised to tackle their loneliness by joining a club or a society,
by going out and meeting people. Does this really help?
  There are no easy solutions. Your first day at work, or at a new school or university, is a typical
situation in which you are likely to feel lonely. You feel that everybody else is full of confidence
and knows what to do, but you are adrift and helpless. The fact of the matter is that, in order to
survive, we all put on a show of self-confidence to hide our uncertainties and doubts.
  In a big city, it is particularly easy to get the feeling that everybody except you is leading a full,
rich, busy life. Everybody is going somewhere, and you tend to assume that they are going
somewhere nice and interesting, whereas your destination is less exciting and fulfilling.
1. What is the passage mainly about?

     A) A curious thing.                                            B) Loneliness.

     C) Isolation.                                                  D) A feeling.

2. We feel most lonely when we are _____.

    A) with people                                                 B) at a lecture

   C) at a party                                                  D)alone

3. What do people usually do to tackle their loneliness?

   A) Joining a club or a society.                               B) Going out and meeting people.

   C) Both A) and B).                                            D) There are no solutions.

4. Why do we try to hide our sense of loneliness when we start a new job?

   A) Because we are shy.                                        B) Because we have no friends.

   C) Because we have no acquaintances.                          D) In order to survive.

5. What do you tend to assume others’ life to be when you are in a big city?

   A) Lonely.                                                   B) Happy.

   C) Exciting.                                                  D) Full, rich and busy.


Passage 9
    Our environment is getting worse and worse with the increase of the world
 population, which affects the environment in two ways. First, the limited energy
 resources will be used up much faster. Secondly, the increasing population creates
 more pollution,another severe problem that needs to be solved. Both problems are
 long-term ones because actions taken now show their results slowly over many years.
 They are also urgent because delays in action can lead to great suffering and social
 problems. The question seems to be difficult to handle for most people. However, a
 person can be a protector of environment in everyday life if he takes actions to save
 the environment right now. With the development of technology, cars make
 transportation easier and quicker than before, but we can’t ignore the disadvantages
 brought to us by more and more cars in use. For example, we are consuming
 gasoline, which is a non-renewable resource, and will soon be gone. Moreover, the
 exhausted gas from cars pollutes our air, and our health is therefore threatened by air
 pollution, which has a big potential effect on our daily life. So we can consider
 walking, taking buses, carpooling, instead of driving cars alone. This seems to be a
 very slow process that can’t be so effective if it’s taken by a single person. But when
 more and more people become aware of the importance and positively take it as their
 personal responsibilities, the condition of the air will be improved to a great extent.

1. According to the writer, the main problem to our environment today is____.
    A. the increase of population
    B. the limited energy resources
    C. the more serious air pollution
    D. the development of technology
2. From the passage, we can know that___.
    A. effective measures can be taken mainly by the government
    B. taking measures now can soon improve the environment
    C. immediate measures can cause great suffering and social problems
    D. every single person’s action has some effect on environment protection
3.The author’s main purpose in writing this passage is most probably to ___.
    A. complain about people’s slow actions to protect the environment
    B. advise people to take actions to protect the environment
    C. show himself to be an active environment protector
    D. point out the bad effects of technologies in protecting environment
4. The author believes that carpooling ___.
    A. can give help to those without cars
    B. can save people money and time
    C. can save energy resources and reduce air pollution
    D. can promote friendship among drivers.
5. The passage is mainly about ___.
    A. energy resources saving
    B. environment protection
    C. population control
    D. air pollution

Passage 10
    In the United States, teaching is very important. If teachers do not teach well,
 students complain. If many students do not understand, people think that the teacher
 does not do a good job. The teacher has big responsibility to make sure students
 understand. In a sense, students are consumers and the teacher is offering services.
     Students have the right to evaluate their teachers, and they usually do so at the
 end of each course. That evaluation includes lots of aspects of teaching, such as
 explanation, preparation, using good examples, answering questions, and
 organization of classes.
      Students are supposed to read required textbooks and recommended books
 before class. Without reading them, they will find it very difficult to understand the
 class. Basic courses on doing research and writing papers are taught at the beginning
 of the program. They teach things very concretely and clearly. Students are expected
 to apply what they have learned to their studies.
      Classes are usually divided into lectures and seminars. There are some lecture
 classes, where the teacher just gives a lecture, and students ask questions at the end.
 Most graduate level classes are lectures and discussions. Participating in discussions
 is very important. Higher level classes involve very little lecturing. They emphasize
 discussion and presentation by the students.

1. According to the passage, good teachers should __.
    A. try to please their students
    B. treat their students as consumers
    C. understand their students well
    D. make sure their students understand
2. Teachers are evaluated by students mainly on __.
    A. how well they perform in class
    B. how carefully they prepare their classes
    C. how fluently they express themselves in class
    D. how hard they work in and after class
3. What are students expected to do before attending a class?
    A. Go over the lessons thoroughly.
    B. Understand the textbooks well.
    C. Do the reading assignments.
    D. Prepare an outline for discussion.
4. When a program starts, students should first____.
    A. learn how to do research and write papers.
    B. have some learning experience
    C. learn about the course concretely and clearly
    D. know how to participate in discussions
5.Higher level classes are taught mainly through___.
    A. giving a lot of lectures to students
    B. involving students in discussions
    C. asking students questions in class
    D. answering students ‘questions in class
Passage 11
     Genes that control factors such as size, color and shape determine the differences
 in fruit. And now that scientists have discovered how to detect different genes,
 farmers can hand over a young and tender branch to have its genes checked prior to
 planting. It works the same way as a detective checking fingerprints. Once farmers
 know which trees are good and which are bad, they can discard the bad ones.
 Farmers can even create new varieties according to their individual tastes.
     In the past three years, tens of thousands of tests were carried out to determine
 the genetic features of fruit. Zhang, a Chinese scientist, showed a photo of a DNA
 (脱氧核糖核酸)-test and pointed to the shining lines on it, saying that the lines were
 genetic signs that tell us what a tree’s fruit will be like. For example, the ordinary
 pear tree bears fruit after four years. But now it only takes a month to test the DNA
 from a young leaf and a farmer will know everything about its fruit. By mixing
 different types of trees with suitable genes, farmers can create whatever fruit trees
 they want.
1. Detecting different genes in plants is like ___.
    A. the examination of human fingerprints
    B. the development of new varieties of fruit
    C. the checking of young and tender branches
    D. the distinction between bad trees and good ones.
2. The word “discard” (Line 5, Para 1) most probably means to___.
    A. put aside
    B. give up
    C. deal with
    D. take up
3. We learn from the first paragraph that the study of genes ____.
    A. has greatly affected the way of planting trees
    B. has been a popular planting procedure
    C. will change the taste of individuals
    D. will play a vital role in fruit production
4. Now farmers can tell whether a fruit tree is desirable or not by ___.
    A. having a DNA test of a young leaf of the tree
    B. mixing different types of suitable genes
    C. checking its young branches before planting
    D. comparing the shining lines with the genetic signs
5. The passage tells us that the new genetic technology will enable farmers to ___.
    A. increase the DNA of a fruit tree
    B. improve the quality of fruit
    C. make use of the shining features of fruit
    D. change the cycle of fruit production

Passage 12
   Most of us grow up taking certain things for granted. We tend to assume that
experts and religious leaders tell us “the truth”. We tend to believe that things
advertised on television or in newspapers can’t be bad for us.
    However, encouragement of critical thinking in students is one of the goals of
most colleges and universities. Few professors require students to share the
professors’ own beliefs. In general, professors are more concerned that students learn
to question and critically examine the arguments of others, including some of their
own beliefs or values. This does not mean that professors insist that you change your
beliefs, either. It does mean, however, professors will usually ask you to support the
views you express in class or in your writing.
    If your premises(前提) are shaky, or if your arguments are not logical, professors
personally point out the false reasoning in your arguments. Most professors want you
to learn to recognize the premises of your arguments, to examine whether you really
accept these premises, and to understand whether or not you draw logical conclusions.
Put it this way: Professors don’t tell you what to think; they try to teach you how to
think.
    On the other hand, if you intend to disagree with your professors in class, you
should be prepared to offer a strong argument in support of your ideas. Arguing just
for the sake of arguing usually does not promote a critical examination of ideas. Many
professors interpret it as rudeness.

1. In the first paragraph, the writer tries to tell us that people__
    A. easily accept certain things without a second thought
    B. grow up through learning certain things in life
    C. are forming their views during their growth
    D. have strong beliefs in authorities while getting old.
2. Nowadays, most colleges and universities encourage students to__.
    A. criticize others
    B. share professors’ beliefs
    C. give their own ideas
    D. change their own beliefs
3. The word “ shake ” ( Line1, Para 3) most probably means__
    A. creative
    B. firm
    C. false
    D. weak
4. To help students develop their critical thinking, professors mainly teach them ___.
    A. choice of their premises
    B. the way to think independently
    C. skills of drawing conclusions
    D. different kinds of argument
5. According to the writer, the right way to argue is to ___.
    A. argue mainly for the sake of arguing
    B. prove it with a good conclusion
    C. support your idea with sound reasoning
    D. examine others’ ideas critically
Passage 13
      To understand what makes branding so different from the rest of marketing, one
must first understand what a Brand is. A brand is not just an eye-catching logo(图标).
Nor does the name of a product which is advertised frequently necessarily become a
Brand. A Brand is an agreement with the customer. The mere mention of the brand’s
name should arouse a series of expectations not only about the product, its quality,
ease of use, etc., but about what the product would do or would never do. A Brand can
call numerous images to the mind.
      Take McDonald’s for instance. The many images, from Ronald McDonald to the
Big Mac, combine to give us an impression of what McDonald’s is or isn’t about.
They give us an impression of its values. Together these values form the McDonald’s
Brand.
      Values, whether those of a Brand or a person, seldom can be communicated
directly. If someone tells you that he is generous and gives you a sum of money, will
you think that the person is generous? Probably not. It is more likely that , if the
person consistently(一贯地)displays his generosity, you will form the conclusion that
the person is indeed generous. Being consistent is essential for establishing a Brand.
That sets branding apart from the rest of marketing and makes it so difficult to
achieve.
1. According to the passage, branding_______________.
    A. is part of marketing
    B. includes marketing
    C. is the same as marketing
    D. differs completely from marketing
2. The author thinks that the essential aspect of a Brand is_________.
    A. its attractive name
    B. its eye-catching logo
    C. its advertisement in media
    D. its images in customers ‘minds
3. In the passage, the author takes McDonald’s as an example to show that a good
     Brand_______________.
    A. comes from a good name
    B. creates successful images
    C. results from customers’ impression
    D. takes advantage of customer’s expectations
4. The author believes that a Brand, like a really generous person, should__________.
    A. always be ready to make promises
    B. be generous to please customers
    C. keep consistent good images
    D. be established directly
5. The passage is mainly about________________.
    A. branding and marketing
    B. the making of a Brand
   C.    McDonald’s success
   D.    Generous people

Passage 14
        Do you know what the word “jazz” means? Today it is used to talk about
various styles of music. In the early 1900s, however jazz was a kind of folk music
played by African Americans. This early jazz was played by people in their daily lives
simply for their own enjoyment. Indeed, whenever people got together, jazz could be
heard.
        Jazz was a mix of styles from Europe and Africa. From Europe, the first jazz
musicians borrowed ideas about melody and harmony, and the instruments they used.
From Africa, they borrowed ideas about rhythm. Jazz rhythm was very strong - it
made people want to clap their hands or tap their feet. African rhythm had a different
beat from most of other music. For example, instead of One-two-Three-four, the beat
might be one-Two-three-Four. It was this rhythm that made jazz sound different.
There was no other kind of music like it in the United States at that time.
        Today, jazz has become a way for many people to express themselves musically.
It is also a way for many people to make a lot of money by performing. The audience
for jazz is international. Many of the world’s biggest jazz festivals now take place in
Europe and Asia. Fans pay a lot of money to see one of their favorite musicians in
concert or buy one of their recordings. It can certainly be said that jazz has influenced
almost every other kind of music in the United States and Europe and produced some
of the world’s greatest musicians, composers and singers.
1. In the early 1900s, jazz music was ___________.
    A. used to refer to various styles of music
    B. enjoyed by people all over the world
    C. enjoyed in everyday life
    D. played only at special events
2. The first jazz musicians____________.
     A. borrowed European ideas of harmony
     B. played music without strong beats
     C. invented a new style of folk music
     D. used musical instruments from Africa
3. What made jazz different from other music was ___________.
    A. the beat One-two-Three-four
    B. the musical instrument used to play jazz
    C. the beat one-Two-three-Four
    D. the jazz musicians who clapped their hands in performance
4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
     A. jazz is not as much welcomed in Asia as in Europe.
     B. jazz is now used by many people to express their likes and dislikes.
     C. A lot of people became rich through playing jazz.
     D. Nowadays, jazz has become universally popular.
5. Jazz is now ____________.
   A.   becoming too expensive for people to enjoy
   B.   more popular in Asia than anywhere else
   C.   not very important as a means of musical expression
   D.   one means for performers to make a lot of money

Passage 15
   There are some problem areas for international students and immigrants studying in
the United States. Making friends is a challenge (this is also true for American
students). Many colleges and universities offer a variety of student clubs and
organizations where both foreign-born and native American students have a greater
chance to meet people with shared interests. Information about these out-of-class
activities is often posted in the student center and listed in the student newspaper.
Sometimes foreign students and immigrant students find Americans to be “cliquish(有
派性的)”.(Americans find some non-U.S.-born students to be cliquish as well.) If
people feel separated from the social aspects of American college life, they should
actively seek people with shared interests. It is unlikely that students will make
friends just by passing people on the campus.
   Foreign or immigrant students may feel confused during the first few weeks at a
new school because they do not understand the system and are not willing to ask
questions. Many students take advantage of the numerous services offered on campus
that assist students in developing new skills and social groups. Some colleges offer
students tutorial ( 辅 导 的 )support in such subjects as writing, language study,
computer skills, and other basic subjects. Students who appear to be most successful
in “learning the rope” are those who can solve problems by taking the initiative to ask
questions, locate resources, and experience new social situations.
1. In the United States, students can find friends with the same interests by______.
    A. making friends on campus
    B. reading the student newspaper
    C. visiting the student center
    D. joining the student clubs
2. The sentence “people feel separated from the social aspects of American college
    life”(Line 9,para.1) means they have difficulty in ______.
    A. joining social activities within the campus
    B. being easily accepted by the university
    C. finding people with shared interests
    D. getting a job in American society
3. When they first come to the college, some foreign students may feel confused
    because______.
    A. they are denied any help from people around
    B. they are provided with few services
    C. they are faced with an unfamiliar educational system
    D. they are unwilling to adapt themselves to the new environment
4. The phrase “learning the ropes” (Line 7, Para.2) is closest in meaning to ______.
    A. finding the way to develop new skills
    B. having the skills to make conversations
    C. learning how to answer questions
    D. knowing how to handle problems
5. From the passage we may conclude that foreign students______.
    A. may face some problems in adjusting to college life
    B. are unlikely to be successful in American college life
    C. are not good at developing friendship and social groups
    D. can hardly learn well when they enter an American college

Passage 16
     Thomas Jones is a lawyer in Miami. Every Saturday he spends the day with a
10-year-day boy named Juther Jefferson. Thomas is not related to Luther, but he is his
Big Brother. Big Brother (and Big Sisters) spends time with children from
single-parent families. Wanda Zaleski is a high school student in Chicago. Two
afternoons a week, Wanda goes to a home for old people. She reads books and plays
the piano for the people in the home. Thomas and Wanda are both volunteers. They
like to work with people.
     Unusual? No. Even Jimmy Carter, former president of the United States,
volunteers. He puts on his work clothes, picks up a hammer, and works with a
volunteer group to build housing for low-income people. About 50 percent of adults in
the United States volunteer three to five hours a week. Young people volunteer as
well.
     Why do people volunteer? Volunteer work makes people feel happy. They are
making a difference. They can use their talents and abilities in different ways. They
also enjoy being part of the community by meeting new people in their cities or
neighborhoods.
     Some companies encourage volunteering. Forty-five percent of the employees at
the IBM, a huge computer company, volunteer. Many managers think highly of
people who volunteer. Managers believe these employees have more balanced lives
when they are volunteers outside of work. Some companies even give employees time
off to do volunteer work!
1. What’s Thomas Jones’ responsibility as a Big Brother?
    A. To read books for old people in their home.
    B. To do housework for single-parent families.
    C. To look after his own younger brother.
    D. To help children with single parents.
2. From the second paragraph, we learn that _______.
    A. American people find it unusual to be volunteers
    B. About half of American people do volunteer work
    C. Young people don’t like to be volunteers
    D. Only adults like to do volunteer work
3. Some people like to do volunteer work because________.
    A. they can become more talented and active
    B. they are part of the community they live in
    C. they can show their abilities in different ways
    D. they want to meet people from different places
4. What’s the attitude of some managers towards volunteering?
    A. They don’t care about volunteer work outside their companies.
    B. They appreciate those employees who do volunteer work.
    C. They demand their employees to do volunteer work.
    D. They enjoy balanced lives working with volunteers.
5. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
    A. Reasons for Being a volunteer.
    B. Everyone Should Volunteer.
    C. How to Be a Volunteer.
    D. Volunteers in America.


Passage 17
     We live in a dangerous world. The figures for crime go up year by year. If you
were attacked in the street, would you be able to defend yourself? Not very well
probably, especially if someone was pointing a gun at you. We all see a lot of
violence in films, but recently some programs on television showed how people can
defend themselves without guns. For example, in one film a woman was attacked
from behind. She threw the man, who was heavier and stronger than she was, over her
head. Then she held him tightly on the ground. How? She knew judo.
     Jiu-jitsu, as judo is sometimes called, means "muscle science" in Japanese. The
student of judo needs to learn a lot about the body, its bones and muscles. Judo uses a
number of "falls", "holds" and 'throws". Someone who does not know judo cannot
defend himself against them. If you know judo you can defend yourself against a
person who is stronger than you. You had better not practice judo on your friends
unless they can fall without hurting themselves! Being strong is one thing, but using
the body wisely is another. In judo, you use the other person's body to help you. You
"throw" him to the ground and "hold" him there, so that he cannot move. Of course, it
takes time and practice, but knowing judo is useful. In a violent world you ought to be
able to defend yourself.

1. From the first paragraph, we know that some recent TV programs ________.
    A. show how people are attacked in the street
    B. demonstrate how to use guns in defense
    C. show that the figures for crime going up all the time
    D. have changed their subjects from violence to self-defense
2. The woman mentioned in the passage ____________.
    A. held the man over her head
    B. was able to defend herself
    C. attacked the man from behind
    D. was heavier than the man
3. The name "Judo" refers to ____________.
    A. a type of fighting by using the body wisely
    B. a scientific way of physical training
    C. an exercise to build up a strong body
    D. bones and muscles in Japanese
4. What is the warning of the writer for a person who practises judo?
    A. Avoid showing your skills to a person who knows judo.
    B. Avoid attacking a strong man from behind his back.
    C. Not to try it on another person who is inexperienced.
    D. Not to practise judo on the street.
5. We may infer from the context that a skillful judo fighter knows how to _______.
    A. avoid fighting with someone who doesn't know judo
    B. learn the muscle science well
    C. prevent the other person from being hurt
    D. use the other person's body to increase his chances of success

Passage 18
     In the United States Government, the Congress makes the laws. The Congress
has two parts. They are known as the House of Representatives(众议院) and the
Senate(参议院).The House of Representatives is larger than the Senate whose 100
members ( two from each state ) serves for six years. The 435 members of the House
are elected every two years, and the number from each state is determined by the
population of the state. For example, California, which has a large population, has
forty-three representatives, while the state of Nevada has only one.
      According to the Constitution of the United States, a Senator must be at least
thirty years old and he must have been a citizen of the United States for nine years at
the time of his election. To be elected to the House, a person must have been a United
States citizen for seven years.
     In general, Senators are better known than Representatives because they are
fewer in number and serve for a longer time. Many American Presidents served in
Congress before they became President. Presidents John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson
and Richard Nixon were all Representatives and then Senators before becoming
President of the United States.

1. The House of Representatives has ____________.
     A. 535 members
     B. 435 members
     C. 200 members
     D. 100 members
2. If a person wants to be a Senate, he must be at least ____________.
     A. 21 years old
    B. 33 years old
     C. 30 years old
     D. 25 years old
3. Being a citizen of the United States for seven years, a person can be elected to
____________.
     A. a party
     B. a committee
     C. the House of Representative
     D. the Senate
4. Senators are more popular than Representatives because ____________.
    A. Senators are not as many as Representative
    B. Senators come from every part of the country
    C. Representatives serve for a longer time
    D. it is more difficult to serve as Senators
5. California has more representatives because ____________.
    A. it is a very big state
    B. many presidents were born there
    C. there are more businesses there
    D. it has more people than some other states

Passage 19
           Two distinguished Americans recalling their first job experience.

                      Louis Caldera: The Parking-Lot Sweeper
     My parents imbued in me the concepts of family, faith and patriotism when I was
young. Even though we struggled to make ends meet, they stressed to me and my four
brothers and sisters how fortunate we were to live in a great country with limitless
opportunities.
     I got my first real job when I was ten. My dad, Benjamin, injured his back
working in a cardboard-box factory and was retrained as a hairstylist. The owner of
the shopping center gave dad a discount on his rent for cleaning the parking lot three
nights a week, which meant getting up at 3 A.M. To pick up trash, Dad used a little
machine that looked like a lawn mower. Mom and I emptied garbage cans and picked
up litter by hand. It took two to three hours to clean the lot. I'd sleep in the car on the
way home.
      I did this for two years, but the lessons I learned have lasted a lifetime. I acquired
(获得)discipline(纪律) and a strong work ethic(道德观) , and I learned at an early
age the importance of balancing life's competing interests -- in my case, school,
homework and a job. This really helped during my senior year of high school, when I
worked 40 hours a week flipping burgers at a fast-food joint while taking a full load
of college-prep courses.
     The hard work paid off. I attended the U.S. Military Academy and went on to
receive graduate degrees in law and business from Harvard. Later, I joined a big Los
Angeles law firm and was elected to the California state assembly. In these jobs and in
everything else I've done, I have never forgotten those nights in the parking lot. The
experience taught me that there is dignity in all work and that if people are working to
provide for themselves and their families, that is something we should honor.
                                Suze Orman: The waitress
     I had my first job at a local diner called the Buttercup Bakery when I was 22. I
worked there for seven years and learned so many lessons, especially from a fellow
waitress Helen who had incredible self-respect and did what she loved -- serving
people. She made everyone smile and feel good, customers and co-workers alike.
     Being a waitress changed my life. One of my regular customers was Fred
Hasbrook, and an electronics salesman. He always ate a ham-and-Monterey-Jack
omelet, and when I saw him walking toward the diner, I tried to have it on his table as
soon as he sat down.
     Thanks to the newfound confidence I picked up from Helen, I dreamed of having
my own restaurant. But when I called my parents to ask for a loan, they said, "We just
don't have the money."
     The next day, Fred saw me and asked, "What's wrong, sunshine? You're not
smiling today." I shared my dream with him and said, "Fred, I know I can do more if
somebody would just have faith in me."
     He walked over to some one of the other diner regulars and the next day handed
me checks totaling $50,000 -- along with a note that I have to this day. It reads, "The
only collateral on this loan is my trust in your honesty as a person. Good people with
a dream should have the opportunity to make that dream come true."
     I took the check to Merrill Lynch -- the first time I had ever entered a brokerage
house -- where the money was invested for me. I continued working at the Buttercup,
making plans for the restaurant I would open. My investments soured, though, and I
lost the money.
      I found myself thinking about what it would be like to be a stockbroker. After
great consideration I decided to apply for a job at Merrill Lynch. Even though I had
no experience, I was hired and ended up becoming a pretty good broker. Eventually I
paid back Fred and my customers the $50,000, plus 14-percent annual interest. Five
years later, I was able to open my own firm.
      I got a thank-you note from Fred, which will be imprinted on my heart forever.
He had been sick and wrote that my check had helped cover his mounting medical
bills. His letter read, "That loan may have been one of the best investments that I will
ever make. Who else could have invested in a counter 'girl' with a million-dollar
personality and watch that investment mature into a very successful career woman.
How few 'investors' have that opportunity?"

1.What can we learn about Louis's family when he was young?
   A. they hardly had to struggle for their life.
   B. They could only get enough money for their needs.
   C. They would get a discount on their rent.
   D. They were unfortunate although they lived in a great country.

2.Louis's father could get a discount on the condition that ______.
   A. He used a machine to pick up litter
   B. He worked in a cardboard-box factory
   C. He got up at 3:00A.M. every day
   D.He cleaned the parking lot three nights a week

3.By saying that "there is dignity in all work" the author means that ______.
   A. we should honor those who work hard to support their families
   B. he will never forget working in the parking lot
   C. people should work hard to make a living
   D. no matter what job one does, one deserves respect

4.What made Suze's customer lend her money according to the passage?
   A. Her maturity
   B. Her faithfulness
   C. Her honesty
   D. Her success

5.Which of the following proverbs best describes the story of the waitress?
   A. One never loses by doing a good turn.
   B. One can not see the forest for the trees.
   C. One may change places but not change the grief.
   D. One may see day light through a little hole.

Passage 20
     A scientist who does research in economic psychology and who wants to
predict(预测) the way in which consumers will spend their money must study
consumer behavior. He must obtain data both on the resources of consumers and on
the motives(动机) that tend to encourage or discourage money spending.
      If an economist were asked which of three groups borrow most—people with
rising incomes, stable incomes, or declining incomes—he would probably answer:
those with declining incomes. Actually, in the years 1947—1950, the answer was:
people with rising incomes. People with declining incomes were next and people with
stable incomes borrowed the least. This shows us that traditional assumptions about
earning and spending are not always reliable. Another traditional assumption is that if
people who have money expect prices to go up, they will hasten to buy. If they expect
prices to go down, they will postpone buying. But research surveys have shown that
this is not always true. The expectations of price increases may not stimulate buying.
One typical attitude was expressed by the wife of a mechanic in an interview at a time
of rising prices. “In a few months,” she said, “We’ll have to pay more for meat and
milk; we’ll have less to spend on other thing.” Her family had been planning to buy a
new car but they postponed this purchase. Furthermore, the rise in prices that has
already taken place may be resented and buyer’s resistance may be evoked. This is
shown by the following typical comment: “I just don’t pay these prices; they are too
high.”
     The investigations mentioned above were carried out in America. Investigations
conducted at the same time in Great Britain, however, yielded( 产生)results that were
more in agreement with traditional assumptions about saving and spending patterns.
The condition most conducive (有助于,有利于)to spending appears to be price
stability. If prices have been stable and people consider that they are reasonable, they
are likely to buy. Thus, it appears that the common business policy of maintaining
stable prices is based on a correct understanding of consumer psychology.


1. According to the passage, if one wants to predict the way consumers will spend
    their money, he should______.
   A. rely on traditional assumptions about earning and spending
   B. try to encourage or discourage consumers to spend money
   C. carry out investigations on consumer behavior and obtain data on consumers’
       incomes and money spending motives
   D. do researches in consumer psychology in a laboratory.
2. According to Paragraph 2, one traditional assumption is that people with
     ______incomes borrowed most.
     A. average   B. stable    C. rising       D. declining
3. The result of the investigations on consumer psychology carried out in America
     were _____those of the investigations make at the same time in Great Britain.
     A. somewhat different from
     B. exactly the same as
     C. much better than
     D. not as good as
4. From the results of the surveys, the writer of this article _____.
      A. concludes that the saving and spending patterns in Great Britain are better
         than those in America
      B. concludes that the consumers always expect prices to remain stable
      C. concludes that maintaining stable prices is a correct business policy
      D. does not draw any conclusion
5. Which of the following statements is always TRUE according to the surveys
      mentioned in the passage?
    A. Consumers will put off buying things if they expect prices to decrease.
    B. Consumers will spend their money quickly if they expect prices to increase.
    C. The price condition has an influence on consumer behavior.
    D. Traditional assumptions about earning and spending are reliable.

Passage 21
      Johnny was three when he ran away from home for the first time. Somebody left
the garden gate open. Johnny wandered out, crossed some fields, and two hours later,
arrived in the next village. He was just able to give his name and address.
      By the time he was seven, Johnny used to vanish from home two or three times a
year. Sometimes he covered quite long distances on foot. On other occasions he got
on a bus or even a train, and simply sat there until someone asked for his ticket.
Generally the police brought him home. “Why do you do it?” they used to ask. “You
aren’t unhappy at home, are you? ...” “Of course not,” Johnny replied. “Then why?”
“I just like seeing places,” Johnny told them.
      Johnny continued to “see places” although everyone tried to stop him. His
parents used to watch him closely, and so did his teachers; but sooner or later Johnny
managed to slip away. As he grew older, his favorite trick was to hide on a long
distance truck. Sometimes he used to travel hundreds of miles before anyone
discovered him.
      It is hardly surprising that eventually Johnny managed to get on board a plane.
He was twelve at the time. It was a cargo plane and, a few hours later, Johnny found
himself in Cairo. How did he get on board? No one knows! According to Johnny
himself, it was easy: he just went into the airport, walked along some corridors and
got on board the nearest plane.
      In spite of all this, Johnny did well at school. He enjoyed maths and languages
and, perhaps not surprisingly, he was especially good at geography. “What do you
want to be when you grow up?” his teachers asked him. Johnny did not take long to
answer that question. “An explorer!” he answered. “But it’s difficult to become an
explorer in this modern age.” they tried to tell him, “unless you go into space!” But it
was no use: Johnny knew what he wanted!
      Just before he left school, Johnny saw a notice in one of the daily papers. An
expedition was about to go to Brazil to travel up the Amazon River. There were
vacancies for three young people “willing to work hard and with a sense of
adventure”. Johnny applied, and, two months later, he was on his way to Brazil.

1. The first time Johnny ran away from home, ________________.
    A. he was only 7 years old.
    B. he reached a town far away from home.
    C. he walked for two hours before he reached another village.
    D. he went into the fields after managing to open the garden gate.

2. Johnny frequently left home because_______________.
   A. he was unhappy there.
   B. he loved walking long distances.
   C. he liked taking risks.
   D. he liked seeing new places.

3. People around Johnny_________________.
   A. tried to stop Johnny from going away from home.
   B. watched Johnny day and night in turn.
   C. talked him out of slipping away from home.
   D. kept following him to get him back.

4. At school, Johnny__________.
   A. was only good at geography.
   B. did well in all subjects.
   C. was always thinking of exploring.
   D. was interested in learning about space.

5. We learn from the passage that Johnny__________.
   A. went to Brazil two months after he finished school.
   B. answered an ad in the newspaper and found a job.
   C. went exploring along the Amazon River.
   D. left home for an expedition to Africa.

Passage 22
     In the summer of 1885, nine-year-old Joseph Meister was a very ill little boy. He
had been attacked by a sick dog that had rabies (狂犬病), a very dangerous disease.
His doctor tried to help him, but there was no cure for rabies at that time. The doctor
told Joseph’s parents that perhaps there was one man who could save Joseph’s life.
His name was Louis Pasteur.
     When Pasteur was a young boy in France, he was very curious. Louis was
especially interested in medicine, so he spent many hours every day with the chemist
who lived in his small town. The chemist sold pills, cough syrups, and other types of
medicine, just as modern pharmacists, or druggists, do today. At that time, the chemist
had to make all the medicine himself. Young Louis enjoyed watching the chemist as
he worked and listening to him help the customers who came to him each day. Pasteur
decided that one day he wanted to help people, too.
      As a schoolboy, Pasteur worked slowly and carefully. At first, his teachers
thought that young Louis might be a slow learner. Through elementary school, high
school, and college, Pasteur worked the same thoughtful way. In fact, he was not a
slow learner, but a very intelligent young man. He became a college professor and a
scientist, and he continued to work very carefully.
      Because of Pasteur’s patient methods, he was able to make many observations
about germs. For example, germs cause meat and milk to spoil. They also cause many
serious diseases. Pasteur was studying about germs that cause rabies when Joseph
Meister became ill. In fact, Pasteur believed he had a cure for rabies, but he had never
given it to a person before. At first, Pasteur was afraid to treat Joseph, but his doctor
said the child was dying. Pasteur gave Joseph an inoculation(接种), or shot, every day
for ten days. Slowly, the child became better. Pasteur’s vaccination(接种疫苗) cured
him.
      During his lifetime, Pasteur studied germs and learned how they cause diseases
in animals and people. He developed vaccinations that prevent many of these illnesses.
He also invented the process of pasteurization(巴斯德杀菌法),which stops foods
such as milk from spoiling. Louis Pasteur died on September 28, 1895, at the age of
72. Modern medicine continues to benefit from the work of this great scientist.

1. We learn from the passage that _________.
A. Joseph finally died of rabies.
B. Joseph fell ill with a very dangerous disease.
C. Joseph’s doctor knew that Joseph’s disease could not be cured.
D. Joseph’s doctor turned to another doctor for help.

2. As a young boy, Pasteur _______.
 A. lived with a French chemist
 B. observed a chemist making medicine
 C. helped a chemist cure sick people
 D. served customers in a chemist’s shop

3. Louis Pasteur’s teacher first thought that young Pasteur ______.
A. worked slowly and with great care
B. was always observing things.
C. was a slow learner
D. was a very thoughtful person.

4. Pasteur was afraid to treat Joseph at first because __________.
 A. he thought Joseph’s disease was caused by an unknown germ
 B. he had never tried his way of treatment on anyone else before
 C. he saw that Joseph was dying
 D. his medicine took effect very slowly

5. During his lifetime, Pasteur___________.
 A. worked as a doctor and cured many people
 B. made major discoveries in the field of medicine
 C. mainly studies how diseases could be prevented
 D. studied the process of the spoiling of food

Passage 23
        As you walk along the street in any American city, you see many different
faces. You see oriental faces, black faces, and white faces. These are the faces of the
United States, a country of immigrants from all over the world. Immigrants are people
who leave one country to live permanently in another country.
      The first immigrants came to North America in the 1600s from northern
European countries such as England and Holland. These people generally had light
skin and light hair. They came to live in North America because they wanted religious
freedom. In the 1700s and early 1800s immigrants continued to move from Europe to
the United States. At this time there was one group of unwilling immigrants, black
Africans. These people were tricked or forced to come to the United States, where
they worked on the large farms in the south. The blacks had no freedom; they were
slaves. In the 1800s many Chinese and Irish immigrants came to the United States.
They came because of economic or political problems in their countries. The most
recent immigrants to the United States, the Indochinese, Cubans, and Central
Americans also came because of economic or political problems in their own
countries. Except for the blacks, most of these immigrants thought of the United
States as a land of opportunity, of a chance for freedom and new lives.
      In the United States, these immigrants looked for help from other immigrants
who shared the same background, language, and religion. Therefore, there are
neighborhoods in each U.S. city made up almost entirely of one ethnic or racial group.
There are all Italian, all Puerto Rican or all Irish neighborhoods in many East Coast
cities and all Mexican neighborhoods in the Southwest.
      In Dearborn, Michigan, there is a large group of Lebanese. There are racial
neighborhoods such as oriental Chinatown in San Francisco and black Harlem in New
York. There are racial neighborhoods with a strong religious feeling such as a Jewish
part of Brooklyn in New York. And, of course, there are economic neighborhood
divisions; in American cities very often poor people do not live in the same
neighborhoods as rich people.
      This wide variety of neighborhoods in the cities is a reflection of the different
groups in American society. American society is a mixture of racial, language, cultural,
religions, and economic groups. People sometimes call America a melting pot and
compare its society to a soup with many different ingredients. The ingredients
(different races, cultures, religions, and economic groups) supposedly mix together to
make a smooth soup. But, in reality, there are a few lumps in the soup.
1. The earliest immigrants came to North America because _________.
    A. they wanted to have freedom in their religious beliefs
    B. they were poor people in their own countries
    C. they wanted to work on the large farms in the U.S.
    D. they were tired of the political problems in their own countries
2. The black Africans came to the United States because ______.
   A. they wanted to gain political freedom
   B. they thought of the United States as a land of opportunity
   C. they wanted to live a new life
   D. they were tricked or forced to go there
3. Jewish immigrants to the U.S. are most likely to be found in _____.
   A. Dearborn, Michigan
   B. Chinatown, San Francisco
   C. Brooklyn, New York
   D. Harlem, New York
4. One of the reasons why immigrants to the U.S. formed racial neighborhoods is that
they _________.
   A. had the same problems
   B. shared the same political views
   C. worked in the same places
   D. spoke the same language

5. The sentence “there are a few lumps in the soup” implies that ______.
    A. some immigrants are poor; some are rich
    B. the immigrants didn’t get along with their neighbors
    C. different ethnic groups have kept their separate identities
    D. people of different cultures enjoy their life in the U.S.

Passage 24
       Ted Schredd doesn’t like cars. He wants people to stop driving because cars
make the air dirty. Ted had an idea. He said, “I’m going to cycle around North America.
I want to show everyone that cycling is a fun way to get around. If more people ride
bikes, the air will be cleaner.”
     He left his hometown with $160 in his pocket. When he got to San Diego, he
met another cyclist. The cyclist invited Ten to speak at a big meeting about the
environment. He said, “We’ll pay your airfare to Texas and we’ll pay you to talk about
your cycling trip.” Two hours later, Ted was on a plane to the environmental
conference and to a big surprise!
     While he was at the conference, he met Deanna. It was love at first sight! They
talked for six hours straight.
     The next day, Ted called Deanna and asked her to finish the trip with him. Deanna
said yes, sold everything in her apartment, gave her notice at work, and was on the
road with Ted 20 days later!
      “It was difficult at first,” said Deanna. “Ted got up every morning at 6:00 a.m.,
but I wanted to sleep until noon.” After a few days, they started having fun. As they
cycled from Florida to Montreal and then back to Vancouver, every day was an
adventure. People paid for their food in restaurants and gave them extra money. Some
people gave them $50 or $100. They slept in people’s backyards and drank beer
with motorcycle gangs.
      On their way back to Vancouver, they stopped in Edmonton to visit Ted’s
relatives. During the stopover, they got married. People tied a “Just Married” sign and
tin cans to the backs of their bikes. They now want to write a book about their trip.
“We want people to know that you can be an environmentalist and still have fun,”
Schredd said.

1. Ted Schredd went cycling because ________.
A A. he loves adventure
    B. cycling is a lot of fun
    C. he wanted to find himself a wife
    D. he supports environmental protection

2. Ted got paid for ________.
    A. giving a talk about his cycling trip
    B. cycling throughout North America
    C. traveling around North America by air
    D. attending conferences on cycling

3. The “big surprise” he had at the conference was that ________.
    A. he met another cyclist who wanted to join him
    B. he fell in love with a girl there
    C. he gave a long talk lasting 6 hours
    D. he had a lot of fun talking about his cycling trip

4. According to the passage, Deanne ________.
    A. quit her job to join Ted on his trip
    B. sold all her possessions to pay for Ted’s trip
    C. was fired by her employer for not going to work
    D. asked for a long leave from work to join Ted in his trip

5. During the trip, Ted and Deanne ________.
    A. found it hard to get up early
    B. were attacked by motorcycle gangs
    C. have to pay for their meals in restaurants
    D. decided to get married
   Passage 25
     James Cleveland Owens was the son of a farmer and the grandson of black slaves.
His family moved to Cleveland when he was 9. There a school teacher asked the
youth his name. “J. C.”, he replied. She thought he had said “Jesse”, and he had a new
name.
     Owens ran his first race at age 13. After high school, he went to Ohio State
University. He had to work part time so as to pay for his education. As a second-year
student, in the Big Ten games in 1935, he set even more records than he would in the
Olympic Games a year later. A week before the Big Ten meet, Owens accidentally
fell down a flight of stairs. His back hurt so much that he could not exercise all week,
and he had to be helped in and out of the car that drove him to the meet. He refused to
listen to the suggestions that he give up and said he would try, event by event. He did
try, and the results are in the record book.
     The stage was set for Owens’ victory at the Olympic Games in Berlin the next
year, and his success would come to be regarded as not only athletic but also political
Hitler did not congratulate any of the African-American winners.
    “It was all right with me,” he said years later. “I didn’t go to Berlin to shake hands
with him, anyway.” Having returned from Berlin, he received no telephone call from
the President of his own country, either. In fact, he was not honored by the United
States until 1976, four years before his death.
   Owens’ Olympic victories made little difference to him. He earned his living by
looking after a school playground, and accepted money to race against cars, trucks,
motorcycles, and dogs.
    “Sure, it bothered me,” he said later. “But at least it was an honest living. I had to
eat.” In time, however, his gold medals changed his life. “They have kept me alive
over the years,” he once said. “Time has stood still for me. That golden moment dies
hard.”

1. Owens got his other name “Jesse” when _____.
    A. he went to Ohio State University
    B. his teacher made fun of him
    C. his teacher took “J. C.” for “Jesse”
    D. he won gold medals in the Big Ten meet

2. In the Big Ten meet, Owens _____.
    A. hurt himself in the back
    B. succeeded in setting many records
    C. tried every sports event but failed
    D. had to give up some events

3. We can infer from the text that Owens was treated unfairly in the US at that time
    because _____.
   A. he was not of the right race
   B. he was the son of a poor farmer
   C. he didn’t shake hands with Hitler
   D. he didn’t talk to the US President on the phone

4. When Owens says “They have kept me alive over the years,” he means that the
    medals _____.
   A. have been changed for money to help him live on
   B. have made him famous in the US
   C. have encouraged him to overcome difficulties in life
   D. have kept him busy with all kinds of jobs

5. What would be the best title for the text?
    A. Jesse Owens, a Great American Athlete
    B. Golden Moment? A Life-time Struggle
    C. Making a Living as a Sportsman
    D. How to Be a Successful Athlete

   Passage 26
     First aid(急救) the care given to the injured or sick as soon as possible after
                       is
an accident or illness. It is this immediate care and attention before the arrival of
ambulance that sometimes means the difference between life and death, or a full or
partial recovery.
     First aid has limitations, as not everybody is a doctor or expert, but it is a key
element of the total medical system.
     The principle to be adopted in first aid is immediate action. By-standers(旁观
者)or relatives not knowing what to do, or being too fearful to try, have unwisely
contributed to unnecessary deaths and worse injuries.
     It is important that any action taken by the first aid provider is started as
quickly as possible. Quick action is necessary to save life and parts of the body.
One who is not breathing effectively, or is bleeding heavily, requires immediate
help. If quick effective first aid is provided, then they have a much better chance of
a good recovery.
     But it should be remembered that any action taken is to be most careful, and
fright(恐慌) the first aid provider and by-standers will not be good to the whole
               by
thing. Try to remain calm and think your actions through. A calm and controlled
first aider will give everyone confidence that the event is being handled efficiently
and effectively.

1. The writer seems to suggest that if you don’t know much about first aid, you
     should _________________.
    A. call for help from professional
    B. still try to help
    C. stand by and not try to help
    D. learn it from a doctor
2. According to the passage, some injured or sick people died as a result of
   __________.
   A. other people’s hesitation to offer first aid
   B. unprofessional first aid
   C. unnecessary first aid
   D. unwise suggestions by by-standers

3. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
    A. One should not apply first aid to the injured without knowing the cause of the
        accident.
    B. It is easy to carry out first aid if one has the necessary facilities.
    C. First aid is an important part in the whole treatment.
    D. First aid may not be effective before a doctor or treatment.

4. The most important thing in providing first aid is to _______________.
    A. call for an ambulance
    B. prevent bleeding
    C. know what to do
    D. act quickly

5. While offering first aid, the helper should _____________.
    A. be self-controlled
    B. have others to assist him
    C. have confidence in the sick person
    D. get rid of the by-standers

   Passage 27
    It looks like a mobile phone, but the service is much cheaper. It acts like a mobile
phone, but only in your own city. Beyond the city walls, it’s useless.
   “Little Smart”, also called “xiaolingtong”, has always been compared to mobile
phones. But actually, it is more like one of those cordless phones(无绳电话) used
around the home. The only difference is that this one reaches much further than from
the bathroom to the living room. It can travel across an entire city.
     Cheap costs are the main reason for the success of Little Smart. It costs 25 yuan a
month for the line and about 0.1 yuan per minute to use. A mobile phone, on the
other hand, can cost four or five times as much. What’s more, unlike mobile phones,
there’s no fee(费) for incoming calls. So these low charges have attracted many users.
      But, Little Smart is not really that smart. Users often complain about its bad
voice quality. And there are not as many stations to pick up its signals as there are for
mobiles. “I couldn’t receive a phone call if I was on a bus,” said Li Ping, a user in
Hang Zhou. “It worked fine when I stood still, but there were breaks in signal when I
was moving.”
      Scientists are trying to make Little Smart more user-friendly. Messaging and
Internet access(接入) have been added to the service. And the latest Little Smart
handset even has color screen.

1. Why is Little Smart popular in China?
    A. It looks like a mobile phone.
    B. The service is much cheaper.
    C. There is no fee for incoming calls.
    D. All of the above.

2. How is the charge of Little Smart?
   A. about 10 fen per minute to use.
   B. It costs four or five times more than a mobile phone.
   C. It only costs 25 yuan each month.
   D. There’s no fee for calls.

3. Why are users not satisfied with Little Smart?
    A. They can’t hear each other clearly out of the city.
    B. There are so few stations for Little Smart to pick up its signals.
    C. When you use it, you must stand up.
    D. The charges are low.

4. The underlined word “handset” in the last paragraph means “______”.
    A. the hand bag
    B. telephone
    C. service
    D. mobile phone

5. What can we infer from the passage?
   A. It’s wrong to say that Little Smart is smart.
   B. Scientists are trying to make Little Smart smaller.
   C. Little Smart will be better than today.
   D. People will change Little Smart into a mobile phone.

Passage 28
   Many doctors are now trained in techniques to lessen tension and stress. Here
health professionals reveal their favorite methods.
   Comfort with food. When diet expert Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does
what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food. But in her case, it’s a
healthy rice cake or two. “My research suggests that carbohydrates ( 碳水化合
物)raise levels of a brain chemical, which has a calming effect on the entire body,”
says the MIT research scientist. “So signs of stress---such as anger, tension(紧张),
and inability to focus------are eased.”
   Run from your problems. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper, who popularized aerobics(有
氧运动) through his 1968 book by that name, handles his own stress with a daily
after—work run. He knows that physical activity reduces anxiety and depression.
“Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress,” says Cooper.
   Look to the light side. On his way to the hospital where his father was to have
       (
surgery 手术) Joel Goodman shared a hotel bus with the anxious relatives of several
                 .
patients. The driver began telling his stressed—out passengers a few jokes. “Then
he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,” Goodman says. “In
that five—minute ride he taught us that humor can lessen our stress.”
   The surgery was successful, and Goodman was so moved by his experience that he
researched laughter’s power. “A good laugh relaxes muscles, reduces blood pressure,
restrains stress---related hormones and enhances the immune system(免疫系统) ,” he
says
   Go green. Coffee, loaded with hidden sources of caffeine, stimulates(刺激) the
nervous system and can make you feel stressed more easily. That’s why Arizona
doctor Andrew Weil, author of the best seller Spontaneous Healing, does not take
caffeine. “When I want gentle energy, I drink green tea. It contains a
caffeine—like element”, Weil says. It also contains compounds that, some studies
suggest, have anti—cancer effects.

1. The following are the ways to free               you   from   stress   EXCEPT
_____________________.
   A. looking at things in a more relaxed way
   B. getting a lot of sleep during the day
   C. eating some food with carbohydrates
   D. doing some aerobic exercise

2. Eating or drinking the following can be helpful in freeing you from stress
    EXCEPT______________________.
   A. drink green tea
   B. eat some bread
   C. eat some rice cake
   D. drink a lot of coffee

3. A good laugh is very helpful EXCEPT to __________________.
    A. reduce blood pressure
    B. restrain stress---related hormones
    C. enhance the immune system
    D. take a holiday

4.   What is the meaning of the word “dissipate” in the part “Run from your
     problems”?
      A. Lessen
      B. Depress
      C. Disturb
      D. Level
5. Which of the following group of people can have a happier life, according to the
    passage?
   A. Those who are continuously eating something
   B. Those who are always engaged in working
   C. Those who use right methods to reduce tension
   D. Those who study medicine or psychology

Passage 29
  Eli Whitney’ s inventions, even though they seem simple by today’ s standards, changed the
course of American history.
  Eli was a native of Massachusetts, but after receiving his college degree from Yale at age 27, he
traveled south to take a job on plantation(种植园). There, he heard the planters talking about the
problems of growing cotton. The main problem was that it was difficult to make a good profit
from cotton, because the job of removing the cotton fiber from the seeds was so time consuming.
  He thought about the problem and watched how people’s hands moved as they picked the
cotton. He was able to build a rough model of a machine that could do the same job in just 10 days.
His machine, called the cotton gin, could be cranked by hand, but Whitney also imagined a much
larger cotton gin that could be pulled by horses or operated by water power. Cotton gins were soon
being built that could produce 50 pounds of cleaned cotton in a day.
  Whitney did not become rich from his invention because other farmers began copying his idea
before he was able patent it. The cotton gin did make many Cotton planters rich however. In fact,
cotton production doubled each decade after 1800.While some people were getting rich from
cotton, other people suffered because of it. As the demand for cotton production grew, so did
slavery.
1. When did Eli Whitney invent the cotton gin?
   A) After he heard about a problem and thought of a solution.
   B) Since he graduated from college.
   C) After he had tried to grow cotton himself but failed.
   D) After he grew up in the South.
2. What is this article mainly about?
   A) Eli Whitney’s attitude towards slavery.
   B) Eli Whitney’s marriage life.
   C) Functions of Eli Whitney’s inventions.
   D) Eli Whitney’s achievements.
3. Where did Eli Whitney get his college degree?
   A) New England.
   B) In Harvard University.
   C) In the Yale University.
   D) Massachusetts.
4. Which of the following statements is true?
   A) Cotton production doubled each decade until 1800
   B) The cotton gin led to an increase in slavery and cotton production.
   C) Other farmers couldn’t copy his idea until Eli Whitney was able to patent it.
    D) The Industrial Revolution in American history was affected by Eli Whitney’s inventions.
5. Who benefited from Eli Whitney’s inventions?
    A) Slaves.                                    B) Cotton planters.
    C) Factory workers.                           D) His classmates.
Passage 30
    Vitamin D is important to human nutrition(营养)because it helps the body to absorb calcium
(钙).Calcium is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin D deficiency (缺乏症)
often leads to serious bone diseases. For this reason it is added to the milk which is the staple food
in most American people’ s diet. Our body requires sunlight to make use of vitamin D. Only when
ultraviolet rays from the sun strike the vitamin D in our skin can the vitamin D be changed to its
active form and calciferol(钙化醇)be produced by the sunlight. Calciferol is the substance that
carries the calcium to our bones. Therefore we can not change vitamin D to its active form without
exposing our body to ultraviolet rays. Nor can we make use of any of the calcium which we have
consumed in our food. As a result, we will suffer from a calcium deficiency and have weak bones.
People with a calcium deficiency, especially those who are over 40 years old, tend to break their
arms or legs when they fall or trip over something. If we want to ensure sufficient vitamin D
production in our body, we need to be exposed to sunlight for only 10 to 20 minutes every day. It
is very easy for people to do unless in heavy smog or cloudy days. Doctors recommend that
people either drink milk or take vitamin supplements or be exposed to the sun every day in order
to avoid vitamin D deficiency.
1. Which of the following is Vitamin D’ s function?
    A) It helps to maintain healthy bones and teeth.
    B) It leads to serious bone diseases.
    C) It helps the body to absorb calcium.
    D) It helps to change calcium to its active form.
2. Which is NOT the way of ensuring Vitamin D sufficiency recommended by doctors?
    A) Staying in the sunshine about 10 minutes each day.
    B) Taking vitamin supplements every day.
    C) Drinking two glasses of milk every day.
    D) Having at least eight – hour’ s sleep each day.
3. What is the result of a person staying indoors all the time?
    A) They can avoid sunburn.
    B) They may have vitamin D deficiency.
    C) They should break their legs every time they run.
    D) They may put on much weight.
4. What do we need to change vitamin D to its active form?
    A) Ultraviolet rays.                      B) Milk.
    C) Calcium.                               D) Vitamin supplements.
5. What is the best title for this article?
    A) Calcium.                                B) Vitamin D.
    C) Sunlight.                               D) Bone diseases.

Passage 31
     In many countries in the process of industrialization, overcrowded cities present a
major problem. Poor conditions in these cities, such as lack of housing, inadequate
sanitation (卫生) and lack of employment, bring about an increase in poverty, disease
and crime.
     The over-population of towns is mainly caused by the drift of large numbers of
people from the rural areas. These people have become dissatisfied with the
traditional life of farming, and have come to the towns hoping for better work and
pay.
     One possible solution to the problem would be to impose registration on town
residents. Only officially registered residents would be allowed to live in the towns
and the urban population would thus be limited. In practice, however, registration
would be very difficult to enforce (推行); it would cause a great deal of resentment
(不满),which would ultimately lead to violence.
     The only long-term solution is to make life in the rural arrears more attractive,
which would encourage people to stay there. This could be achieved by providing
encouragement for people to go and work in the villages. Facilities in the rural areas,
such as transport, health and education services should be improved. Education
should include training in improved methods of farming and other rural industries, so
as to develop a more positive attitude towards rural life. The improvement of life in
the villages is very important, because the towns themselves cannot be developed
without the simultaneous or previous development of the rural area.

1. What does the word “urban” (Line 3, Para. 3) mean?
A) Of the city
B) Out of work
C) In a bad condition
D) Of enormous size

2. Large numbers of farmers have poured into towns because ________.
A) they can hardly support their families on farms
B) they are unhappy with their life in the country
C) the rural areas are too crowd with people
D) they hope to have their own business

3. In the author’s view, solving the cities’ problem of overcrowding by strict
registration is ________.
A) practical
B) possible
C) not realistic
D) not sufficient

4. According to the writer, the problem with crowded cities will be solved if
__________.
A) traditional methods of farming are well kept
B) conditions in rural areas are much improved
C) the government can provide more jobs
D) violence could be controlled in cities

5. Which factor is the most important for people to be attracted to live in the country?
A) Their expectation
B) Their interests
C) Their income
D) Their attitude


Passage 32
       Online services are managed by a host system that maintains a base of
information available to satellite users. Users of so-called “dumb” terminals (i.e. those
without processing capability) simply access the information base via program stored
on the system. Personal computer (PC) users typically access the host through a
modem (调制解调器). A PC software program serves as an interface (接口) between
the server and a PC, allowing the user to operate through the online system and select
different databases using a keyboard or a mouse.
       National and regional online systems usually have local telephone numbers that
PC modems can call to access either a local information base or an indirect
long-distance connection, thus reducing long-distance telephone fees. Some online
systems allow users to copy large volumes of information onto a local memory
storage device, which also reduces the time the user is connected to the online system.
       Besides offering a great number of different information based, ranging from
full-text journal libraries to reports of missing children, online services allow users to,
for example, reserve airline tickets, buy stocks, purchase goods, and communicate
with other users. In exchange for the service, users usually pay a monthly membership
fee. They may also pay to connect to various databases on the service or to download
information.

1. Online services work by providing users with _________.
A) a base of information
B) dumb terminals
C) a host system
D) a satellite

2. How can the users of terminals without processing capability acquire the necessary
information?
A) They can simply use a keyboard or a mouse.
B) They should use a modem to maintain the host system.
C) They should connect their computer to a satellite system.
D) They can access its base through the programs on the system.
3. If you copy the online information onto your PC device, you will _________.
A) save the time of connecting to the online system
B) reduce the risk of losing information
C) pay just local telephone charges
D) get local information only

4. If you want to read full-text journals online, you usually have to ________.
A) seek for a large amount of information
B) be connected to various databases
C) be introduced by the local library
D) pay a monthly membership fee

5. The passage is mainly about _________.
A) the payment for online services
B) the functions of online services
C) the development of online services
D) the relation between online services and the users


      Passage33
     Fire fighters are peace time soldiers. They are always ready to fight a fire when it
turns from friend to enemy. The fire chief is in charge. The chief, who often wears a
white hat, is like a general commanding troops, the fire fighters. In response to the
chief's orders, fire fighters carry out certain drills that they have practiced.
                                                (
       At a fire, the chief orders the first hose 水龙带,       软管) to be stretched inside
                                                                   line
the building. This first hose line is most important because it puts out morn than 95
percent of all fires. At the same time the pump operator (the person who drives the
pump truck ) attaches the pump to a fire hydrant(消防龙头). Water rushes from the
water main(自来水管)into the pump. Other fire fighters attach to the pump the long
hose that has been carried into the building--upstairs, downstairs, or wherever the fire
is. They all work at once, each one knowing just what to do. When the hose is in place,
the pump operator turns on the pump. The pump can drive water under great pressure
up several stories. Extra hoses protect those who are fighting close to the flames and
are in great danger. Sometimes the chief orders a second hose stretched up a fire
escape and in through a window.
       In high city buildings the ladder truck is just as important as the pump truck.
Fire fighters raise ladders and throw them against the buildings. They may reach as
high as ten stories. Fire fighters can climb the ladder and rescue people trapped far
above the street. People may be screaming from a window because the fire has
blocked the stairs. Or the fire fighters may find unconscious people. Often they have to
put these people over their shoulders and carry them down the ladders. This
over-the-shoulder way of carrying people is called "the fire fighter's carry".
      People may also be lowered to the ground with ropes. And as a last resort --if
there is no other way to save a trapped person--fire fighters may spread a net into
which the person can jump. This is a dangerous measure because even with a net, a
person can be badly hurt by a jump from a high window.

1. Fire fighters are compared to ________.
   A. soldiers                      B. generals
   C. friends                       D. enemies

2. The main idea of Paragraph 2 is ________.
  A. about how the fire chief works
  B. that the first hose line is extremely important
  C. how to fight a fire
  D. how to use water in fire fighting

3. In fire fighting, fighters take the following actions EXCEPT ________.
  A. stretching a hose line
  B. attaching a pump to a fire hydrant, and a long hose to the pump
  C. turning on pump
  D. rushing water into the pump

4. "The fire fighter's carry" means ________.
   A. the way of carrying people over one's shoulder
   B. the way of carrying hoses over one's shoulder
   C. the way of carrying fire fighting tools over one's shoulder
   D. the way of carrying ladders over one's shoulder

5. In saving people trapped in the building on fire, a net is used ________.
  A. as the best means
  B. if all other measures fail
  C. if there are no ropes
  D. whenever people are in danger

Passage 34
     He was "faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, able to
leap tall buildings in a single bound." He was the world's greatest superhero. When
Christopher Reeve was picked to play this role in films in 1977, audiences across the
country cheered with approval. Like superman, Christopher was dashing handsome,
and strong. Like Superman, he seemed nearly invincible. He skied, sailed, flew planes,
went scuba diving, rode horses, played tennis -- and did it all with skill and ease. No
one could imagine Christopher Reeve any other way.
     All that changed on May 27, 1995. Christopher was in Virginia with his wife,
Dana Morosini, and their young son, Will. He had entered a three-day horse riding
competition there. His horse, Eastern Express, appeared to be in fine shape. The
42-year-old Christopher looked equally fit and relaxed.
     The competition was going well for Christopher. He wasn't in the first place, but
he wasn't in the last, either. On his third obstacle in a two-mile jumping event,
however, the communication between horse and rider broke down somehow. Without
warning, Eastern Express stopped short, but Christopher kept going. He pitched
forward over the horse's head, landing on his own head -- not moving, not even
breathing.
     Christopher had broken his spinal cord near the base of his skull, resulting in
paralysis(瘫痪) from the neck down. He could not speak. He could not even breathe
on his own. At the time, doctors gave him only a 50-50 chance of surviving at all.
     Despair filled Christopher Reeve's heart. He thought perhaps it would be best if
he simply gave up. Dying seemed like the easiest and least painful thing to do. He
thought it might be best for his family, too. Then he saw his wife Dana standing next
to him, saying, "You're still you, and I love you."
     From that moment on, Christopher thought only about living. Gathering his
courage, he began to fight for his life. A few days later, Christopher underwent an
operation that helped restore some feeling to his upper body. Still, doctors emphasized
his limitations. He would never walk again. He would never even breathe again
without the aid of a respirator.
     Christopher set out to prove the doctors wrong. First of all, he wanted to breathe
on his own. Five months after the accident, he asked to be taken off the respirator. He
managed just 10 feeble breaths the next day. By the fourth day, he was able to breathe
seven minutes without assistance. After three months, he could sustain himself for 90
minutes at a time. By the end of 1995, he was able to go home.
     Soon after that, Christopher felt ready to face the world again. He had a message
to spread. He wanted to tell people that no matter what challenges they faced, they
shouldn't give up. Christopher began to make public appearances. He gave a
motivational speech in Toronto. He spoke at a Boston University graduation.
Wherever Christopher appeared, his speeches met with standing ovations -- and many
teary faces.
     Christopher also went back to work. Clearly he couldn't play the roles he'd
played in the past. Instead he turned to directing. His first film, In the Gloaming,
proved he had not lost his creative spark.
     Despite his brave attitude, Christopher has had his share of "down" times. In the
year following his accident, he had problems with blood clots. Later, he developed
pneumonia. One day while doing physical therapy(治疗), he fell to the floor and
broke his arm.
     Every day he struggled with the reality of his condition. "In the morning, I need
20 minutes to cry," he told a reporter. After nighttime dreams of running and playing
with his son, he needed the 20 minutes "to wake up and make that shift…"
     But after the tears, Christopher always whispered, "And now, forward!" With
those words, Christopher Reeve proved that although he had lost control of his body,
he still had his courage, his spirit, and his inner strength. In that sense, he still was --
and always would be -- superman!

1. From the first Paragraph we can learn that Christopher was ______.
   A. a superman
   B. a film actor
   C. a diver
   D. a rider

2. Which of the following is true of Christopher?
   A. He won the competition and felt excited.
  B. He stayed with his wife and son all the time.
  C. He finally jumped over the third obstacle.
  D. He fell off the horse and was injured.

3. Shortly after Christopher was operated on, ______.
   A. he recovered quickly and went home
   B. he still had some difficulty in breathing
   C. he fell down and broke his arm
   D. his chances of surviving were still slim

4. What did Christopher do after he returned to work?
   A. He taught at Boston University.
   B. He played the roles as he did in the past.
   C. He began to make public speeches.
   D. He set about directing films.

5. What can be inferred from the passage?
   A. It was his wife who gave him courage to go on living.
   B. He picked up his courage and underwent another operation.
  C. Five months after the accident he could breathe on his own.
  D. His horse, Eastern Express, helped him a lot in the competition.

Passage 35
 I was a chubby kid who grew into an overweight adult. I was constantly teased(嘲
笑) for being heavier than the other kids. Leaving me feeling shy and self-conscious. I
tried several diets, but none worked, and I ended up gaining weight. Another factor
contributing to my weight gain was my love for cooking, especially rich, high-fat
desserts, which I enjoyed preparing and, of course, eating.
     When I finished high school at age 18, I weighed 215 pounds. Lacking the
self-confidence to go to a new, faraway school, I decided to stay close to home instead
of going away to college. I continued with my unhealthful eating habits and felt more
miserable as the weight came on, but I did nothing about it except buy larger plus-size
clothes.
     My turning point came 10 years later at a friend's New Year's Eve party when I
was at my all-time highest weight of 330 pounds. I caught my reflection in the mirror
and the truth hit me: I was overweight and unhealthy, and unless I did something
about it now, I would only get bigger and unhappier.
     After leaving the party, I thought about my past weight-loss efforts and realized
they didn't work because they required me to give up foods I loved. Then I would
constantly think about food and giving up the diet altogether. If I took a
common-sense approach and ate smaller portions of all foods, I would be able to
satisfy my hunger and not feel deprived(被剥夺).
     My biggest challenge was finding a way to fit my passion for cooking into my
healthier lifestyle. At first, I tried to stay away from the kitchen to prevent myself
from thinking about food. The result: Food was all I thought about. There had to be
some way to combine cooking with healthful eating. I found the solution after reading
several low-fat cookbooks. With some trial and error, I could modify my favorite
foods and make them low in fat, yet delicious.
     The pounds started coming off, and when I started exercising (usually cardio and
weight training five times a week), they seemed to melt away. I didn't feel deprived,
and I felt free to give my body the care and attention it deserved.
     I lost 165 pounds over the next two years. I had many ups and downs -- including
        (
plateaux 进步、      发展的 停滞阶段) -- But I was determined to stay on track. Another
challenge to me was not to beat myself up if I ate something that was unhealthy and to
take it as a sign to give up my healthful habits. Instead, I vowed to start again and
always keep my goal in mind.
     Thanks to losing weight and becoming fit I am in tune with my body and myself.
My dream is to help others realize the ease and benefits of low-fat cooking and eating.
I've created and published a book of low-fat recipes and run workshops and seminars
on healthful eating. Now that I know what I can achieve when I set my mind to it, my
dreams are no longer out of reach. I have finally found myself.
Workout Schedule
Running, stair climbing, step aerobics or kickboxing: 60 minutes/5 times a week
Weight training: 30 minutes/3 times a week
Maintenance Tips
·make exercise a priority. After you work out, you'll be more inclined to eat
healthfully.
·You don't have to miss out on enjoying your favorite foods to lose weight. Just enjoy
them in smaller portions.
·Don't beat yourself up if you slip. Get back to your regular exercise and eating
program as soon as you can and forgive yourself.
Have you recently made fitness a priority?

1. What factors contributed to the narrator's failure in losing her weight at first?
A A. Her unhealthy lifestyle and passion for cooking.
    B. Her improper cooking and unhealthy eating habits.
    C. Her unwillingness to abandon low-fat desserts.
    D. Her laziness in starting exercising.

2. What did the narrator do as she kept on gaining weight?
   A. She decided to stay away from home.
   B. She tried a few low-fat diets.
   C. She bought herself clothes of larger sizes.
   D. She could do nothing except that she felt deprived.

3. The narrator's story tells us that ______.
    A. trial and error is important in learning cooking
    B. it is important to have a balanced diet
    C. cooking by oneself will make one healthy
   D. reading cookbooks will help to build up a good eating habit

4. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
     A. She didn't attend the New Year's Eve party because of her weight.
     B. Her dream of becoming a beautiful girl came true after she lost weight.
     C. She missed opportunity to attend college because of her self-consciousness.
     D. She didn't seriously consider losing her weight until she realized how fat she
   was.
5. It can be concluded from the passage that ______.
   A.   it is important to have some maintenance tips in order to keep fit
   B.   one will live a healthy life if one cooks every day
   C.   improper eating habits lead to gaining weight easily
   D.   one will feel deprived if one fails to give attention to one's body
Passage 36
     SQ3R is abbreviated (缩写)in the modern fashion to make it easier to
remember and to make reference to it simpler. The symbols (SQ3R ) stand for the
steps which the student follows in using the method; a description of each of these
steps is given below:
Survey1. Glance over the headings in the chapter to see the few big points which
will be developed. This survey should not take more than a minute and will show the
three to six central ideas around which the rest of the chapter will cluster. If the chapter
has a final summary paragraph, this will also list the ideas developed in the chapter.
This survey will help you organize the ideas as you read them later.
Question 2. Now begin to work. Turn the first heading into a question. It will bring to
mind information already known, thus helping you to understand that section more
quickly. And the question will make important points stand out. Turning the heading
into a question can be done on the instant of reading the heading, but it demands a
         (
conscious 有意识的,        自觉的)    effort on the part of the reader to make this question for
which he must read to find the answer.
Read 3. Read to answer that question. This is not a passive(被动的,消极的确)
plowing along each line but an active search for the answer.
Recite 4. Having read the first section, look away from the book and try briefly to
recite the answer to your question. Use your own words and name an example. If you
can do this, you know what is in the book; if you can't, glance over the section again.
An excellent way to do this reciting from memory is to write down key phrases in
outline form on a sheet of paper. Make these notes very brief!
     Now repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 on each succeeding headed section. That is, turn the
next heading into a question, read to answer that question and recite the answer by
writing down key phrases in your outline. Read in this way until the entire lesson is
complete.
Review 5. When the lesson has thus been read through, look over your notes and get a
general view of the points and of their relationship and check your memory as to the
content by reciting on the major sub-points under each heading.
     These five steps of the SQ3R Method--Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and
Review should result in the student reading faster, picking out the important points,
and fixing them in memory.
1. The passage is mainly about ________.
  A. the steps for higher-level reading
   B. the steps for referring to materials
   C. the steps for remembering
   D. the steps for picking out important points from reading
2. The purpose of "survey" is ________.
   A. to find the headings of a chapter
   B. to pick out central ideas of a chapter
   C. to develop the central ideas of a chapter
   D. to cluster ideas around the headings in a chapter


3. For a good reader, reading is a process ________.
   A. of pouring information into his mind
  B. of making some effort to get at the answer he is searching for
  C. that can be compared to preparing farmland for growing grain
  D. that can be compared to working out problems in maths


4. The author suggests that after reading each section, the reader ________.
   A. look away from the book to have a rest
   B. go on to the next section until the end of the chapter
   C. retell in his own words what he has read
   D. try to give a brief answer to the question he asked while reading the heading.


5. The SQ3R Method should bring about the following results EXCEPT ________.
    A. increasing reading speed
    B. finding out the main points
    C. fixing every sub-point in memory
    D. keeping the important points in memory

Passage 37
     There have been many great inventions, things that changed the way we live.
The first great invention was one that is still very important today… the wheel. This
made it easier to carry heavy things and to travel long distances.
     For hundreds of years after that there were few inventions that had as much effect
as the wheel. Then in the early 1800's the world started to change. There was little
unknown land left in the world. People didn't have to explore much anymore. They
began to work instead to make life better.
      In the second half of the 19th century many inventions were made. Among them
were the camera, the electric light and the radio. These all became a big part of our life
today.
     The first part of the 20th century saw more great inventions. The helicopter in
1909. Sound movies in 1926. The computer in 1928. And jet planes in 1930. This was
also a time when a new material was first made. Nylon came out in 1935. It changed
the kind of clothes people wear.
     The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over
diseases. They worked very well. They made people healthier and let them live long
lives. By the 1960's most people could expect to live to be at least 60.
     By this time most people had a very good life. Of course new inventions
continued to be made. But man now had a desire to explore again. The world is known
to man but the stars are not yet. Man began looking for ways to go into space. Russia
made the first step. Then the United States took a step. Since then other countries,
including China and Japan, have made their steps into space.
     In 1969 man took his biggest step away from earth. Americans first walked on the
moon. This is certainly just beginning though. New inventions will someday allow us
to do things we have never yet dreamed of.

1.__________inventions had had as much effect as the wheel before the 19th century.
  A. Quite a number of
  B Some
  C Few
  D Many other


2. Nylon came out nearly at the same time as __________.
   A. the radio

  B the camera

  C jet planes

  D the movies


3. People can live longer lives because __________ to help people cure diseases
   have worked very well.
   A. doctors

  B new methods

  C medicines

  D new hospitals



4. By the 1960's ______________.
   A. people knew everything about the world
   B. people could live longer.
  C. only the moon was still unknown
  D. the world as a whole was known to man


5. We can safely come to the conclusion that people's lives will be made even
    better through ______________.
    A. new discoveries
    B. greater inventions
    C. better ways to help get over disease
   D. all of the above

Passage 38
     Early in the 16th century men were trying to reach Asia by traveling west from
Europe. In order to find Asia they had to find a way past South America. The man who
eventually found the way from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific was Ferdinand
Magellan.
    Magellan sailed from Seville in August 1519 with five ships and about 280 men.
Fourteen months later, after spending the severe winter on the coast of Patagonia, he
discovered the channel, which is now called Magellan's Strait. In November 1520,
after many months of dangers from rocks and storms, the three remaining ships
entered the ocean on the other side of South America.
     They then continued, hoping to reach Asia. But they did not see any land until
they reached the islands off the coast of Asia. Before they arrived at these islands, later
known as the Philippines, men were dying of starvation. While they were staying in
the Philippines, Magellan was killed in battle. The remaining officers then had to get
back to Spain. They decided to sail round Africa. After many difficulties, one ship with
eighteen men sailed into Seville three years after leaving. They were all that remained
of Magellan's expectation. However, their achievement was great. They were the first
men to sail round the world.

1 .The purpose of Magellan's expectation was ______.
    A. To sail round the world
    B. To find navigation lane from the Atlantic to the Pacific
    C. To make a voyage to Asia
    D. To carry them to Philippines


2.The time Magellan Strait was discovered was ______.
   A. in August 1519
   B. in October 1520
   C. in November 1520
   D. not mentioned


3. The number of the ships lost on the whole expedition was ______.
    A. two
    B. three
    C. four
    D. five


4.Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage concerning the expedition ?
   A.   Lack of navigation equipment.
   B.   Sever winter in Patagonia.
   C.   The death of Magellan.
   D.   Dangers from rocks and storms.


5. The best title for this passage is ______.
    A. The discovery of Magellan's Strait
    B. The Discovery of the Philippines
   C. The Most Dangerous Expedition in Navigation
   D. The First Expedition to Asia

Passage 39
   Many people are frightened by spiders. They are especially afraid of large, hairy
ones. The largest and most frightening of all spiders is the bird-eating spider, which
lives in the hot, thick rain forests of northern South America.
   Bird-eating spiders are a type of tarantula(狼蛛). They are very hairy. Some of
these giant spiders can spread eighteen centimeters (seven inches) with their legs.
Tarantulas are not, as most people think, poisonous spiders. They can bite, and the
bite is painful, but it will not kill a grown-up. The poisonous bite of a black widow
spider is far more dangerous.
   Bird-eating spiders often hide in holes and under rocks during the day, but at night
they creep out and hunt for insects. As you might guess from their name, they also
catch birds and eat them.
   They have another unusual ability. They can walk up windowpanes(窗玻璃)
because of sticky, silky hairs on their feet that cling to glass.

1. The bird-eating spider can be described as _______________.
    A. a very hairy spider.
    B. a very frightening spider.
    C. the largest of spiders.
    D. All of the above.

2. This spider lives where the climate is _____________________.
   A.   wet and hot .
   B.   cool and dry.
   C.   hot and dry.
   D.   cool and wet.

3. Bird-eating spiders hunt ________________.
    A. during the day.
    B. at night.
    C. at dawn.
    D. both A&B.

4. According to the story, bird-eating spiders ______________.
    A. can catch birds and eat them.
    B. can walk up windowpanes.
    C. can give a person a painful bite.
    D. all of the above.

5. Implied but not stated_______________________.
    A. The bird-eating spider is unable to climb well.
    B. The bird-eating spider likes to stay in trees.
    C. The bird-eating spider can be found in many parts of the world.
    D. One can hardly see a bird-eating spider during the day.

Passage 40
     Our environment is getting worse and worse with the increase of the world
population, which affects the environment in two ways. Firstly, the limited energy
resources will be used up much faster. Secondly, the increasing population creates
more pollution, another severe problem that needs to be solved. Both problems are
long-term ones because actions taken now show their results slowly over many years.
They are also urgent because delays in action can lead to great suffering and social
problems. The question seems to be difficult to handle for most people. However, a
person can be a protector of environment in everyday life if he takes actions to save
the environment right now.
     With the development of technology, cars make transportation easier and quicker
than before, but we can’t ignore the disadvantages brought to us by more and more
cars in use. For example, we are consuming gasoline, which is a non-renewable
resource, and will soon be gone. Moreover, the exhausted gas from cars pollutes our
air, and our health is therefore threatened by air pollution, which has a big potential
effect on our daily life. So we can consider walking, taking buses, carpooling(合用汽
车), instead of driving cars alone. This seems to be a very slow process that can’t be
so effective if it’s taken by a single person. But when more and more people become
aware of the importance and positively take it as their personal responsibilities, the
condition of the air will be improved to a great extent.
1. According to the writer, the main problem to our environment today is _________.
  A. the increase of population
  B. the limited energy resources
  C. the more serious air pollution
   D. the development of technology

2. From the passage, we can know that___________.
   A. effective measures can be taken mainly by the government
   B. taking measures now can soon improve the environment
  C. immediate measures can cause great suffering and social problems
   D. every single person’s action has some effect on environment protection

3. The author’s main purpose in writing this passage is most probably
  to____________.
  A. complain about people’s slow actions to protect the environment
  B. advise people to take actions to protect the environment
  C. show himself to be an active environment protector
  D. point out the bad effects of technologies in protecting environment

4. The author believes that carpooling___________.
  A. can give help to those without cars
  B. can save people money and time
  C. can save energy resources and reduce air pollution
  D. can promote friendship among drivers

5. The passage is mainly about____________.
  A. energy resources saving
  B. environment protection
  C. population control
  D. air pollution
Passage1:C C B B D
Passage2: C B C A D
Passage3:A A C D D
Passage4: C D C B A
Passage5: D B C C A
Passage6: D C D B C
Passage7: C B C D A
Passage8: B A C D D
Passage9: A D B C B
Passage10: D A C A B
Passage11: A B D A B
Passage12: D C C B C
Passage13: A D B C B
Passage14: C A C A D
Passage15: D A C D A
Passage16: D B C B D
Passage17: D B A C D
Passage18: B C C A D
Passage19: B D D C A
Passage20: C D A C C
Passage21: C D A B C
Passage22: B B C B C
Passage23: A D D C C
Passage24: D A B A D
Passage25: C B A C A
Passage26: B A C D A
Passage27: D A B B C
Passage28: B D D A C
Passage29: A D C B B
Passage30: C D B A B
Passage31: A B C B B
Passage32: A D A D D
Passage33: A C D A B
Passage34: B D D D A
Passage35: A C B D D
Passage36: A B B D C
Passage37: C C B B D
Passage38: C B C A D
Passage39: D A B D D
Passage40: A D B C B

				
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