NFPA 1407 RITP rogram2011 by 532hW6

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									Rapid Intervention
 Crew Training
NFPA 1407 Standard for Fire Service
    Rapid Intervention Crews
   The Influence of Tragedy

“There is no greater influence of change in the
  Fire Service than the line-of-duty death of a
Yet, there is no greater tragedy than that of a
  fallen firefighter whose death prompted the
  passage of a safety policy which may have
  prevented his or her own death.”
                           Theodore Lee Jarboe
   The purpose of this training program is to create
    a highly disciplined operational capability to
    rescue firefighters who become lost, injured,
    trapped, incapacitated, or disoriented at an
    emergency scene or during training.
    Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
   A dedicated crew of firefighters who are
    assigned for rapid deployment to rescue lost or
    trapped members.
   Should consist of at least two (2) personnel on
    the initial attack (two–out)
   Augmented with additional personnel as soon as
    possible (full RIT).
   One member of the RIT should be designated
    as the RIT officer.
    Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
   Multiple RIT teams should be organized as the
    incident’s magnitude and complexity requires

   Although the primary focus of RIT is structure
    fires, all incidents where SCBA, SABA, or
    SCUBA are required should have a RIT in place.
                Multiple RIT’s
   Large structures and commercial buildings are
    particularly hazardous
   RIT size-up is more time consuming
   Deployment may be delayed due to time needed
    to reach entry point
   Too much area to search for one team
   Consider use of multiple teams, staged by sector
   Phoenix “on-deck” concept
           Applicable Standards
   Required by NFPA 1500, 1561, & 1710

   OSHA 2 in/2 out legislation

   NFPA 1407 is RIT training standard
    OSHA 2 in / 2 out Compliance
   A Rapid Intervention Team should fulfill the
    requirements as specified in the 29 CFR Part 1910.134
       A minimum of four individuals is required before entry into
        the hazard area (interior operations) may begin
            Two of the four must be present and ready outside the hazard area
            Must be identically equipped
       Crews in hazard area must remain in either voice, visual or
        tethered contact with each other at all times
            Radio may not be substituted for direct visual contact

Risk Assessment &
Risk Management
Firefighter Fatalities
              Firefighter Fatalities
   87 firefighters died while on duty in 2010
       Includes 15 Hometown Heroes
   Second consecutive year of substantially fewer
    firefighter deaths in the U.S.
       Lowest total in 34 years
   During 2004–2009, the average number of
    annual on duty firefighter deaths was 112
        Multiple Firefighter Fatality
   There were 4 incidents where 2 firefighters were
    killed in 2010
     Bridgeport, CT (residential structure fire)
     Blowing Rock, NC (vehicle accident)

     Rocky Mount, VA (vehicle accident)

     Chicago, IL (commercial structure fire)
Firefighter Fatalities - Type of Duty, 2010
Fireground Fatalities
    Structural Firefighting Deaths by
        Fixed Property Use - 2010

   Residential   8
   Commercial    6
              Training Fatalities
   In 2010, 12 firefighters died during training
     7 heart attacks
     2 CVA

     1 necrotizing fasciitis

     2 in a MVA
Cause of Fatal Injury
Fireground Fatalities

          Contributing factors
            Accountability
            Hotter Fires/Rapid Growth
            Deteriorating/Vacant
            Lightweight Construction
            Interior Furnishings
            PPE
            Health/Fitness/Combat
                                                Case Study
   A Career Lieutenant and a Career Fire Fighter Found Unresponsive at a
    Residential Structure Fire – Connecticut
                 Bridgeport, CT
   On July 24, 2010, a 40-year-old male career lieutenant
    (Victim #1) and a 49-year-old male career fire fighter
    (Victim #2) were found unresponsive at a residential
    structure fire.
   The victims and two additional crew members were
    tasked with conducting a primary search for civilians
    and fire extension on the 3rd floor of a multifamily
    residential structure.
   The fire had been extinguished on the 2nd floor upon
    their entry into the structure. While pulling walls and
    the ceiling on the 3rd floor, smoke and heat conditions
    changed rapidly. Victim #1 transmitted a Mayday
    (audibly under duress) that was not acknowledged or
    acted upon.
                Bridgeport, CT
   Minutes later the incident commander ordered an
    evacuation of the 3rd floor.
   As a fire fighter exited the 3rd floor, Victim #1
    was discovered unconscious and not breathing,
    sitting on the stairs to the 3rd floor. Approximately
    7 minutes later, Victim #2 was discovered on the
    3rd floor in thick, black smoke conditions.
   Both victims were removed by the rapid
    intervention team (RIT) and other fire fighters
    who assisted them. Both victims were pronounced
    dead at local hospitals.
Approximately 1608 hrs
Approximately 1616 hrs, victim 1 found.
Mayday called for victim
   1, RIC deployed.
Approximate time victim 2 was found
Bridgeport - Contributing factors
   Failure to effectively monitor and respond to Mayday
   Less than effective Mayday procedures and training
   Inadequate air management
   Removal and/or dislodgement of SCBA facepiece
   Incident safety officer and rapid intervention team not
    readily available on scene
   Possible underlying medical condition(s) (coronary
    artery disease)
   Command, control, and accountability.
      NIOSH Recommendations
   Ensure that radio transmissions are effectively
    monitored and quickly acted upon, especially
    when a Mayday is called
   Ensure that Mayday training program(s) and
    department procedures adequately prepare fire
    fighters to call a Mayday
   Train fire fighters in air management techniques
    to ensure they receive the maximum benefit
    from their SCBA
   Ensure that fire fighters use their SCBA during
    all stages of a fire and are trained in SCBA
    emergency procedures
       NIOSH Recommendations
   Ensure that a separate incident safety officer
    (ISO), independent from the incident
    commander, is appointed at each structure fire
    with the initial dispatch
   Ensure that a rapid intervention team (RIT) is
    readily available and prepared to respond to
    firefighter emergencies
   Consider adopting a comprehensive wellness
    and fitness program, provide annual medical
    evaluations consistent with NFPA standards,
    and perform annual physical performance
    (physical ability) evaluations for all fire fighters.
        Other Notable Incidents
   Hackensack, NJ      Memphis, TN
   Phoenix, AZ         Houston, TX
   Pittsburgh, PA      New York, NY
   Keokuk, IA          Denver, CO
   Worcester, MA       Columbus, OH
           Fireground Fatalities
   Many are “routine” fires

   Several things went wrong

   Common factors involved
              Firefighter Fatalities
   Common Factors
       Failure to read building
         Lack of or incomplete size-up
         Lack of knowing building construction
         Failure to read fire behavior

Dangerous Fireground Actions &
   Conditions
       Cellar fires

       Unvented interior fires

       Limited access/exit situations   PG County, MD

       Roof structures that fail suddenly

Dangerous Fireground Actions &
   Actions
       Crews operating above fire
       Search Operations
       Advancing attack lines
       Ventilation

                                      San Francisco, CA

                 Risk Reduction
   Basic Firefighting Skills
     Stay out of trouble
     Reinforce through regular drills
         “Back to Basics”
         Buddy system/team integrity

         Following hoselines

         Rapid room orientation

         SCBA familiarization & emergency procedures
                Risk Reduction
   PASS devices
     Practice manual activation
     Need to be diligent in preventing accidental
     We have become complacent (car alarms)

     Activation should be treated as an emergency
                 Risk Reduction
   Exiting with a hoseline
     Needs to be done quickly
     Firefighters need to practice with gloves on, no
      visibility, tangled hose, and varying obstructions
   Operating without a hoseline
     High risk – should be avoided
     Sometimes necessary (search, truck work)

     Consider use of search rope

     Maintain wall contact & room orientation
          Locate a hose-line

Locate Hose


                            Follow Hose Out
                  Risk Reduction
   Emergency Breathing Techniques
     Should be practiced annually
     1000 lb drill

     Work course

   Air Management
       NFPA 1404
         Requires personnel to exit prior to low air alarm
         Low air alarm is immediate action item
  Activation and
Management of RIT
            Dispatch Procedures
   When should a Rapid
    Intervention Team be
    dispatched and who
    should staff it?

           Dispatch Procedures

   What is department policy for initiating a
    firefighter emergency?

   What is department policy for staffing RIT?
   Rapid Intervention Teams should have a
    common name within the response or mutual
    aid district.

     RIT
     RIC

     FAST

   Declaring a Firefighter Emergency
       What word or phrase is used to initiate a RIT

       What information should be included in the
        emergency communication?
          LUNAR
          CAN
    Declaring a Firefighter Emergency
   Initiated when a firefighter has:
       Become tangled or stuck for more than 60 seconds
       Fallen through a roof or floor
       Been caught in a flashover
       Has become lost
       Had primary exit blocked with no secondary exit within 30
       Had low air alarm activate with no exit within 30 seconds
       Experienced a failure of an SCBA
       Been unable to locate an exit within 60 seconds
         Mayday Transmissions
   Review audio

   “Engine 1 to command…MAYDAY,
    MAYDAY, MAYDAY…We are running low on
    air and cannot find our way out…I believe we
    are on the second floor, possibly quadrant D-
    David...I have a crew of two.”
   If a mayday is transmitted
     IC needs to swiftly deploy RIT
     Other units limit radio traffic

     Consider dedicated communications
          Victims, RIT, ISO on fireground channel
          All others switch to a different channel

          IC monitors both

       Request additional alarm assignment & RIT
  Accountability &
Resource Management
   Minimum of 4 firefighters
   Experienced firefighters
     RIC Members – NFPA 1001 Standard for
      Firefighter Professional Qualifications
     RIC Leader – NFPA 1021 Standard for Fire Officer
      Professional Qualifications
   Think about it: “Who would you want coming
    in after you?”

   Team members should have a wide variety of
       Forcible Entry                 Collapse Rescue
       Search & Rescue                Rope/Rigging
       Pump Operations                Vehicle Rescue
       Ladder Placement               Survival Training
            Aerial devices            Advanced Search
            Ground ladders             Procedures
       Master Stream Operations       Special Tools
       Hoseline placement
   The team must train on a regular basis to instill
    teamwork and proficiency.
   Team members must be in good health and
    physically fit.
       NFPA 1500 Chapter 10
   Team members must be proficient in the use of
    power and hand tools.
   RIT officers must be thoroughly trained in all
    aspects of RIT operations.
           Tools & Equipment
   Each member of the RIT should be equipped with:
                            Full PPE, SCBA, & PASS
                            Portable radio
                            Personal flashlight
                            Personal rope
                            Knife
                            Trauma shears, wire cutters, etc.
                            Door chocks
                            Forcible entry tool
   Personal Equipment

Suggested Equipment for Self-Survival
   In addition, crew should have or have access to:
       Ropes (search, life safety, & webbing)
       Rescue air supply
       Thermal imager
       Ground ladders & attic ladder
       Rabbet tool
       Stokes basket
       Power saws
       Forcible entry tools
       Charged hoseline
(Wood Frame, Residential)
(Noncombustible, Commercial)
          Additional Equipment
   Should be available:
     Hydraulic rescue tools
     Air bags

     Cribbing

     Rope rescue equipment for hauling/lowering
     Shoring equipment

     Air struts
Integration of Firefighter
 Rescue Operations into
         the ICS
Criteria for Deploying RIT Crews &
   Declared mayday

   Personnel unaccounted for

   Serious fireground event
     Command of RIT Operations
   An IC or Ops section leader will not be able to
    effectively manage an incident and a firefighter
    rescue simultaneously
       Incident must be broken down into more
        manageable pieces
          Branches
          Divisions/groups
Sample RIT ICS for Complex
            RIT- Basic Concepts
             Command Notes

   Review Tactical

       Initial Fire Scene Operations

   Upon arrival, position
    apparatus away from
    immediate area
   Gather RIT tools, report to
    command for orders
   Verify chain of command
   Confirm radio channel for
    fireground operations
   Get/review pre-plan
     Initial Fire Scene Operations
   Establish staging area for RIT tools
     Outside collapse zone
     View of 2 sides

   All members complete 360 & size-up
       Repeated frequently by at least 1 member
   Constantly monitor interior fire conditions
     Track the location and progress of the fire
     Read smoke
        RIT Size-up Considerations
   Occupancy
   Construction type; roof construction
   Size of building; number of floors
   Access/egress points
       Hazards, burglar bars
   Collapse potential
   Rapid fire progress potential
   Location and experience level of interior crews
   SCBA type and bottle size in use (mutual aid)
      RIT Size-up Considerations
   Extent of fire development
   Contents and interior finish
   History of previous fires
   Location of stairwells and elevators
   Presence of basement and access
   Water supply
   Weather conditions and temperature
   Any overall hazard or relevant details
                RIT Size-Up
   Show video(s)
                The RIT Officer
   Consider the extent of the fire and the progress
    being made in controlling the fire.
     How successful is the attack?
     Could the situation deteriorate?

     Are there signs that it is deteriorating and that the
      offensive strategy may soon change to a defensive
     How long has the incident been underway?
                The RIT Officer
   Closely monitor radio traffic for clues to the
    interior conditions
     calm, efficient transmissions may indicate a
      controlled environment
     raised voices, low air alarm, pass alarm sounding
      during transmission, and excited, chaotic traffic may
      indicate a deteriorating interior situation.
                   The RIT Officer
   Monitor location and activities of
    interior crews
   Look for signs of collapse
       Bulging walls, sinking roof
   Check with and brief members of the
    RIT on conditions found,
    information received, observations
    made, and hazards identified.
   Communicate with other RIT
    members who have conducted their
    own size-ups.
   Report findings to IC & ISO
               RIC Water Supply
   If a hoseline is needed, use an engine that is not
    supplying primary attack lines
     Many maydays are due to water problems
     Primary attack engine may have mechanical or
      operator issues
   Hoseline may limit RIT speed & efficiency
       However, access to victims may not be possible
        without it
             RIC Water Supply
   When is the time to think about this?

   Whenever practical, get a dedicated engine to
    support RIC functions

   If interior crews lose water the RIC should be
    able to advance on the fire and protect the
    interior crews until egress is possible
       Rapid Intervention Teams
             Command Notes
   The RIT team should not be put to work for
    firefighting or relief purposes.
   When a RIT team is deployed for firefighter
    search/rescue, another team must be dispatched
   If the need for rescue is diminished, the RIT
    may be assigned to other tasks.
       Upon Locating Firefighter
   Reset victim’s PASS device
   Assess breathing and circulatory functions
   Check air supply and SCBA integrity
   Check for entanglements
   Remove the victim
            The ABC’s of RIT
   Air supply?
   Breathing?
   Conscious?
   Disability?
   Entrapment?
        Upon Locating Firefighter
   Survival is dependent on 2 factors:
     Time
     Air

   It is critical that RIT deploys, enters, and
    searches as quickly as possible
   The sooner that air can be supplied the better
   Establish redundant air supply
   Create a defendable space
       Upon Locating Firefighter
   Aggressive ventilation in the area and along the
    route of travel is essential

   Existing tactical assignments need to be
               Victim Removal
   Effective and efficient removal is a key objective
   Ropes/mechanical advantage systems may be
    useful, but take time and expertise
   In other cases brute strength will be best option
   Either way, convert victim’s SCBA to harness
   Each situation will be unique
   Practice the basics
    Protecting a Firefighter in Place
   If victim is conscious and access is a problem
    (floor below, collapse, debris), consider giving
    victim a hoseline
   If victim is unconscious consider fog application
    or cellar nozzle
    Protecting a Firefighter in Place

   A trapped firefighter’s life depends on four
    items. Use the following acronym:

   AWARE - Air, Water, A Radio, and Extrication
   The first two items, Air and Water, are most
   Air - Provide the victim with redundant air
   Water - Create a defendable space
   These two items alone could allow for several
    hours of extrication time
               AWARE – Air Needs
   Each department has its
    own resources
   Some sources of spare
    SCBA include:
       Driver/Operator’s SCBA
        from a pumping engine
       SCBA from command
        vehicle/chief’s car
       An SCBA off a firefighter’s
          AWARE – Water Needs
   If victim is conscious
    and access is a problem
    (floor below, collapse,
    debris), consider giving
    victim a hoseline
   If victim is unconscious
    consider fog application
    or cellar nozzle
   The idea is to create a
    defendable space around
    the victim, then fortify
   A Radio- Ensure that victim has one on
    dedicated channel for a trapped firefighter’s sole
     It’s quick and easy
     Victim’s LOC and needs can be assessed

     You’ll know if he/she self-rescues

     The victim won’t be competing for air time
   Extrication- It’s impossible
    to cover every potential
    encumbrance. The key is
    to remember that if you’ve
    built the survivable
    environment described
    above, you’ll have more
    time to acquire the
    necessary equipment,
    remove the encumbrance,
    and save your firefighter.
Rescue vs. Recovery
          Consider the potential
           impact of RIT operations
           on the safety of rescuers
           and incident activities
          Consider the immediate
           psychological stresses on
           rescue personnel
RIT Skills
                   RIT Skills
   Declaring a firefighter emergency
   Search techniques
   Access and extrication
   Air supply
   Ropes
   Protecting downed firefighters in place
   Moving downed firefighters to safety
   Firefighter self-rescue techniques
         Declaring a fire fighter
   Declaration of emergency (the word or phrase
    to initiate an emergency response by an RIC)
   Unit/Name – Situation – Location – Intention –
    PAR (the nature of the emergency and
          Search Techniques
 Searching with ropes
 Searching in an area with limited egress

 Searching with thermal imager
     Thermal Imager Advantages
   Size-Up
   Accountability
   Rapid Location of Firefighter
   Directing Operations
   Monitoring Conditions
   Searching for Egress
   Removal of Firefighter
           Access and extrication
   Breach of barriers (walls, ceilings, floors)
   SCBA profile reduction drill
   Recognizing entanglement hazards
   Disentanglement
   Extrication from debris
                  Air supply
   Reposition or replace SCBA face piece on
    downed fire fighter
   Replace mask-mounted regulator on downed
    fire fighter
   Utilizing the RIC-UAC, where available
   Replace air supply to a downed fire fighter
   Alternate rescue air supply sources
        Ropes, Slings, Harnesses
   The use of search ropes, slings, and harnesses
   The use of mechanical advantage rope systems
    for rescue of fire fighters
   The use of rescue knots
   The use of any equipment or rescue tactics
    required by the AHJ
Protecting downed fire fighter(s)
       in place - AWARE
   Provide and maintain a continuous air supply
   Provide protective hose line(s)
   Secure a dedicated communications channel
    (talk group) for rescue operations
   Continuously monitor conditions that may
    affect the rescue operations
    Moving downed fire fighter(s)
             to safety
   Using basic drags, lifts, and carries (blankets,
    webbing/rope, push-pull & simple pulley
   Moving a downed fire fighter up and down
   Utilizing a rescue basket or rescue boards
   Moving a downed fire fighter over a ladder
    (conscious assist & unconscious carry)
    Moving downed fire fighter(s)
             to safety
   Moving a downed fire fighter through a window
    (ground level & upper levels)
   Moving a downed fire fighter from below the
    area of operations (through floor)
   Moving a downed fire fighter in an attic space
   Moving a downed fire fighter from below grade
   Moving a downed fire fighter through an
    elevated (restricted size) window in a room with
    limited space for crew movement
           Fire fighter self-rescue
   Recognizing situations under which rapid intervention
    is required for rescue and required techniques for
    calling for assistance
   Freeing self from entanglement
   Rapid room orientation and exit, including awareness
    of primary and secondary exits from room.
   Individual Air management
   Escape techniques for elevated emergency egress as
    approved by the AHJ
Required Performance for Rapid
   Intervention Crews (RIC)
   Locate, Assess and Remove a Downed Firefighter
   Remove a Downed Firefighter up a Flight of Stairs
   Remove a Downed Firefighter from 1st Floor
   Remove a Downed Firefighter from a 2nd Floor
   Remove a Downed Firefighter from a Hole in the
    Rapid Intervention Team Skills
   Many of these specialized techniques have been
    developed because:

           A Firefighter Died.

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