"NFPA 1407 RITP rogram2011"
Rapid Intervention Crew Training NFPA 1407 Standard for Fire Service Rapid Intervention Crews The Influence of Tragedy “There is no greater influence of change in the Fire Service than the line-of-duty death of a firefighter. Yet, there is no greater tragedy than that of a fallen firefighter whose death prompted the passage of a safety policy which may have prevented his or her own death.” 2 Theodore Lee Jarboe Purpose The purpose of this training program is to create a highly disciplined operational capability to rescue firefighters who become lost, injured, trapped, incapacitated, or disoriented at an emergency scene or during training. Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) A dedicated crew of firefighters who are assigned for rapid deployment to rescue lost or trapped members. Should consist of at least two (2) personnel on the initial attack (two–out) Augmented with additional personnel as soon as possible (full RIT). One member of the RIT should be designated as the RIT officer. Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) Multiple RIT teams should be organized as the incident’s magnitude and complexity requires Although the primary focus of RIT is structure fires, all incidents where SCBA, SABA, or SCUBA are required should have a RIT in place. Multiple RIT’s Large structures and commercial buildings are particularly hazardous RIT size-up is more time consuming Deployment may be delayed due to time needed to reach entry point Too much area to search for one team Consider use of multiple teams, staged by sector Phoenix “on-deck” concept Applicable Standards Required by NFPA 1500, 1561, & 1710 OSHA 2 in/2 out legislation NFPA 1407 is RIT training standard OSHA 2 in / 2 out Compliance A Rapid Intervention Team should fulfill the requirements as specified in the 29 CFR Part 1910.134 regulation A minimum of four individuals is required before entry into the hazard area (interior operations) may begin Two of the four must be present and ready outside the hazard area Must be identically equipped Crews in hazard area must remain in either voice, visual or tethered contact with each other at all times Radio may not be substituted for direct visual contact 9 Risk Assessment & Risk Management Firefighter Fatalities Firefighter Fatalities 87 firefighters died while on duty in 2010 Includes 15 Hometown Heroes Second consecutive year of substantially fewer firefighter deaths in the U.S. Lowest total in 34 years During 2004–2009, the average number of annual on duty firefighter deaths was 112 Multiple Firefighter Fatality Incidents There were 4 incidents where 2 firefighters were killed in 2010 Bridgeport, CT (residential structure fire) Blowing Rock, NC (vehicle accident) Rocky Mount, VA (vehicle accident) Chicago, IL (commercial structure fire) Firefighter Fatalities - Type of Duty, 2010 Fireground Fatalities Structural Firefighting Deaths by Fixed Property Use - 2010 Residential 8 Commercial 6 Training Fatalities In 2010, 12 firefighters died during training 7 heart attacks 2 CVA 1 necrotizing fasciitis 2 in a MVA Cause of Fatal Injury Fireground Fatalities Contributing factors Accountability Hotter Fires/Rapid Growth Deteriorating/Vacant Buildings Lightweight Construction Interior Furnishings PPE Health/Fitness/Combat Readiness Case Study A Career Lieutenant and a Career Fire Fighter Found Unresponsive at a Residential Structure Fire – Connecticut Bridgeport, CT On July 24, 2010, a 40-year-old male career lieutenant (Victim #1) and a 49-year-old male career fire fighter (Victim #2) were found unresponsive at a residential structure fire. The victims and two additional crew members were tasked with conducting a primary search for civilians and fire extension on the 3rd floor of a multifamily residential structure. The fire had been extinguished on the 2nd floor upon their entry into the structure. While pulling walls and the ceiling on the 3rd floor, smoke and heat conditions changed rapidly. Victim #1 transmitted a Mayday (audibly under duress) that was not acknowledged or acted upon. Bridgeport, CT Minutes later the incident commander ordered an evacuation of the 3rd floor. As a fire fighter exited the 3rd floor, Victim #1 was discovered unconscious and not breathing, sitting on the stairs to the 3rd floor. Approximately 7 minutes later, Victim #2 was discovered on the 3rd floor in thick, black smoke conditions. Both victims were removed by the rapid intervention team (RIT) and other fire fighters who assisted them. Both victims were pronounced dead at local hospitals. Approximately 1608 hrs Approximately 1616 hrs, victim 1 found. Mayday called for victim 1, RIC deployed. Approximate time victim 2 was found Bridgeport - Contributing factors Failure to effectively monitor and respond to Mayday transmissions Less than effective Mayday procedures and training Inadequate air management Removal and/or dislodgement of SCBA facepiece Incident safety officer and rapid intervention team not readily available on scene Possible underlying medical condition(s) (coronary artery disease) Command, control, and accountability. NIOSH Recommendations Ensure that radio transmissions are effectively monitored and quickly acted upon, especially when a Mayday is called Ensure that Mayday training program(s) and department procedures adequately prepare fire fighters to call a Mayday Train fire fighters in air management techniques to ensure they receive the maximum benefit from their SCBA Ensure that fire fighters use their SCBA during all stages of a fire and are trained in SCBA emergency procedures NIOSH Recommendations Ensure that a separate incident safety officer (ISO), independent from the incident commander, is appointed at each structure fire with the initial dispatch Ensure that a rapid intervention team (RIT) is readily available and prepared to respond to firefighter emergencies Consider adopting a comprehensive wellness and fitness program, provide annual medical evaluations consistent with NFPA standards, and perform annual physical performance (physical ability) evaluations for all fire fighters. Other Notable Incidents Hackensack, NJ Memphis, TN Phoenix, AZ Houston, TX Pittsburgh, PA New York, NY Keokuk, IA Denver, CO Worcester, MA Columbus, OH Fireground Fatalities Many are “routine” fires Several things went wrong Common factors involved Firefighter Fatalities Common Factors Failure to read building Lack of or incomplete size-up Lack of knowing building construction Failure to read fire behavior 33 Dangerous Fireground Actions & Conditions Conditions Cellar fires Unvented interior fires Limited access/exit situations PG County, MD Roof structures that fail suddenly 34 Dangerous Fireground Actions & Conditions Actions Crews operating above fire Search Operations Advancing attack lines Ventilation San Francisco, CA 35 Risk Reduction Basic Firefighting Skills Stay out of trouble Reinforce through regular drills “Back to Basics” Buddy system/team integrity Following hoselines Rapid room orientation SCBA familiarization & emergency procedures Risk Reduction PASS devices Practice manual activation Need to be diligent in preventing accidental activations We have become complacent (car alarms) Activation should be treated as an emergency Risk Reduction Exiting with a hoseline Needs to be done quickly Firefighters need to practice with gloves on, no visibility, tangled hose, and varying obstructions Operating without a hoseline High risk – should be avoided Sometimes necessary (search, truck work) Consider use of search rope Maintain wall contact & room orientation Locate a hose-line Locate Hose Identify Male/Female Follow Hose Out Risk Reduction Emergency Breathing Techniques Should be practiced annually 1000 lb drill Work course Air Management NFPA 1404 Requires personnel to exit prior to low air alarm Low air alarm is immediate action item Activation and Management of RIT Operations Dispatch Procedures When should a Rapid Intervention Team be dispatched and who should staff it? 42 Dispatch Procedures What is department policy for initiating a firefighter emergency? What is department policy for staffing RIT? Communications Rapid Intervention Teams should have a common name within the response or mutual aid district. RIT RIC FAST Communications Declaring a Firefighter Emergency What word or phrase is used to initiate a RIT response? What information should be included in the emergency communication? LUNAR CAN Declaring a Firefighter Emergency Initiated when a firefighter has: Become tangled or stuck for more than 60 seconds Fallen through a roof or floor Been caught in a flashover Has become lost Had primary exit blocked with no secondary exit within 30 seconds Had low air alarm activate with no exit within 30 seconds Experienced a failure of an SCBA Been unable to locate an exit within 60 seconds Mayday Transmissions Review audio “Engine 1 to command…MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY…We are running low on air and cannot find our way out…I believe we are on the second floor, possibly quadrant D- David...I have a crew of two.” Communications If a mayday is transmitted IC needs to swiftly deploy RIT Other units limit radio traffic Consider dedicated communications Victims, RIT, ISO on fireground channel All others switch to a different channel IC monitors both Request additional alarm assignment & RIT Accountability & Resource Management Staffing Minimum of 4 firefighters Experienced firefighters RIC Members – NFPA 1001 Standard for Firefighter Professional Qualifications RIC Leader – NFPA 1021 Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications Think about it: “Who would you want coming in after you?” Training Team members should have a wide variety of training Forcible Entry Collapse Rescue Search & Rescue Rope/Rigging Pump Operations Vehicle Rescue Ladder Placement Survival Training Aerial devices Advanced Search Ground ladders Procedures Master Stream Operations Special Tools Hoseline placement Training The team must train on a regular basis to instill teamwork and proficiency. Team members must be in good health and physically fit. NFPA 1500 Chapter 10 Team members must be proficient in the use of power and hand tools. RIT officers must be thoroughly trained in all aspects of RIT operations. Tools & Equipment Each member of the RIT should be equipped with: Full PPE, SCBA, & PASS Portable radio Personal flashlight Personal rope Knife Trauma shears, wire cutters, etc. Door chocks Forcible entry tool Personal Equipment Suggested Equipment for Self-Survival Tools/Equipment In addition, crew should have or have access to: Ropes (search, life safety, & webbing) Rescue air supply Thermal imager Ground ladders & attic ladder Rabbet tool Stokes basket Power saws Forcible entry tools Charged hoseline Tools/Equipment (Wood Frame, Residential) Tools/Equipment (Noncombustible, Commercial) Additional Equipment Should be available: Hydraulic rescue tools Air bags Cribbing Rope rescue equipment for hauling/lowering systems Shoring equipment Air struts Integration of Firefighter Rescue Operations into the ICS Criteria for Deploying RIT Crews & Resources Declared mayday Personnel unaccounted for Serious fireground event Command of RIT Operations An IC or Ops section leader will not be able to effectively manage an incident and a firefighter rescue simultaneously Incident must be broken down into more manageable pieces Branches Divisions/groups Sample RIT ICS for Complex Incident RIT- Basic Concepts Command Notes Review Tactical Worksheet 63 Initial Fire Scene Operations Upon arrival, position apparatus away from immediate area Gather RIT tools, report to command for orders Verify chain of command Confirm radio channel for fireground operations Get/review pre-plan Initial Fire Scene Operations Establish staging area for RIT tools Outside collapse zone View of 2 sides All members complete 360 & size-up Repeated frequently by at least 1 member Constantly monitor interior fire conditions Track the location and progress of the fire Read smoke RIT Size-up Considerations Occupancy Construction type; roof construction Size of building; number of floors Access/egress points Hazards, burglar bars Collapse potential Rapid fire progress potential Location and experience level of interior crews SCBA type and bottle size in use (mutual aid) RIT Size-up Considerations Extent of fire development Contents and interior finish History of previous fires Location of stairwells and elevators Presence of basement and access Water supply Weather conditions and temperature Any overall hazard or relevant details RIT Size-Up Show video(s) The RIT Officer Consider the extent of the fire and the progress being made in controlling the fire. How successful is the attack? Could the situation deteriorate? Are there signs that it is deteriorating and that the offensive strategy may soon change to a defensive one? How long has the incident been underway? The RIT Officer Closely monitor radio traffic for clues to the interior conditions calm, efficient transmissions may indicate a controlled environment raised voices, low air alarm, pass alarm sounding during transmission, and excited, chaotic traffic may indicate a deteriorating interior situation. The RIT Officer Monitor location and activities of interior crews Look for signs of collapse Bulging walls, sinking roof Check with and brief members of the RIT on conditions found, information received, observations made, and hazards identified. Communicate with other RIT members who have conducted their own size-ups. Report findings to IC & ISO RIC Water Supply If a hoseline is needed, use an engine that is not supplying primary attack lines Many maydays are due to water problems Primary attack engine may have mechanical or operator issues Hoseline may limit RIT speed & efficiency However, access to victims may not be possible without it RIC Water Supply When is the time to think about this? Whenever practical, get a dedicated engine to support RIC functions If interior crews lose water the RIC should be able to advance on the fire and protect the interior crews until egress is possible Rapid Intervention Teams Command Notes The RIT team should not be put to work for firefighting or relief purposes. When a RIT team is deployed for firefighter search/rescue, another team must be dispatched immediately. If the need for rescue is diminished, the RIT may be assigned to other tasks. Upon Locating Firefighter Reset victim’s PASS device Assess breathing and circulatory functions Check air supply and SCBA integrity Check for entanglements Remove the victim The ABC’s of RIT Air supply? Breathing? Conscious? Disability? Entrapment? Upon Locating Firefighter Survival is dependent on 2 factors: Time Air It is critical that RIT deploys, enters, and searches as quickly as possible The sooner that air can be supplied the better Establish redundant air supply Create a defendable space Upon Locating Firefighter Aggressive ventilation in the area and along the route of travel is essential Existing tactical assignments need to be maintained Victim Removal Effective and efficient removal is a key objective Ropes/mechanical advantage systems may be useful, but take time and expertise In other cases brute strength will be best option Either way, convert victim’s SCBA to harness Each situation will be unique Practice the basics Protecting a Firefighter in Place If victim is conscious and access is a problem (floor below, collapse, debris), consider giving victim a hoseline If victim is unconscious consider fog application or cellar nozzle Protecting a Firefighter in Place A trapped firefighter’s life depends on four items. Use the following acronym: AWARE - Air, Water, A Radio, and Extrication AWARE The first two items, Air and Water, are most important Air - Provide the victim with redundant air supply Water - Create a defendable space These two items alone could allow for several hours of extrication time AWARE – Air Needs Each department has its own resources Some sources of spare SCBA include: Driver/Operator’s SCBA from a pumping engine SCBA from command vehicle/chief’s car An SCBA off a firefighter’s back AWARE – Water Needs If victim is conscious and access is a problem (floor below, collapse, debris), consider giving victim a hoseline If victim is unconscious consider fog application or cellar nozzle The idea is to create a defendable space around the victim, then fortify outward AWARE A Radio- Ensure that victim has one on dedicated channel for a trapped firefighter’s sole use It’s quick and easy Victim’s LOC and needs can be assessed You’ll know if he/she self-rescues The victim won’t be competing for air time AWARE Extrication- It’s impossible to cover every potential encumbrance. The key is to remember that if you’ve built the survivable environment described above, you’ll have more time to acquire the necessary equipment, remove the encumbrance, and save your firefighter. Rescue vs. Recovery Consider the potential impact of RIT operations on the safety of rescuers and incident activities Consider the immediate psychological stresses on rescue personnel RIT Skills RIT Skills Declaring a firefighter emergency Search techniques Access and extrication Air supply Ropes Protecting downed firefighters in place Moving downed firefighters to safety Firefighter self-rescue techniques Declaring a fire fighter emergency Declaration of emergency (the word or phrase to initiate an emergency response by an RIC) Unit/Name – Situation – Location – Intention – PAR (the nature of the emergency and conditions) Search Techniques Searching with ropes Searching in an area with limited egress Searching with thermal imager Thermal Imager Advantages Size-Up Accountability Rapid Location of Firefighter Directing Operations Monitoring Conditions Searching for Egress Removal of Firefighter Access and extrication Breach of barriers (walls, ceilings, floors) SCBA profile reduction drill Recognizing entanglement hazards Disentanglement Extrication from debris Air supply Reposition or replace SCBA face piece on downed fire fighter Replace mask-mounted regulator on downed fire fighter Utilizing the RIC-UAC, where available Replace air supply to a downed fire fighter Alternate rescue air supply sources Ropes, Slings, Harnesses The use of search ropes, slings, and harnesses The use of mechanical advantage rope systems for rescue of fire fighters The use of rescue knots The use of any equipment or rescue tactics required by the AHJ Protecting downed fire fighter(s) in place - AWARE Provide and maintain a continuous air supply Provide protective hose line(s) Secure a dedicated communications channel (talk group) for rescue operations Continuously monitor conditions that may affect the rescue operations Moving downed fire fighter(s) to safety Using basic drags, lifts, and carries (blankets, webbing/rope, push-pull & simple pulley system) Moving a downed fire fighter up and down stairs Utilizing a rescue basket or rescue boards Moving a downed fire fighter over a ladder (conscious assist & unconscious carry) Moving downed fire fighter(s) to safety Moving a downed fire fighter through a window (ground level & upper levels) Moving a downed fire fighter from below the area of operations (through floor) Moving a downed fire fighter in an attic space Moving a downed fire fighter from below grade Moving a downed fire fighter through an elevated (restricted size) window in a room with limited space for crew movement Fire fighter self-rescue Recognizing situations under which rapid intervention is required for rescue and required techniques for calling for assistance Freeing self from entanglement Rapid room orientation and exit, including awareness of primary and secondary exits from room. Individual Air management Escape techniques for elevated emergency egress as approved by the AHJ Required Performance for Rapid Intervention Crews (RIC) Locate, Assess and Remove a Downed Firefighter Remove a Downed Firefighter up a Flight of Stairs Remove a Downed Firefighter from 1st Floor Window Remove a Downed Firefighter from a 2nd Floor Window Remove a Downed Firefighter from a Hole in the Floor Rapid Intervention Team Skills Many of these specialized techniques have been developed because: A Firefighter Died.