Bonding and Chemical Reactions
How Atoms Combine
A Chemical Bond is...
the force that holds the atoms in a compound
What’s a compound? Two or more atoms
chemically bonded together to form a
What’s a molecule? Two or more atoms
bonded together to share electrons--the
properties of the individual atoms are gone.
Bonds: Ionic vs. Covalent
Ionic bond: the bond resulting from
the attraction between a positive and
a negative ion (metal + nonmetal)
Covalent bond: bonds made by
sharing the electrons in atoms’
outermost shells (nonmetal +
H2O: two atoms of Hydrogen
chemically combined with one atom of
oxygen to form a single molecule. The
subscript 2 goes to the H, but not to the
SO4: one atom of Sulfur chemically
combined with four atoms of oxygen.
The 4 goes with the O, but not the S.
In this room, there might be 500 SO4 molecules
floating around in the air. How could I
The 500 goes to the WHOLE MOLECULE, but
the 4 only goes to the O.
How many TOTAL Sulfur and TOTAL Oxygen
atoms would be present?
If 500 SO4 molecules were present,
how many total sulfur and total
oxygen atoms would be part of them?
500 x 4 = 2000 Oxygen atoms
500 x ? = ? Sulfur atoms
500 x 1 = 500 Sulfur atoms
Pretend it’s S1O4
Charge (p. 548)
“In any compound, the net charge of the
compound must equal zero. That is, the number
of positive charges must equal the number of
Example 1: Mg+2 + F-1 in a compound would
require how many of each to balance the
charges? Cross multiply: Mg1F2 = MgF2
By the way: How is OS different than Os?
OS vs Os
Os is one element, Osmium. OS is a
compound of two elements: Oxygen and
Sulfur. How can I, Mr. Martin, tell the
A new element starts with each capital letter.
The symbol for each element on the periodic
table is either one capital letter, or a capital
letter followed by a small leter. (H, He, etc.)
Polyatomic Ions (p. 548)
“All for one: Some ionic
compounds contain ions made from
several nonmetals that are bonded
together covalently. These ions
form a unit, and they have a single
Examples: NH4 = Ammonium, etc.
Section Three: Chemical
Reactions (i.e. the IMPORTANT
p. 553: Chemical equation: lists
the compounds or elements
involved in a reaction, and the
new compounds or elements that
form as a result.
Look like this (p. 554):
2Al + Fe2O3 --> 2Fe + Al2O3
1. There are four types of molecules in this
reaction: two REACTANTS (before the arrow)
and two PRODUCTS (after the arrow).
2. The equation is BALANCED. There are two
Fe, two Al, and three O on each side of arrow.
Coefficients vs. Subscripts
Notice the two different types of numbers:
The 4 is a COEFFICIENT, which tells you how
many of that molecule are present. It stretches
across the WHOLE molecule.
The 2 and 3 are subscripts, which tell you how
many of each element are in a molecule. They
don’t stretch--they just go to the element before
Coefficients vs. Subscripts
By the way, if there is no coefficient, or
no subscript, you can
pretend/imagine/write in a ONE.
4H2O + 2O2 = 4H2O2
= 4H2O1 + 2O2 = 4H2O2
Parentheses in Reactions
The 3 goes to only the O,
The 2 goes to the NO3
So, the count for this molecule is?
1 Pb, 2 N, 6 O
Two or more substances
COMBINE to form one new
2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
Involves BREAKING a compound
into two or more substances.
2HgO --> 2Hg + O2
One atom or a group of atoms in a
compound is REPLACED with
another atom or group of atoms
Cu + 2AgNO3 --> Cu(NO3)2 +2Ag
Double Replacement Reaction
Two different types of atoms or group
of atoms EXCHANGE places in a
2KCl + Pb(NO3)2 --> PbCl2 + 2KNO3
A solid that comes out of a
reaction (because it is not
soluble with the mixture)
Tips for Balancing Chemical
1. Treat standard groups (SO4) as a single
2. Balance the elements (H2) LAST
3. Remember, you can only change
coefficients; you can’t change subscripts.
4. It’s okay to end up with big numbers as
your coefficients, but remember to divide by