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									Initiatives needed                                                 Delegated planning powers
                                                                    Planning powers should be delegated
A checklist of general policy                                       to the lowest possible tiers of
initiatives that may help make                                      government, with regional government
community planning more effective.                                  retaining powers to intervene only in
Customise to suit your country, place                               the event of local corruption or for
and circumstances.                                                  major strategic issues.

    Build locally                                                 Derelict land and buildings
     Locally based building activity                                Derelict land and buildings (both public
     should be encouraged so that the                               and private) should be made available
     economic benefits of development                               for community-led initiatives and be
     stay within the community.                                     made the subject of punitive taxes to
     Provision for the employment of                                encourage their productive use.
     local labour and training of local
     people in building skills should be                           Educating enablers
     considered for inclusion in any                                The curricula of architecture and
     building contract.                                             planning schools should include
                                                                    relevant training for professional
    Career incentives                                              enablers. Live project units - urban
     Community planning expertise                                   design studios - should be set up at all
     should be recognised and                                       schools, to undertake community
     encouraged with more effective and                             projects.
     systematic training programmes
     and career opportunities.                                     Environmental education
                                                                    Environmental education programmes
    Centres of activity and                                        for the public should be expanded so
     information                                                    that people learn how the built
     New centres, or networks of                                    environment works and how they can
     centres, on community planning                                 take part in improving it. Environmental
     should be established at national                              education should form part of primary
     and regional level to disseminate                              and secondary school curricula, and
     good practice, provide advice, and                             comprehensive networks of urban and
     evaluate and follow up on events                               rural studies centres should be
     and activities.                                                established. There should be special
                                                                    emphasis on local vernacular
    Community development briefs                                   architecture and building techniques.
     Development briefs should be
     produced with communities for all                             Establishing parameters
     major sites and should preferably                              Responsible authorities in charge of
     become mandatory as a basis for                                any community participation
     land valuation and acquisition.                                programme should set out at the outset
                                                                    what can and cannot be changed as a
    Culture of participation                                       result of the participation. (Source:
     A general culture of participation                             APaNGO project)
     should be encouraged so that
     participation in planning becomes                             Freedom of information
     natural and inevitable.                                        Land ownership should be public
                                                                    information and always kept up to date.


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     When property in public or social                              should be devised for exchanging
     ownership is sold, there should be                             information internationally so that
     public debate on its use                                       relevant lessons may be learned in the
     beforehand, and it should not                                  shortest possible space of time.
     automatically be sold to the highest
     bidder.                                                       Integration with decision making
                                                                    Government bodies should better
    Good practice information                                      integrate community input in its
     More good practice guidance needs                              different forms in decision-making
     to be produced, made available and                             processes. (Source: APaNGO project)
     kept up to date. Specific items
     include:                                                      Legal agreements with communities
           o Catalogues of information                              Agreements between government and
              already available;                                    communities on development should
           o Detailed how-to-do-it                                  be legally established and then
              information on methods;                               maintained with integrity in order to
           o Toolkits of sample                                     ensure ongoing trust. (Source:
              documents and formats;                                APaNGO project)
           o Contact data for people
              and organisations with                               Lobbying for resources
              relevant experience.                                  Multi-agency co-ordination, resources
           o Well presented case                                    and leadership are needed to lobby for
              studies in print and on film.                         increased resources for participatory
           o Training packs and                                     planning activity at local level and
              programmes.                                           supporting services at national or
                                                                    regional level.
    Gradual development
     Planning policies should generally                            Long-term support
     encourage incremental,                                         Funding programmes for the voluntary
     evolutionary development with large                            sector need to be long term to allow the
     development sites broken down into                             support infrastructure for community
     smaller packages.                                              involvement in planning to be
                                                                    maintained. (Source: APaNGO project)
    Independent resources for
     participation                                                 Marketing
     Both voluntary sector bodies and                               The importance and effectiveness of
     governments should recognise a                                 community planning should be more
     responsibility to provide                                      forcefully marketed.
     independent resources for
     community participation in                                    Percentage for participation
     planning in all major development                              All significant developments should
     areas. (Source: APaNGO project)                                include in their budgets a specific
                                                                    amount of funding for effective
    Information                                                    participation at all stages.
     Information systems should be
     established to make data about                                Planners out in the community
     successful examples of community                               More professional planners should be
     planning and development widely                                physically located in multidisciplinary
     available. Programmes should be                                offices in the communities they serve.
     established to encourage more                                  In urban areas no one should be more
     exchange of experience between                                 than a few minutes' walk from such an
     the various groups involved in the                             office. Architecture centres, community
     process - public, private,                                     design centres and neighbourhood
     professional and voluntary. Methods                            planning offices should all be
                                                                    promoted.

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    Planning applications                                          policy shift from 'providing' to 'enabling'.
     Proposals by property owners for
     development should be encouraged                              Public participation statements
     or required to include visual details                          Developers of significant projects
     and policy statements. It should                               should be required to produce a ‘public
     also be possible to view proposals                             participation statement’ identifying
     nearby, ie in a local shop or cafe,                            those affected and setting out how they
     rather than having to travel to                                will be involved in the development
     remote government offices. Ideally,                            process. This should be an integral part
     proposals should be displayed                                  of planning application procedures.
     visually at the site in question.
                                                                   Quantify benefits
    Planning decisions                                             Funding needs to be allocated to
     All relevant social and                                        systematic analysis and quantifying of
     environmental issues should be                                 the benefits of community planning
     considered in planning appeals,                                approaches.
     public inquiries and local planning
     decisions. The recommendations of                             Research
     public inquiry inspectors should not                           Far more resources should be devoted
     be overturned by central                                       to research on the built environment by
     government except for overriding                               government and the development
     reasons, such as national security.                            industry to avoid making the same
     Community groups should be given                               mistakes over and over again.
     access to the necessary resources                              Research and development
     to present their case effectively.                             programmes should be undertaken on
                                                                    the long-term cost effectiveness of
    Practitioner listing service                                   different approaches and the results
     Registers of experienced                                       widely disseminated. Special attention
     community planning and community                               should be directed towards the
     architecture practitioners should be                           development of techniques in
     established to help local authorities,                         participatory planning and design.
     developers and community groups
     obtain the best expertise available.                          Review statutory procedures
                                                                    Planning, development and
    Professional payment                                           management procedures need to be
     Recommended professional fee                                   constantly reviewed to ensure they
     scales should be adjusted to take                              incorporate the best participatory
     account of the extra time needed to                            practice available. This might cover:
     involve end-users.
                                                                          o Preparing local plans;
    Public funding                                                       o Preparing development briefs;
     Accountability procedures for the                                    o Planning application
     receipt of public funds should be                                      procedures;
     redefined to encourage community                                     o Public inquiry procedures;
     initiatives and provide voluntary                                    o Urban management
     organisations with consistent, long-                                   procedures.
     term funding, to facilitate forward
     planning.                                                     Simplify language
                                                                    Planning legislation should be re-
    Public sector enablers                                         written in straightforward language.
     Central and local government
     should learn to trust community                               Technical aid
     organisations and actively assist                              Networks of community-controlled,
     them in their formation and growth.                            publicly funded multi-disciplinary
     There should be a fundamental

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     technical aid facilities should be
     established and maintained.

    Voluntary sector empowered
     Voluntary organisations -
     representing geographical
     communities and communities of
     interest - should willingly demand
     and accept more responsibility for
     the creation and management of the
     environment and should strengthen
     and restructure themselves in order
     to become more effective as
     developers and property managers.
     Special emphasis should be put on
     encouraging the formation of
     housing cooperatives, special
     project groups, development trusts,
     neighbourhood forums and
     development partnerships.

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