Organizational &

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					Managing careers to win the
 war for talent: Innovative
career models for a variety
 of organizational contexts
 Professor Yehuda Baruch
 UEA Norwich
              Our people
 “Our people are our most important asset”
 The cliché that reflect truism
 Do they really believe in it?
And if so,
 What should organizations do about it?
     Careers in organizational
  “a process of development of the employee
    along a path of experience and jobs in
    one or more organizations” (Baruch &
    Rosenstein, 1992)
     Change : the span and pace

 The Boundaryless Career (Arthur, 1994)
 New Deals (Herriot & Pemberton, 1995)
 The Protean Career (Hall, 1996; Hall & Moss,
   The Intelligent Career (Arthur et al., 1995;
    Jones &Defillippi 1996)
   The Post-corporate Career (Peiperl & Baruch
           Present trends
 Rationalising
 Delayering
 Downsizing
 Rightsizing
 Flattening
 Restructuring
 Shaping up for the future
    The boundaryless career
   Boundaryless       Boundaryless
    Organization:       Career:

 Vertical           Demolition of old
 Horizontal          structure
 External           Multidirectional paths
 Geographical
                      and system
                     Holistic system
                     Global system
        Psychological contract
   "The unspoken promise, not to be present in
    the small print of employment contract, of
    what employer gives, and what employees
    give in return"
 An  exchange transaction
 Stronger than the legal
 Changed with the new system
New Deals Herriot and Pemberton 1995
 The old deal was:          The new deal is:
 employee offer:            employee offer long
  loyalty, conformity,        hours, added
  commitment;                 responsibility, broader
 employer offer              skills, and tolerance of
  security of                 change and ambiguity;
  employment, career         employer offer high
  prospects, training and     pay, reward for
  development and care        performance, and
  in trouble.                 above all, having a job
 New Psychological contracts

 The  breaking of old notion of careers
 A transition or transformation of
 Not always welcomed by employees
 Reality rather than rhetoric
          Individual careers
 A life journey
 Search for identity
 Source of:
    – Extrinsic (e.g. Income)
    – Intrinsic (e.g. Meaning)
    – Much more
     Organizational careers
 The landscape for the journey
 The playground for the game
 The system where careers occur
    Trends from the 1990s
 From climbing the organizational ladder
  to a new fluid and dynamic system.
 The individual as the new ‘owner’ of

 The war for talent spread
 The front-line is unclear
            Intelligent careers
     DeFillippi & Arthur (1994); Arthur, Claman &
                   DeFillippi (1995)

   Knowing Why – values, attitudes,
    internal needs (motivation) identity
   Knowing How – competencies: skills,
    expertise, capabilities; Tacit & explicit
   Knowing Whom – networking,
    connections, relationships
Intelligent careers (developed)
           Jones & DeFillippi (1996)

   Knowing What – opportunities, threats
   Knowing Where – entering, training,
   Knowing When – timing of choices and
     The Post-corporate Career

   From individual and relationship

   To organizational and system perspective
           Career anchors
              Schein, 1978; 1985

 the perceived abilities, values, attitudes and
  motives people have
 determine career aspiration and direction.
 These guide, constrain, stabilise, reinforce
  and develop people’s career
Derr’s (1986) five measures
    for career success
   Getting ahead: Motivation derives from need to
    advance on both professional stand and the
    organizational ladder.
   Getting secure: Having a solid position within the
   Getting high: Being inspired by the nature and
    content of the work performed.
   Getting free: Motivated by need for autonomy and
    ability to create own work environment.
   Getting balanced: Attaching equal or grater value
    on non-work interests.
The protean career
(Hall, 1976, 1998)

   “The protean career is a process which the
    person, not the organization, is managing. It
    consists of all the person’s varied experience in
    education, training, work in several
    organizations, changes in occupational field,
    etc…The protean person’s own personal career
    choices and search for self-fulfilment are the
    unifying or integrative elements in his or her
    life”. (Hall 1976: p. 201).
       The Protean Career
 the person, not the organization manage it
  career age, not chronological age
 self directed, continuous learning
 new success dimensions
         Organizational Career
   Traditional
    – structural related
    – control mechanism
    – mostly – retaining talent
   Current
    – war for talent
    – reflecting socio, techno, economic changes
    – include releasing talent
   Futurist
    – virtual careers
     Organizational Career
 Challenge of integration
 Challenge of responsiveness
 Challenge of pro-activity
 Challenge of managing dynamic system
    Career system and career
 the organization needs to recognise those
  abilities, values, attitudes and motives, and
  subsequent career aspiration
 the organization needs to provide direction,
  offer options, support and monitor and
  develop people’s career
    Career systems and career
   The organization need to provide options for the
    variety of:
    –   Getting ahead
    –   Getting secure
    –   Getting high
    –   Getting free
    –   Getting balanced

   The organization need to realise that different
    people need different options
    Career systems and the
        Protean Career
 How to share career management with the
 How to align self direction with
  organizational needs
 How to enable continuous learning
 How to integrate new success dimensions
  into the system
Career systems and Intelligent
   Knowing Why – understanding values
   Knowing How – managing competencies
   Knowing Whom – developing networks
   Knowing What – opportunities, threats
   Knowing Where – (where you want
   Knowing When – timing
     Competitive advantage and
 Labour costs are usually the major organizational
 They may be manipulated for management of
  numerical flexibility
 The ‘cutting-fat’ metaphor is appealing
 Short term financial performance tend to improve
  following redundancy
BUT in long term
 Financial performance deteriorate
 The ‘Survivor Syndrome’ persists
    Need for strategic alignment
   Organizational Strategy      HRM Strategy

 Highly developed             Highly developed
 Developed                    Developed
 Exists                       Exists
 No strategy                  No strategy
     Example of a strategy -
 Strategic response
 Flexible management
 Focus on core operation, building on
  strength competence
 Letting others do what they can do best
 Employability- a new deal?
 The Desert Generation?
    – Not really 
    – But…
    The academic career model
                (Baruch & Hall, JVB, 2003)

 psychological contracts and career systems in
academia resemble new psychological contracts
    – professional challenge
    – learning environment
    – social status
    – professional development
    – self-management (autonomy) and flexibility
    –networking within and across organizations
    The academic career model

 career advancement is subject to performance
rather than tenure
 career is self-initiated, self-managed
 a very flat hierarchy
 characterized by stability, long-term
employment relationships (tenure track), job
security, and rigid structure
 rare cross-functional moves
       Individual Implications:
   Individual careers:
    – More self managed
    – Short term planning

   Individual advice:
    – Count on yourself
    – Expect the unexpected
    – Be resilient
    – Think the unthinkable
    Institutional Implications:
   Organizational careers
    – Functional and managerial flexibility
    – Proactivity
    – Exploring alternative models
   Organizational advice:
    – Give up control
    – Provide support
    – Invest in people
    – Think the unthinkable
       National Implications:

   Changing nature of society and economy

   New labour markets

   Global systems

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