TABLE OF CONTNETS
TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - - -
APPROVAL PAGE - - - - - - - -
DEDICATION - - - - - - - - -
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - - - - - - -
TABLE OF CONTENTS - - - - - - -
LIST OF TABLES - - - - - - - - -
ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - -
1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - -
1.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS -
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - - - - - -
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION - - - - - -
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY - - - - -
1.5 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION - - - -
1.6 PROBLEMS OF DATA COLLECT - - - - -
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - -
3.0 METHODOLOY - - - - - - - -
3.1 CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE - - -
3.2 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) TWO-WAY
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE - - - - - -
3.3 METHOD OF LEAST SQUARE - - - - -
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS - - -
4.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 4 - - - - -
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 5 - - - - -
4.3 INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF
OCCURENCE OF ROAD ACCIDENT & TREND - -
4.4 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 6 - - - - -
4.5 INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF
OCCURRENCE OF DEATHS OF THE RTA & TREND - -
4.6 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 7 - - - - -
4.7 PRESENTATION OF THE RTA IN ENUGU STATE
ON A HISTROGRAM - - - - - - -
5.0 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: CONTINGENCY TABLE
TABLE 2: TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE
TABLE 3: TWO-WAY ANOVA (CROSS EFFECT) TABLE
TABLE 4: NUMBER OF ROAD ACCIDENT BY CAUSES AND TYPE OF
VEHICLE (1993 – 2000)
TABLE 5: ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT DATA ACCIDDENT DATA
(1993 – 2000)
TABLE 6: ROAD TRAFFIC DEATH RECORD (1993 – 2000)
TABLE 7: TOTAL NUMBER OF ACCIDENT IN ENUGU (1993 – 2000)
In the world today, transportation which is the conveyance of goods and
passengers from one phase to another or the movement of commuter and their
goods, produce and products, and/or they themselves from one location to
another have played an important role in the development process, thus,
serving as one of the aspects of developmental change indicators and structural
well-being of the society and government among other sectors or areas of the
world socio-economic development. It provides room not only for transaction
of business to take place, market possibility for our goods, produce and
products produced, but also makes it possible for such to reach the find
For instance, in Costa Rica, before the inter America – highway was
constructed, driving beed cattle on the hoof from grazing lands to San Jose
often resulted in a 40 percent less of weight, and imports were necessary to
supply local needs. But with and weather highway, it was possible to deliver
truck-traider units of cattle over night, and costs Rica become self-supporting
in meet. Also in Bolivia, the highway from cochabamba to santa cruz reduced
the travel time in the rainy season from several weeks to fifteen hours and
provided a link between the country’s food supplies and its people. Until then
the price of home-grown rice was 50 percent higher than the imported rice
because of the high cost of transport. Furthermore, transportation as an integral
part of national production and distribution system calls for its development,
improvement and better network system as to necessitate or provide a means of
servicing domestic and international market.
This is of primary importance in the early stages of economic development
because it promotes an accumulation of capital, which allows the economy to
progress from the subsistence level at which most production is consumed
locally. Therefore, transportation and other government programmes such as
education and health care, necessarily compete for public expenditures
particularly in the underdeveloped countries.
From the foregoing, the developed nation are efficient and effective in
transport business as a result of their improvement and technological
advancement over the years.
Nigeria has one of the most modern and best development transport systems –
roil, road, air and in-land waterings which transverse the length and breath of
the country to link the industrial, commercial, and agricultural centers, that is
to say, transportation in Nigeria is traditionally under four major mades
namely;- road, rail, water and air. However, in this study, the researcher zeros
down to road transport.
In Nigeria road network, roads are categorized into three; the truck A roads
which is the responsibility of the federal Government, truck B roads which is
the responsibility of the state Government and the third category-truck C which
is the responsibility of the local Government. Whether truck A, truck B, and
truck C roads, these roads are used by the motorists, cyclists, pedestrians either
to convey their passengers, goods, produce, products or to reach, transact and
communicate with another n different destination. Road transportation has not
only been discovered as the cheapest means of transportation but also provides
door-to-door transport services and delivery of goods.
But apart from road congestion which is symptom of the availability of
insufficient road space to satisfy, with but difficulty, all demands made upon it,
road accident is another difficulty task in traffic management schemes and has
been of much concern to various governments of our timer hence, the concern
of any well-organised government is how to identify and minimize (if possible
curb) the high rate of accidents on our roads today.
We are aware of the number of deaths on the highway being recorded these
days. This places a question mark on the value we attach to human life and
property. It is clear on the basis of logic backed by observations that certain
people have worse accident records than others. This research will investigate
why it is so and would also proffer suggestions to check the ugly trends people
who drive recklessly or dangerously are potential victims of accidents and are
prone to such conditions. They also constitute a nuisance to the society.
Most accidents have been caused by a whole lot of actors. Prominent among
them are as listed below:
1. Over-Speeding: Some times may be due to greediness or the tendency
to drive as many turn as possible always want to be at the head of others,
without considering the consequences. By so doing they neglect road
signs warnings and road traffic regulations and laws. Thus, the risk of
2. Drugs/Alcohol: The side effects of drugs or alcohol our body cannot
be over emphasized. These cause drowsiness and finally sleep when
during. They lead to wrong calculations and loss of regard to lvies of
human beings and property of such driver concerned. Some causes
excessive alertness and nervousness, loss of control and finally a
breakdown of the body system of such person involved.
3. Roads (Road Accidents Immuned Delusion Syndrome): Some
drivers because they have driven a particular vehicle for years, taxy
develop the feeling that they have overmastered the vehicle and also
fully experienced do believe that they cannot be involved in road traffic
accident, others or other drivers because of their belief either a shrine,
ring, talisman, etc. do believe that they cannot be involved and/or die in
road accident, they drive without regard to road traffic regulations and
other road users.
4. The Road: The construction of the road matters a lot. Roads with
multiple bands experience many accidents. Poorly constructed road
witness many accidents e.g. presence of informal bymps, very narrow
roads. Roads that are poorly maintained cause a lot of accidents. The
absence of road signs also contributes to road accidents e.g to show
construction sites, narrow bridges, cross roads, bumps, “T” junction etc.
5. Negligence of road Signs: Most Nigeria drivers are so illiterate that
they cannot read road signs and as such endanger their lives and the lives
of others and property.
6. Aggression: This is psychological. Also result of or may be due to lack
of sleep in the previous night due to one problem or the other. The
driver then wake up annoyed and aggressive. He jumps into the vehicle
without the morning drills, quarrels with the vehicle passengers, co-
drivers and road traffic officers etc. thus the risk of accident victimized
and even others.
7. The Weather: This comprises the rain and the sun and their effects
on the roads. The rains wet the roads and make them slippery therefore,
tyres treads loase grip of the roads and render braking almost impossible
as and when desired. The sun heats up the tar on the road which in tam
heats up the tyres. When this happens, weak tyres tends to burst very
easily. Both conditions causes accidents on our road if not observed.
8. Topography: This includes hilly, rocky forest and savanna areas.
Areas where the roads run in between hills particularly with dedling rock
constitute a lot danger to road users. Where such exits, viewing distance
are shortened, the rocks can fall into the road at any time and cause
accidents. Likewise where roads run across forests, trees, and/or their
branches, many fall into the road and where this is not noticed in a good
time, they can cause serious accidents. Animal shiving is the forests can
cross the roads at any time while grazing animals common in the
savanna requires can also cause accidents.
9. Carelessness of Pedestrians: The other road user that is seen as the
commonest – the pedestrian(s) may out of illiteracy and inexperience in
using the road disobey the road traffic sign by crossing when it is not
due for him or her to do so. Or cross the busy road without looking left
or tight as to see when the road is free for crossing.
10. Foods: It takes many drivers time to understand the effect of some
foods on their body. Most eat one type of food because others do. They
fail to understand that, while some people or such people will be active
after a heavy food, others or themselves imitating feel dull and will be
sleeping after such a heavy food and thus, endangering their lives and
property while driving.
1.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS
Several aspects of road transport negative impact (road accident) on the society
have already been discussed. Some additional negative effects deserve
mention. Road accidents have significant effects, which they impact.
Adversely on the economic and social welfare of a nation. The effects on the
economy usually take the form of costs which under certain circumstance can
be measured. Some of these costs; private costs are borne by those responsible
for the accident, while others are social in nature in that society as a whole
bears them. In this section, the study examines specific effects of road
1. Traffic hold-up and associated waste: When an accident occurs,
the most easily observed effect is a rapidly built-up traffic holdup. In the
process, fuel is wasted, engines are overheated, delays lead to lost
business and social opportunities. The direct effect is a showed down
and more expansive business transactions.
2. Destruction of motor vehicle: Road accidents usually entail the
complete destruction of motor vehicle involved. In some cases, the
vehicles are salvaged at considerable cost to owners. In Nigerian
environment, accidental vehicles are either left on the scene of accidents
indefinitely or are towed away to police stations where they are similarly
abandoned. The implication of this practice is that scrap value of such
vehicle is lot to the economy and stock of transportation, facilities
necessary to move people and goods from place to place is reduced. The
opportunities for realizing gains from within an integrated economic
systems are lost, and the welfare of citizen earlier mentioned
corresponding reduced. Loss to the economy arising from road
accidents is easily measurable.
3. Destruction of transport infrastructure: Accidents destroy valuable
road transport infrastructure whose replacement would cost multiples of
the original capital expenditure. These costs are significantly foreign
exchange are imported. Components of transport infrastructure that may
be damaged include;
iii. Culverts etc
Thus, resulting to capital reduction instead of capital accumulation.
4. Destruction of other infrastructure: Road accidents also destroy other
infrastructure such as telecommunication poles and wires, electricity
poles and transformers, real estate including residential and office
buildings. Damage to these infrastructure disrupt electricity supply,
telecommunications services and normal office facilities; all these tend
to show down normal economic and social transactions with adverse
consequences on the quality of life.
5. Short supply of goods: Accidents cause the damage or destruction of
goods being transported. The loss reduces total quantity of goods
available for consumption by the final consumer(s) and reduces profits
for or made by the companies whose goods are destroy. Where
insurance cover is provided, cost of damage are passed on the insurance
companies thus, reducing their capital gain if the goods are essential for
normal subsistence, large scale destruction may necessitate importation
which would either place a downward pressure on foreign exchange
rates or lead to substantial devaluation of the exchange rate in a system
of flexible exchange rates.
6. Medical bills for treating accident victims: Medical bills of accident
victims are some of the adverse effect of road accidents. Treatment in the
orthopedic hospitals is time-consuming and expensive, after discharge of
patients, the ability of such a person to perform duties is usually reduced.
This has adverse effect on production in the economy.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this project are to;
1. Identify the causes of road accident in Enugu and compare the
2. Ascertain whether the causes of road accident are unrelated with
3. Investigate whether there is any seasonal pattern of occurrence of
road accidents and trend and/or compare the number of cases.
4. Establish the trend of road accident over the years.
5. Recommend methods or ways of reducing road accidents to the
Enugu State Government, the institutions concerned for traffic
management and enforcement of the laws within the geo-political
entity and the road users.
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this study is restricted to Enugu Rural Urban Areas (Enugu State)
only on the account of the following constraints;
1. The time available for this research work is limited to cover other
2. The resources available were very inadequate to expand the scope.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would help the government, the general public, the Nigerian Police
Force, the Federal Road Safety Commission and other agencies concerned with
safety on our roads in the following ways:
1. It will help the Federal Road Safety Commission and other
authorities concerned with similar assignment to assess their
performance over the years.
2. It will help the Federal and state governments particularly Enugu
State to articulate policies on road transportation and safety, such
policies will form the basis of planning the socio-economic
infrastructure necessary to ensure safety and enhance the
performance of road users.
3. it will help the Federal Road, Safety Commission and other
institutions concerned organizing sensitization workshop on seminars
programmes for road users ascertain the positive impact of such
workshop or seminar being organized.
4. It will awaken the sense of responsibility of road users and
5. It will help reduce or put to a stop the ill attitude poster by some of
the law enforcement agencies (the Nigerian Police N20 syndrome)
hindering the reduction of road accident.
1.5 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
The data used for this project work were collected internally in secondary
form. Secondary data imply statistical materials or information not originated
or obtained by the investigator himself, but obtain from someone’s record or
published source such as the central bank, government agencies and non-
governmental duties such as universities, research institutes etc. The data were
however, provided by Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) Enugu Division and
the Federal Road Safety Commission, Enugu Sector Command.
1.6 PROBLEMS OF THE DATA COLLECTION
The problems encountered during collection of data cannot all be stated here.
This research work posed a lot of problems. Since the researcher did not
originally collect the data, there was mistrust between the primary users and
the secondary user of the data. It took me a lot of money, time and energy
traveling from my destination to the office of the Federal Office of Statistics
(FOS) and that of the Federal Road Safety Commission all in Enugu, so as to
get the relevant data for this research work. This made me to miss most of my
lecture hours and also disappointed my supervisor Mr. Pius Ugwu by not
coming when I promised to see him several times.
It was very difficult to collect the relevant data from these offices because they
said that they couldn’t release the data for security reasons. But after
presenting letters from my Department Head Mr. Nwagbara G.P. dated 4th July,
2005, the desired information was given to me.
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