statistical analysis of road accidents

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					                    TABLE OF CONTNETS

                                                  PAGES

TITLE PAGE     -    -   -    -    -   -   -   -   -

APPROVAL PAGE       -   -    -    -   -   -   -   -

DEDICATION     -    -   -    -    -   -   -   -   -

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT         -    -    -   -   -   -   -

TABLE OF CONTENTS       -    -    -   -   -   -   -

LIST OF TABLES -    -   -    -    -   -   -   -   -

ABSTRACT       -    -   -    -    -   -   -   -   -



CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION -    -    -    -   -   -   -   -

1.1   SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS    -

1.2   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES    -    -   -   -   -   -

1.3   SCOPE AND LIMITATION   -    -   -   -   -   -

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY   -   -   -   -   -

1.5   SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION      -   -   -   -
1.6   PROBLEMS OF DATA COLLECT -      -   -   -   -

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW      -    -   -   -   -   -



CHAPTER THREE

3.0   METHODOLOY -      -    -    -   -   -   -   -

3.1   CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE     -   -   -

3.2   ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) TWO-WAY

      ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE -      -   -   -   -   -

3.3   METHOD OF LEAST SQUARE      -   -   -   -   -



CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS      -   -   -

4.1   ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 4 -   -   -   -   -

4.2   ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 5 -   -   -   -   -

4.3   INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF

      OCCURENCE OF ROAD ACCIDENT & TREND      -   -

4.4   ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 6 -   -   -   -   -
4.5   INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF

      OCCURRENCE OF DEATHS OF THE RTA & TREND -    -

4.6   ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 7 -   -   -    -   -

4.7   PRESENTATION OF THE RTA IN ENUGU STATE

      ON A HISTROGRAM   -    -    -   -   -    -   -



CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

5.1   RECOMMENDATION
                         LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1: CONTINGENCY TABLE

TABLE 2: TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE

TABLE 3: TWO-WAY ANOVA (CROSS EFFECT) TABLE

TABLE 4: NUMBER OF ROAD ACCIDENT BY CAUSES AND TYPE OF

         VEHICLE (1993 – 2000)

TABLE 5: ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT DATA ACCIDDENT DATA

         (1993 – 2000)

TABLE 6: ROAD TRAFFIC DEATH RECORD (1993 – 2000)

TABLE 7: TOTAL NUMBER OF ACCIDENT IN ENUGU (1993 – 2000)
                              CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

In the world today, transportation which is the conveyance of goods and

passengers from one phase to another or the movement of commuter and their

goods, produce and products, and/or they themselves from one location to

another have played an important role in the development process, thus,

serving as one of the aspects of developmental change indicators and structural

well-being of the society and government among other sectors or areas of the

world socio-economic development. It provides room not only for transaction

of business to take place, market possibility for our goods, produce and

products produced, but also makes it possible for such to reach the find

consumer(s).

For instance, in Costa Rica, before the inter America – highway was

constructed, driving beed cattle on the hoof from grazing lands to San Jose

often resulted in a 40 percent less of weight, and imports were necessary to

supply local needs. But with and weather highway, it was possible to deliver

truck-traider units of cattle over night, and costs Rica become self-supporting

in meet. Also in Bolivia, the highway from cochabamba to santa cruz reduced
the travel time in the rainy season from several weeks to fifteen hours and

provided a link between the country’s food supplies and its people. Until then

the price of home-grown rice was 50 percent higher than the imported rice

because of the high cost of transport. Furthermore, transportation as an integral

part of national production and distribution system calls for its development,

improvement and better network system as to necessitate or provide a means of

servicing domestic and international market.



This is of primary importance in the early stages of economic development

because it promotes an accumulation of capital, which allows the economy to

progress from the subsistence level at which most production is consumed

locally. Therefore, transportation and other government programmes such as

education and health care, necessarily compete for public expenditures

particularly in the underdeveloped countries.

From the foregoing, the developed nation are efficient and effective in

transport business as a result of their improvement and technological

advancement over the years.
Nigeria has one of the most modern and best development transport systems –

roil, road, air and in-land waterings which transverse the length and breath of

the country to link the industrial, commercial, and agricultural centers, that is

to say, transportation in Nigeria is traditionally under four major mades

namely;- road, rail, water and air. However, in this study, the researcher zeros

down to road transport.

In Nigeria road network, roads are categorized into three; the truck A roads

which is the responsibility of the federal Government, truck B roads which is

the responsibility of the state Government and the third category-truck C which

is the responsibility of the local Government. Whether truck A, truck B, and

truck C roads, these roads are used by the motorists, cyclists, pedestrians either

to convey their passengers, goods, produce, products or to reach, transact and

communicate with another n different destination. Road transportation has not

only been discovered as the cheapest means of transportation but also provides

door-to-door transport services and delivery of goods.



But apart from road congestion which is symptom of the availability of

insufficient road space to satisfy, with but difficulty, all demands made upon it,
road accident is another difficulty task in traffic management schemes and has

been of much concern to various governments of our timer hence, the concern

of any well-organised government is how to identify and minimize (if possible

curb) the high rate of accidents on our roads today.



We are aware of the number of deaths on the highway being recorded these

days. This places a question mark on the value we attach to human life and

property. It is clear on the basis of logic backed by observations that certain

people have worse accident records than others. This research will investigate

why it is so and would also proffer suggestions to check the ugly trends people

who drive recklessly or dangerously are potential victims of accidents and are

prone to such conditions. They also constitute a nuisance to the society.

Most accidents have been caused by a whole lot of actors. Prominent among

them are as listed below:

1.    Over-Speeding: Some times may be due to greediness or the tendency

      to drive as many turn as possible always want to be at the head of others,

      without considering the consequences. By so doing they neglect road
     signs warnings and road traffic regulations and laws. Thus, the risk of

     some dangerous.

2.   Drugs/Alcohol:      The side effects of drugs or alcohol our body cannot

     be over emphasized. These cause drowsiness and finally sleep when

     during. They lead to wrong calculations and loss of regard to lvies of

     human beings and property of such driver concerned. Some causes

     excessive alertness and nervousness, loss of control and finally a

     breakdown of the body system of such person involved.

3.   Roads (Road Accidents Immuned Delusion Syndrome):               Some

     drivers because they have driven a particular vehicle for years, taxy

     develop the feeling that they have overmastered the vehicle and also

     fully experienced do believe that they cannot be involved in road traffic

     accident, others or other drivers because of their belief either a shrine,

     ring, talisman, etc. do believe that they cannot be involved and/or die in

     road accident, they drive without regard to road traffic regulations and

     other road users.

4.   The Road: The construction of the road matters a lot. Roads with

     multiple bands experience many accidents.       Poorly constructed road
     witness many accidents e.g. presence of informal bymps, very narrow

     roads. Roads that are poorly maintained cause a lot of accidents. The

     absence of road signs also contributes to road accidents e.g to show

     construction sites, narrow bridges, cross roads, bumps, “T” junction etc.

5.   Negligence of road Signs:       Most Nigeria drivers are so illiterate that

     they cannot read road signs and as such endanger their lives and the lives

     of others and property.

6.   Aggression: This is psychological. Also result of or may be due to lack

     of sleep in the previous night due to one problem or the other. The

     driver then wake up annoyed and aggressive. He jumps into the vehicle

     without the morning drills, quarrels with the vehicle passengers, co-

     drivers and road traffic officers etc. thus the risk of accident victimized

     and even others.

7.   The Weather:       This comprises the rain and the sun and their effects

     on the roads. The rains wet the roads and make them slippery therefore,

     tyres treads loase grip of the roads and render braking almost impossible

     as and when desired. The sun heats up the tar on the road which in tam
      heats up the tyres. When this happens, weak tyres tends to burst very

      easily. Both conditions causes accidents on our road if not observed.

8.    Topography:         This includes hilly, rocky forest and savanna areas.

      Areas where the roads run in between hills particularly with dedling rock

      constitute a lot danger to road users. Where such exits, viewing distance

      are shortened, the rocks can fall into the road at any time and cause

      accidents. Likewise where roads run across forests, trees, and/or their

      branches, many fall into the road and where this is not noticed in a good

      time, they can cause serious accidents. Animal shiving is the forests can

      cross the roads at any time while grazing animals common in the

      savanna requires can also cause accidents.

9.    Carelessness of Pedestrians: The other road user that is seen as the

      commonest – the pedestrian(s) may out of illiteracy and inexperience in

      using the road disobey the road traffic sign by crossing when it is not

      due for him or her to do so. Or cross the busy road without looking left

      or tight as to see when the road is free for crossing.

10.   Foods:       It takes many drivers time to understand the effect of some

      foods on their body. Most eat one type of food because others do. They
      fail to understand that, while some people or such people will be active

      after a heavy food, others or themselves imitating feel dull and will be

      sleeping after such a heavy food and thus, endangering their lives and

      property while driving.



1.1   SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS

Several aspects of road transport negative impact (road accident) on the society

have already been discussed.       Some additional negative effects deserve

mention.      Road accidents have significant effects, which they impact.

Adversely on the economic and social welfare of a nation. The effects on the

economy usually take the form of costs which under certain circumstance can

be measured. Some of these costs; private costs are borne by those responsible

for the accident, while others are social in nature in that society as a whole

bears them.     In this section, the study examines specific effects of road

accidents.

1.    Traffic hold-up and associated waste:         When an accident occurs,

      the most easily observed effect is a rapidly built-up traffic holdup. In the

      process, fuel is wasted, engines are overheated, delays lead to lost
     business and social opportunities. The direct effect is a showed down

     and more expansive business transactions.

2.   Destruction of motor vehicle: Road      accidents   usually   entail   the

     complete destruction of motor vehicle involved. In some cases, the

     vehicles are salvaged at considerable cost to owners.         In Nigerian

     environment, accidental vehicles are either left on the scene of accidents

     indefinitely or are towed away to police stations where they are similarly

     abandoned. The implication of this practice is that scrap value of such

     vehicle is lot to the economy and stock of transportation, facilities

     necessary to move people and goods from place to place is reduced. The

     opportunities for realizing gains from within an integrated economic

     systems are lost, and the welfare of citizen earlier mentioned

     corresponding reduced.      Loss to the economy arising from road

     accidents is easily measurable.

3.   Destruction of transport infrastructure: Accidents destroy valuable

     road transport infrastructure whose replacement would cost multiples of

     the original capital expenditure. These costs are significantly foreign
       exchange are imported. Components of transport infrastructure that may

       be damaged include;

i.        Roads

ii.       Bridges

iii.      Culverts etc

Thus, resulting to capital reduction instead of capital accumulation.

4. Destruction of other infrastructure: Road accidents also destroy other

       infrastructure such as telecommunication poles and wires, electricity

       poles and transformers, real estate including residential and office

       buildings.   Damage to these infrastructure disrupt electricity supply,

       telecommunications services and normal office facilities; all these tend

       to show down normal economic and social transactions with adverse

       consequences on the quality of life.

5. Short supply of goods: Accidents cause the damage or destruction of

       goods being transported.     The loss reduces total quantity of goods

       available for consumption by the final consumer(s) and reduces profits

       for or made by the companies whose goods are destroy.            Where

       insurance cover is provided, cost of damage are passed on the insurance
           companies thus, reducing their capital gain if the goods are essential for

           normal subsistence, large scale destruction may necessitate importation

           which would either place a downward pressure on foreign exchange

           rates or lead to substantial devaluation of the exchange rate in a system

           of flexible exchange rates.

6. Medical bills for treating accident victims:         Medical bills of accident

      victims are some of the adverse effect of road accidents. Treatment in the

      orthopedic hospitals is time-consuming and expensive, after discharge of

      patients, the ability of such a person to perform duties is usually reduced.

      This has adverse effect on production in the economy.



1.2        AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of this project are to;

      1.      Identify the causes of road accident in Enugu and compare the

              attendant fatalities/deaths.

      2.      Ascertain whether the causes of road accident are unrelated with

              vehicles.
      3.     Investigate whether there is any seasonal pattern of occurrence of

             road accidents and trend and/or compare the number of cases.

      4.     Establish the trend of road accident over the years.

      5.     Recommend methods or ways of reducing road accidents to the

             Enugu State Government, the institutions concerned for traffic

             management and enforcement of the laws within the geo-political

             entity and the road users.



1.3        SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The scope of this study is restricted to Enugu Rural Urban Areas (Enugu State)

only on the account of the following constraints;

      1.     The time available for this research work is limited to cover other

             states.

      2.     The resources available were very inadequate to expand the scope.
1.4        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study would help the government, the general public, the Nigerian Police

Force, the Federal Road Safety Commission and other agencies concerned with

safety on our roads in the following ways:

      1.     It will help the Federal Road Safety Commission and other

             authorities concerned with similar assignment to assess their

             performance over the years.

      2.     It will help the Federal and state governments particularly Enugu

             State to articulate policies on road transportation and safety, such

             policies will form the basis of planning the socio-economic

             infrastructure necessary to     ensure safety and     enhance the

             performance of road users.

      3.     it will help the Federal Road, Safety Commission and other

             institutions concerned organizing sensitization workshop on seminars

             programmes for road users ascertain the positive impact of such

             workshop or seminar being organized.

      4.     It will awaken the sense of responsibility of road users and

             government.
      5.     It will help reduce or put to a stop the ill attitude poster by some of

             the law enforcement agencies (the Nigerian Police N20 syndrome)

             hindering the reduction of road accident.



1.5        SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION

The data used for this project work were collected internally in secondary

form. Secondary data imply statistical materials or information not originated

or obtained by the investigator himself, but obtain from someone’s record or

published source such as the central bank, government agencies and non-

governmental duties such as universities, research institutes etc. The data were

however, provided by Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) Enugu Division and

the Federal Road Safety Commission, Enugu Sector Command.



1.6        PROBLEMS OF THE DATA COLLECTION

The problems encountered during collection of data cannot all be stated here.

This research work posed a lot of problems. Since the researcher did not

originally collect the data, there was mistrust between the primary users and

the secondary user of the data. It took me a lot of money, time and energy
traveling from my destination to the office of the Federal Office of Statistics

(FOS) and that of the Federal Road Safety Commission all in Enugu, so as to

get the relevant data for this research work. This made me to miss most of my

lecture hours and also disappointed my supervisor Mr. Pius Ugwu by not

coming when I promised to see him several times.

It was very difficult to collect the relevant data from these offices because they

said that they couldn’t release the data for security reasons.          But after

presenting letters from my Department Head Mr. Nwagbara G.P. dated 4th July,

2005, the desired information was given to me.



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