Animal Care Resource Guide, Policies 1 – 7 Questions: 1. What is the subject of policy #1? 2. Denial of a license is appropriate after a new applicant fails to pass ______ compliance inspections within ______ days of the ______ inspection as specified in Section 2.3(b). 3. Denial of a license is appropriate for a new applicant that fails to comply with the ___________ and ____________ in Section 2.11(a)(3). 4. T/F: The Animal Care Regional Director (ACRD) will issue a letter to the applicant informing him/her of APHIS’ denial of his/her license application. 5. The denial letter will notify the applicant of his/her right to an informal/formal administrative hearing to show why the application should/should not be denied as required in Section 2.11 (b). 6. T/F: Denial of a license is appropriate if an applicant has been fined or sentenced to jail under State or local animal cruelty laws as specified in Section 2.11(a)(4). 7. Denial of a license is appropriate if an applicant is under investigation by State or local authorities for _______ ________. 8. A license is considered valid and effective unless (choose all that apply): a. The license has been revoked or suspended. b. The license is voluntarily terminated by the licensee in writing. c. The license has not expired. d. The applicant has failed to pay the application and appropriate annual licensing fee. 9. T/F: Licenses are issued for specific premises and are not valid at a different location. 10. What is the subject of policy #2? 11. Exhibitors who are in continuous travel status shall update their itinerary as______ to ensure Animal Care (AC) knows their whereabouts at all times. a. Once per year b. Once every 6 months c. Once per month d. As often as necessary 12. Circuses, petting zoos, and acts with an established route shall notify AC _________ of departing their home facility and update travel information ______________. 13. T/F: Exhibitor who take animals from their facilities from time to time shall notify AC when any animal is gone more than 10 consecutive days. 14. The itinerary provided to AC should including all the following: a. Dates away from home facility b. Name and birthdays of all employees c. City and State for all stops d. Site name or location of all stops 15. What type of information must be provided to the AC for all periods of “lay-over” while traveling? 16. Which method should the licensee use to provide information to the AC? a. Mail information to the Regional office or inspector b. Fax information to the Regional office or inspector c. Voicemail information to the inspector d. E-mail information to the Regional office 17. T/F: Notice must be made in advance of travel and updated as needed. 18. What is the subject of policy #3? 19. T/F: Use of expired medical materials on regulated animals is considered acceptable veterinary practice and constitutes adequate veterinary care. 20. T/F: APHIS opposes the use of expired materials for acute terminal procedures. 21. Drugs administered to relieve pain or distress and emergency drugs must not be/may be used beyond their expiration date. 22. If a facility allows the use of expired medical materials in acute terminal procedures, then (choose all that apply): a. The facility should have a policy covering the use of such materials b. The facility should require investigators to describe in their animal activity proposals the intended use of expired materials. c. The attending veterinarian and the IACUC are NOT responsible for ensuring that the proposed animal activities avoid or minimize discomfort, distress, and pain to the animal. d. The veterinarian and IACUC are required to maintain control over the use of expired medical materials. 23. Investigators are/are not expected to use pharmaceutical-grade medications whenever they are available, even in acute procedures. 24. T/F: Non-pharmaceutical-grade chemical compounds should only be used in regulated animals after specific review and approval by the IACUC for reasons such as scientific necessity or non- availability of an acceptable veterinary or human pharmaceutical-grade product. 25. The AWA regulations require the following regarding surgery (choose all the apply): a. Survival surgeries must be performed using aseptic techniques. b. Major operative procedures on nonrodents must be performed only in dedicated surgical facilities. c. Nonsurvival surgeries require neither aseptic techniques nor dedicated facilities if the subjects are not anesthetized long enough to show evidence of infection. d. Research facilities doing surgical demonstrations while traveling must use aseptic techniques and dedicated surgical facilities. 26. T/F: All animal activity proposals involving surgery must provide specific details of pre- through post-procedural care and relief of pain and distress. 27. T/F: The withholding of pain and/or distress relieving care does not need to be scientifically justified in writing nor approved by the IACUC. 28. In regards to pain and distress (choose all that apply): a. Specific details of the pre- and post-procedural care and relief of pain and distress must be approved by the attending veterinarian or his/her designee. b. The attending veterinarian retains the authority to change post-procedural care as necessary to ensure comfort of the animal. c. Appropriate use of drugs to relieve pain and/or distress must be specified in the animal activity proposal. d. Specific drugs for relief of pain and/or distress must be readily available for use as described in the proposal. 29. If a facility does not have a full-time attending veterinarian, it must have a ______ ______ ______ ______. 30. This _________ must consist of a properly completed APHIS form ______ or an equivalent format providing all the information required by the APHIS form. 31. T/F: The attending veterinarian must visit the facility on a regular basis (no less than annually). 32. T/F: Records of visits by the attending veterinarian must be kept to include dates of the visits and comments or recommendations of the attending veterinarian or other veterinarians 33. How often should the PCV be reviewed and updated? 34. Who needs to initial and date the PCV when changes or review is completed? 35. The preventative medicine program described in the PVC is expected to be in accordance with ______ _______ _________ __________ and should include _______ ______ ________ ________ and , if necessary, ________ _________ __________. 36. T/F: For facilities that do not employ a full-time veterinarian, it is suggested the health records system be explained as part of the written PVC. 37. What type of information should be included in the health records? 38. Give an example of a procedure that should be adequately documented in health records. 39. T/F: The attending veterinarian must hold the medical records. 40. How long must an animal’s health records be held after its disposition or death? 41. T/F: When an animal is transferred to another party or location, a copy of the animal’s health records must be transferred with the animal. 42. T/F: For traveling exhibitors, the individual animal medical records must accompany the animal at all times. 43. T/F: The method of euthanasia must be consistent with the current Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. 44. T/F: Gunshot is an acceptable method of routine euthanasia for any animal. 45. What is the subject of policy #4? 46. T/F: Animals are subject to AWA jurisdiction when they are used in regulated activities. Animals that are leased are not regulated, even if they are not in the custody of their owners. 47. Are both the lessee and lessor required to be licensed? 48. Who must keep the records on their animals? 49. Give an example of when an exemption from licensing would be granted. 50. What is the subject of policy #5? 51. T/F: All auction markets that sell exotic or wild animals are required to be licensed. 52. Who is responsible for compliance with the all regulations and standards, including transportation standards once animals are accepted by the auction market? 53. If the consignor is licensed, compliance will be the responsibility of both the _______ and the _________. 54. T/F: The standards for recordkeeping, transportation, cleaning, sanitation, and general animal health and well-being will be monitored and enforced. 55. T/F: Incompatible animals are not to be held in the same enclosure or close to other animals that may cause them stress. 56. T/F: All caged and/or dangerous animals must be held in a manner that ensures the safety of the animals and the public. 57. A _______ __________ __________ _________ is required around the loading and unloading areas to prevent the escape of animals. 58. What is the subject of policy #6? 59. What does policy #6 clarify in regards to space requirements? 60. T/F: Animals exhibited in traveling shows may be kept in enclosures that meet the space requirements for transport enclosures as specified in Sections 3.14, 3.36, 3.61, 3.87, and 3.137 only during actual transport. 61. Primary enclosures for animals must allow for _______________________________________________. 62. Animals that normally engage in occasional vertical/horizontal postures, such as bears and many felines, must have sufficient vertical/horizontal space available to accommodate these postures. 63. If the space requirements mentioned in Question 62 could not be met, how can this requirement be satisfied? 64. When elephants are housed on chains while not in transport, the chains must be of sufficient length and arrangement so as to permit each elephant to do what? 65. If elephants are kept unchained in a truck or railway care, what is the space requirement? Do these same requirements apply to tethered hoofstock? 66. If there is more than one animal kept in an enclosure, how much space is needed? 67. T/F: Trained elephants and domestic hoofstock may be walked a qualified handler in order to meet the requirement of species-appropriate exercise. 68. What is the subject of policy #7? 69. Which nonhuman primate species are included in Group 2? 70. Which nonhuman primate species are included in Group 3? 71. Which nonhuman primate species are included in Group 6? 72. Why have the species in Group 6 been classified as brachiating? 73. T/F: Brachiating species require less space than non-brachiating species. 74. Why are tree shrews no longer required to meet space or environmental enrichment requirements? Answers: 1. Denial of AWA License Applications 2. Three, 90 days, first inspection 3. regulations, standards 4. True 5. a formal, should not 6. True 7. animal cruelty 8. a, b, and d are true. C is false, license is considered valid and effective unless the license has expired. 9. True 10. Submission of Traveling Exhibitor Itinerary 11. d 12. in advance, as needed 13. False, four consecutive days 14. a, c, d 15. Similar information as the itinerary in Question 12 (a, c, and d). 16. a-d are true 17. True 18. Veterinary Care Expired Medical Materials Pharmaceutical-Grade Compounds in Research Surgery Pre- and Post-Procedural Care Program of Veterinary Care Health Records Euthanasia 19. False. The use of expired medical materials such as drugs, fluids, or sutures on regulated animals is not considered to be acceptable veterinary practice and does not constitute adequate veterinary care as required by the regulations promulgated under the Animal Welfare Act. 20. False. APHIS does not oppose the use of expired materials for acute terminal procedures if their use does not adversely affect the animal’s well-being or compromise the validity of the scientific study. 21. must not be used 22. a, b, d are true. C is false the attending veterinarian and the IACUC are responsible for ensuring that the proposed animal activities avoid or minimize discomfort, distress, and pain to the animal. 23. are 24. True 25. a-d are true 26. True 27. False. The withholding of pain and/or distress relieving care must be scientifically justified in writing and approved by the IACUC. 28. a-d are true 29. written Program of Veterinary Care (PVC). 30. Program, APHIS form 7002. 31. True 32. True 33. The PVC must be reviewed and updated whenever necessary (e.g., as a new species of animal or a new attending veterinarian is obtained, or the preventive medical program changes). 34. It must be initialed and dated by both the attending veterinarian and the facility representative whenever it is changed or reviewed without change. 35. common good veterinary practices, zoonotic disease prevention measures, special dietary prescriptions. 36. True 37. For all facilities, health records must be current, legible, and include, at a minimum, the following information: identity of the animal; descriptions of any illness, injury, distress, and/or behavioral abnormalities and the resolution of any noted problem; dates, details, and results (if appropriate) of all medically-related observations, examinations, tests, and other such procedures; dates and other details of all treatments, including the name, dose, route, frequency, and duration of treatment with drugs or other medications; treatment plans should include a diagnosis and prognosis, when appropriate. They must also detail the type, frequency, and duration of any treatment and the criteria and/or schedule for re-evaluation(s) by the attending veterinarian. In addition, it must include the attending veterinarian’s recommendation concerning activity level or restrictions of the animal. 38. Examples include vaccinations, fecal examinations, radiographs, surgeries, and necropsies. 39. False. Health records may be held by the licensee/registrant (including, but not limited to, the investigators at research facilities) or the attending veterinarian or divided between both (if appropriately cross-referenced), but it is the responsibility of the licensee/registrant to ensure that all components of the records are readily available and that the record as a whole meets the requirements listed above. 40. 1 year (Note: some records may need to be held longer to comply with other applicable laws or policies.) 41. True 42. False. For traveling exhibitors, information on any chronic or ongoing health problems and information on the most current preventive medical procedures must accompany any traveling animals, but the individual medical history records may be maintained at the home site. 43. True 44. False. Gunshot is NOT an acceptable method of routine euthanasia for any animal. 45. Use of Leased Animals by Licensees 46. False. Animals that are leased ARE still regulated, even if they are not in the custody of their owners. 47. Yes, the lessee and lessor shall both pay a fee as dealer, or lessee and lessor shall both include the animals held when calculating the required fees as an exhibitor. 48. Exhibitors and dealers must keep records which identify animals they own, hold for others, or keep in their possession in under their control. 49. One-time use of a non-performing animal for the purpose of making an advertisement. 50. Licensing of Exotic Animal Auction Markets 51. True 52. The market operator. 53. licensee, market 54. True 55. True 56. True 57. A species-appropriate containment area … 58. Space and Exercise Requirements for Traveling Exhibitors 59. Policy #6 clarifies when the licensee is required to meet full primary enclosure space requirements and/or provide sufficient exercise space and time for animals in traveling exhibits. 60. True 61. space for each animal to express all species-typical postures, social adjustments, behaviors, and movements. 62. vertical, vertical 63. The height requirement can be satisfied through release of the affected animals into an exercise pen or equivalent. If the pen is used for this purpose, animals should be released at least once per day and allowed to remain for a reasonable length of time unless otherwise justified. These periods will be in addition to regular performance and practice time. 64. comfortably lie down, get up, self-groom, and move about within a reasonable range. 65. If elephants are kept unchained in a truck or railway car, each elephant must have enough space to make normal postural adjustments (comfortably lie down, get up, self-groom, and move within a reasonable range). These same requirements apply to tethered hoofstock. 66. When more than one animal is kept in an enclosure at one time, all animals must simultaneously have sufficient space to accommodate their normal postures and movements. 67. True 68. Policy #7: GROUP Classifications for Nonhuman Primates. 69. Group 2 will include adult owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) regardless of adult weight. 70. Group 3 will include adult crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) regardless of adult weight. They are also known as cynomolgus macaques. 71. Group 6 will include adult: a. spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) b. woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles spp.) c. woolly monkeys (Lagothrix spp.) d. gibbons and siamangs (Hylobates spp.) 72. These species have been designated as brachiating since this term applies to any primate whose form of locomotion involves using its arms, legs, and/or tail while its body is suspended. 73. False. Species that engage in brachiating-type movement require larger space. 74. The scientific community has removed tree shrews from the Suborder Prosimii. Therefore, they are no longer classified as primates and are not required to meet space or environmental enrichment requirements for primates. Animal Care Resource Guide, Policies 22-29 Guidelines for the Confiscation of Animals: Policy #8 Define the Following Acronyms 1. AWA 2. APHIS 3. AC 4. VMO 5. ACI 6. IES 7. ACRD 8. DA 9. OGC True of False Questions 10. Under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Animal Care (AC) is authorized to confiscate and destroy regulated animals if they are suffering. 11. Animals (as defined in 9 CFR, Subchapter A, Part 1, Section 1.1) shall be confiscated in accordance with Section 2.38(e) and Section 2.129, if they are found to be suffering and relief has not been provided by the licensee or registrant. This policy established procedures to: a. Require the licensee or registrant to provide proper care and relief to a suffering animal as soon as possible, but typically not to exceed 48 hours. 12. The facility owner, manager, or responsible person, hereafter referred to as "responsible person,” should provide the necessary relief, veterinary care, or euthanasia, within the time frame specified by AC personnel. 13. If the animal confiscated is an endangered species or a marine mammal, the AC representative dose not have to comply with the requirements of the responsible government agencies. 14. When the AC and Investigative Enforcement Services’(IES) representatives have reason to believe that an animal is suffering and the responsible person for the animal cannot be found after a reasonable time (48 hours or less), the IES investigator shall contact local law enforcement for assistance, and the AC veterinarian shall contact a qualified private veterinarian to accompany them to the premises. 15. The veterinarian and the AC representative shall determine whether or not the animal is suffering, diagnose the problem and probable cause, and document the findings and recommendations in writing. 16. If the inspector determines that an animal is suffering and the responsible person disagrees, that determination should be confirmed by a second VMO or ACI whenever possible. 17. If the suffering is caused by a medical condition and there has been inadequate veterinary care, the determination doses not have to be documented with a complete inspection to include photographs and/or other physical evidence as may be available. 18. If the responsible person disagrees that an animal is suffering, the responsible person may call upon a qualified veterinarian for a second opinion if it can be given within 24 hours. 19. If AC disagrees with the veterinarian's findings, the Animal Care Regional Director (ACRD) may obtain the assistance of a non-APHIS veterinarian with expertise with the species of animal involved. 20. The final decision in determining if an animal is suffering shall be made by the AC based upon all of the relevant findings. 21. If it is determined that an animal is suffering and in need of veterinary care or other form of relief, the AC inspector should contact IES for assistance. 22. The IES investigator should not assist in documentation of violations and suffering during the examination and inspection by AC personnel. 23. Correspondence to the responsible person should include the “Notice of Intent to Confiscate” and an inspection report or other documentation. 24. Copies of all relevant correspondence should immediately be forwarded by the AC inspector to the AC Regional Office to receive confiscation authorization. 25. In rare circumstances, the confiscated animal may be held by AC on the premises, provided that the premises complies with AWA standards and regulations. 26. If the confiscated animal will not be held on the premises, the AC should arrange for transportation and transfer of the animal to an appropriate facility capable of providing the necessary care and housing consistent with the requirements of the AWA and regulations. 27. If it is deemed necessary prior to the seizure of an animal, the IES investigator shall request the local police, sheriff, U.S. Marshal, or other appropriate law enforcement personnel to accompany him/her and the AC representatives to the premises for the purpose of providing security to APHIS personnel. 28. The responsible person can be billed for expenses incurred by APHIs for the costs associated with the confiscation of animals (veterinary care, transportation, housing, feeding, handlers and other related expenses). 29. A responsibility of the AC Inspector is to promptly recognize animal suffering and initiate confiscations procedures in accordance with the regulations in USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Animal Care Policy Manual Policies policy #8. 30. AC Regional Director Responsibilities are to provide the DA with the most current information, to include a summary memo listing the number and species of animals to be confiscated, the location of the animals, and the reason(s) for the confiscation action. 31. The Deputy Administrator can authorize all confiscation actions. 32. The IES Investigator is responsible for contacting and coordinating with local law enforcement officials, the U.S.Marshal, or other appropriate law enforcement officials as needed with the confiscation or to protect APHIS employees. Barrier Facility SPF Colony Inspection Policy #9 True or False Questions 33. APHIS inspections of bonafide barrier facilities may be performed by analysis of environmental records, visual inspection through an adequate viewing window, and random selection of animals to be visually inspected. 34. Prior to an inspection of a barrier facility, the facility may not ask the inspector (as part of the standard entry procedure) to verify that he/she has not been in contact with, or exposed to, certain animals for a specified time period. 35. The APHIS inspector will sign any statement in which he or she accepts responsibility for the health of the animals in that barrier facility. Licensing and Registration of Producers of Policy #10 Antibodies, Sera and/or Other Animal Parts and Pregnant Mare Urine (PMU) True or False Questions 36. Production of PMU is not covered by the Animal Welfare Act. 37. A research facility selling antibodies, antisera, or other body parts for research, teaching, testing, or experimentation, would require a dealer’s license in addition to its registration. 38. Horses used for the production of PMU are by the AWA. This activity is not defined as research, teaching, or testing. People who deal in horses or horse parts are not required to be licensed. Painful Procedures Policy #11 True or False Questions 39. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for ensuring that investigators have appropriately considered alternatives to any procedures that may cause more than slight or momentary pain or distress. 40. Terminal Surgery is considered a painful procedure which is not alleviated by anesthesia. 41. Freund’s Complete Adjuvant used for antibody production may cause results ranging from momentary or slight pain to severe pain depending on the product, procedure, and species. 42. Ocular and skin irritancy testing itself is generally not painful but the reaction caused by the product being tested may cause pain. 43. Food or water deprivation beyond that necessary for normal presurgical preparation is not considered a painful procedure. 44. Noxious electrical shock that is not immediately escapable is considered a painful procedure. 45. Research facilities must have a mechanism in place for ensuring that animals are reported in the appropriate pain category on the annual report to (APHIS). Answers 1. Animal Welfare Act (AWA) 2. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) 3. Animal Care (AC) 4. Veterinary Medical Officers (VMO) 5. Animal Care Inspectors (ACI) 6. Investigative Enforcement Services’(IES) 7. Animal Care Regional Director (ACRD) 8. Animal Care Deputy Administrator (DA) 9. Office of the General Counsel (OGC) 10. T 11. F, 24 hours 12. T 13. F, ..should also comply with.. 14. F, 24 hour or less 15. T 16. T 17. F,…must be documented… 18. T 19. T 20. F, ACRD 21. T 22. F, ..should assist in the documentation. 23. T 24. T 25. T 26. F, ACRD 27. T 28. T 29. T 30. T 31. F, shall seek authorization from the administrator… 32. T 33. T 34. F, ..the facility may ask… 35. F, ..will not sign… 36. T 37. T 38. F,..are not covered 39. T 40. F,..which is alleviated… 41. T 42. T 43. F, is considered painful 44. T 45. T Animal Care Resource Guide, Policies 12 - 21 Questions: Policy 12 – Consideration of Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures 1. Alternative methods are generally regarded as methods that incorporate some aspect of: a. Refinement of animal use by lessening or eliminating pain and distress b. Reduction of the number of animals to the minimum required to obtain scientifically valid data c. Replacement of animals with non-animal systems or with less sentient animals d. All of the above, which constitute the principles of the 3 R’s 2. All proposed animal activities or significant changes to an ongoing animal activity must include what 4 items? 3. What is considered to be the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures? 4. In highly specialized fields of study, what other sources may be used to fulfill the search for alternatives requirement? 5. When using the database search to fulfill the search for alternatives requirement, what four items must be included in the narrative? 6. _____________________ is an information service of the National Agricultural Library specifically established to provide information about alternatives. 7. If a bona fide alternative method is found, is the principal investigator required under federal regulation to use the alternative? 8. True or False: For federally-mandated animal testing, the written narrative needs only to include a citation of the government agency’s regulation and guidance documents. 9. True or False: Searches for alternatives are required by Animal Care at the time of each annual review of the animal protocol. Policy 13: Microchip Implants 10. What are the requirements that must be met before approval to utilize the microchip identification system can be granted? 11. Who can grant approval for the use of microchip identification once all of the aforementioned requirements are met? a. IACUC b. Institutional Officer c. Attending Veterinarian d. USDA Animal Care inspector or the regional office Policy 14: Major Survival Surgery, Single vs. Multiple Procedures 12. What are the requirements if an animal is to be used in more than one major survival operative procedure? 13. True or False: An animal that has a major operative procedure as an emergency, and is part of proper veterinary care, may still be used in a proposal that requires a major operative procedure. 14. True or False: A major survival operative procedure may be performed a second time on an animal in a separate proposal, if approved by the IACUC. 15. What is the process to request an exemption to limiting animals from being used in only one proposal with a major operative procedure? 16. The request for the exemption should include a. Time frame for the proposed exempt procedure b. An outline of the research proposals for which the procedure is requested c. Species and number of animals involved in the exemption request d. The number of major operative procedures to be performed on each animal, frequency of procedures, and period of time between each operative procedure e. An assurance that the facility’s IACUC has approved the exemption f. Complete justification for the exemption g. An assurance that all other AWA requirements and regulations will be met h. Measures taken to ensure pain and distress are minimized. i. All of the above 17. True or False: Cost is usually a major criterion used to justify the exemption. 18. How often is IACUC to evaluate the exemption? Policy 15: IACUC Membership 19. The regulations provide for what 4 specific roles in the Animal Care and Use Program? 20. True or False: The nonaffiliated member of the IACUC is to provide representation for general community interests. 21. True or False: The nonaffiliated member may be a laboratory animal user at another research facility. 22. Can one person fill more than one role? 23. True or False: A veterinarian who is not the attending may assume any one of the other program positions. 24. True or False: An IACUC member is required to review her/his own proposal. Policy 16: Dealers Selling Surgically-Altered Animals to Research 25. True or False: A dealer performing surgery on animals as a necessary part of a proposed animal activity at a research facility is not required to either register as a research facility or be a site of the research facility requesting the altered animals. 26. True or False: When a research facility lists a dealer’s premises under its registration, the IACUC must inspect the facility and ensure that the individuals at the site performing the proposed procedures are qualified. Policy 17: Annual Report for Research Facilities 27. When is the annual report to the AC Regional office due each year and what is the USDA fiscal year? 28. True or False: Animals used in multi-year studies are to be counted only once in the initial year of use. 29. The annual report consists of what forms? 30. Animals listed in Column E must have a detailed statement including: a. A complete description of the procedures producing pain b. The reference code if the test is mandated by federal regulations c. The name of the test/procedure d. Explanation for withholding drugs to relieve pain or distress e. All of the above 31. True of False: All IACUC-approved exceptions to the regulations or the standards must be attached to the form. 32. True or False: Wild rats and mice are covered and must be reported in the annual report. 33. The Annual Report to Congress is due no later than _________________ of each year. Policy 18: Health Certificate for Dogs, Cats and Nonhuman Primates 34. A health certificate issued within _________ days of shipment must accompany any dog, cat or nonhuman primate that is transported intrastate by commercial carrier, transported interstate or in foreign commerce. 35. True or False: Dogs, cats and nonhuman primates transported within the state and in the licensee’s/registrant’s private vehicle may be transported without a health certificate. Policy 19: Tattoo Identification of Dogs and Cats 36. True or False: Each licensee who wishes to use a tattoo to id her/his animals will be assigned a code for identification to include the type of business and the State of licensure. In addition to the assigned code, numbers must be used to uniquely id each animal. Policy 20: Identification of Puppies Less than 16 Weeks of Age 37. What are the 2 requirements in order to exempt puppies under 16 weeks of age from the requirement of individual identification? Policy 21: Control of Tuberculosis in Regulated Elephants 38. True or False: All captive elephants in the US must be periodically tested for tuberculosis. 39. True or False: A protocol for the testing, surveillance and treatment of elephants for tuberculosis, if different from The Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants, must be approved prior to implementation by the applicable Animal Care Regional Office (APHIS). 40. True or False: All attendants, handlers and/or trainees which have direct contact with elephants must be tested for tuberculosis on at least an annual basis. Answers: Policy 12: 1. D 2. a. rationale for using animals, appropriateness of the chosen species, number to be used b. description of procedures or methods to assure pain & discomfort will be limited to that which is unavoidable and analgesics, anesthetics and tranquilizers will be used where indicated c. written narrative of methods & sources used to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary pain or distress d. written assurance that activities don’t unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments 3. Database Search 4. Conferences, colloquia and subject expert consultants 5. a. names of searched databases b. date of search c. period covered by the search d. key words and/or search strategy used 6. The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) 7. No, however if a bona fide alternative is found and not used, the narrative should justify why the alternative is not being used 8. True 9. False, Animal Care normally expects the principal investigator to reconsider alternatives at least once every 3 years, consistent with the triennial review requirements Policy 13: 10. a. microchip must be implanted in a standard anatomical location b. a scanner device must be readily available to the APHIS representative c. animal id records must indicate the microchip number, location on the animal, the name of the microchip manufacturer d. any animal with a microchip that goes to another licensee or registrant must have a tag or tattoo if a compatible scanner is not available at the receiving facility 11. D Policy 14: 12. All procedures must be included in one protocol, the procedures must be justified for scientific reasons by the principal investigator, and approval by IACUC is granted 13. True 14. False; a major survival operative procedure must not be performed a second time on an animal in a separate protocol and as such, all animals surviving a major operative procedure must be identified 15. The IO of the research facility makes an exemption request to the Animal Care Regional Director, who then forwards it to the Animal Care Assistant Deputy Administrator for review and recommendation to the Deputy Administrator 16. I 17. False, cost is not normally a major criterion 18. Annually Policy 15 19. a. Institutional Officer b. IACUC Chairperson c. Attending Veterinarian d. Nonaffiliated Member 20. True 21. False; cannot be a laboratory animal user at another institution 22. Regulations don’t specifically prohibit one person from filling more than one role, but APHIS strongly discourages such assignments because of the potential for conflicts of interest and/or undue influence by one person 23. True 24. False, No IACUC member can review her/his own proposal Policy 16 25. False, they are required to register as a research facility or be a site of the research facility requesting the animals 26. True Policy 17 27. Annual report is due on or before December 1 of each year; USDA fiscal year is Oct. 1 – Sept. 30 28. False; animals used in multi-year studies will be counted once each fiscal year 29. APHIS Form 7023 and APHIS Form 7023-A 30. E 31. True 32. True 33. March 31 Policy 18 34. 10 35. True Policy 19 36. True Policy 20 37. a. puppies remain housed at the facility where they were whelped and are maintained as a litter b. the enclosure containing the puppies is identified with the information required by 9 CFR section 2.50 until the puppies are sold or moved from the facility where they were whelped or reach the age of 16 weeks, whichever comes first Policy 21 38. True 39. True 40. True Animal Care Resource Guide, Policies 22-29 Policy #22 - Necropsy Requirements 1. T/F The USDA requires necropsies are required for elephants and marine mammals only. 2. Why are necropsies considered integral to the well being of a facility? 3. The ________________________ may require necropsy of selected animals at a regulated facility. 4. T/F Necropsy reports must be signed but not dated by the attending veterinarian. 5. How long must necropsy records be maintained? 6. List 3 of 4 circumstances under which a necropsy would be recommended. 7. T/F Necropsies only need to be performed on animals which die unexpectedly. Policy #23 - Licensing of Hoofstock Dealers 1. Under what conditions must a hoofstock dealer be licensed by the USDA? 2. What is hoofstock? 3. T/F All hoofstock dealers must be licensed. 4. Dealers in farm animals must be licensed as dealers if two criteria are met: First, they must have sold more than ____ animals in a _____ -month period for regulated purposes. Second, the animals sold for regulated purposes must represent a ____________ of all of the animals they have sold in that 12-month period. Policy #24 - Enclosures for Flying and Aquatic Species 1. T/F This policy applies to marine flying and aquatic species. 2. How much space must be allotted to flying species? 3. How is space assessed for aquatic species and judged to be adequate? 4. Is water quality important for aquatic species? Policy #25 - Proper Diet for Large Felids 1. Is fasting permissible under the this policy? 2. Why would fasting be included in a large cat nutritional regimen? 3. In order of preference, list the diets permitted to be fed to large felids. 4. Is an exclusive meat diet acceptable? Is road kill OK to feed large felids? 5. What types of animals are considered unsuitable for use as large felid food? 6. Is fish OK to be fed to large felids? Bakery products? Policy #26 - Regulation of Agricultural Animals 1. Are farm animals used for the manufacture and/or testing of biologic agents destined for use in agricultural animals covered by the Animal Welfare Act? 2. Are farm animals used for traditional agricultural practices covered by the Animal Welfare Act? 3. Are farm animals used for the manufacture and/or testing of biologic agents destined for use in non-production or nonagricultural species (e.g. horses, dogs, ferrets) covered by the Animal Welfare Act? What about as animal models of human disease? Policy #27 - Capture of Prairie Dogs 1. Is the use of water, vacuum equipment or live traps considered an acceptable method of capture for Prairie Dogs? 2. What methods are not considered acceptable for their capture? 3. Does a person wishing to capture Prairie Dogs need to apply for a license and approval for such capture from the USDA Animal Care section? Policy #28 - Licensing Sales of Dead Animals 1. What is the intent of this policy? 2. Under this policy, who is not required to be licensed? Policy #29 - Farm Animals Used for Nonagricultural Purposes 1. Does the Animal Welfare Act cover farm animals? 2. What publications are used to insure facilities that they are in compliance with the standards requested by the Animal Welfare Act for farm animals? 3. Do these guidelines supercede any regulations specified in the Animal Welfare Act? Answers: 1. False While performance of necropsies on covered species is at the discretion of the attending veterinarian, the USDA may require necropsies of one or more animals of any covered species. 2. To provide adequate veterinary care by providing diagnoses of various conditions, thereby allowing for adequate prevention, control, and treatment of the disease. 3. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) inspector, in consultation with their Regional office supervisor 4. False, necropsy reports must be signed and dated by the veterinarian preparing the report. 5. For a period of at least one year or as otherwise specified by Animal Welfare Act regulations 6. a. The facility is undergoing a high death loss. b. There is a significant number of unexplained deaths at the facility. c, There exists a strong chance that an undiagnosed infectious disease is present at the facility (with or without potential zoonoses). d. Circumstances around a death indicate a violation of the AWA may have contributed to the situation. 7. False. Necropsies may be performed (or required to be performed) on any animal that dies, whether unexpectedly or if it is euthanized. Policy 23: 1. a) The sale must be for regulated purposes. b) Sales of wild/exotic hoofstock for biomedical research, exhibition or as a pet are considered to be regulated. c) Sale/Consignment of wild/exotic hoofstock to exotic animal markets is not regulated unless final disposition of the animal is known to be for a regulated purpose at the time of consignment. d) farm animals are regulated only for purposes of biomedical research, nonagricultural exhibit, or dealing as defined in the policy (i.e. for regulated purposes). Horses are regulated only when used for biomedical research. 2. Hoofstock includes all hooved animals 3) False. Dealers selling hoofstock for agricultural purposes or for the purpose of improving food or fiber production are exempt. Also exempt are dealers selling hoofstock intended for breeding purposes in private collections or to game ranches. Horse sales are exempt with the exception of horses destined for biomedical research. 4.  animals in a -month period which are the [majority] of animals the dealer has sold within a year. Policy #24 1. False. Marine species are covered in subpart E. This policy clarifies subpart F of the Animal Welfare Act and applies to flying species and aquatic/terrestrial mammals (e.g. beaver, tapir, hippopatami). 2. Flying species enclosures must be of sufficient space to permit unobstructed flight and to provide enough roosting space to allow all animals in the enclosure to roost simultaneously. 3. Aquatic species (species that spend a significant amount of time in the water) must be provided with both dry and aquatic sections to the primary enclosure, each of which must, at a minimum, provide sufficient space to allow each animal therein to make "normal postural and social adjustments with adequate freedom of movement." "Normal postural and social adjustments" and "adequate freedom of movement" are to be determined according to what is normal for that species under natural conditions. 4. Yes. Water quality will be such that it is not detrimental to the health of the animal(s). Policy #25 1. Yes. Fasting, if approved by the attending veterinarian, is permitted 1-2 non-consecutive days of the week. On fast days, it is encouraged to provide the cats with bones or rawhides to promote periodontal health. 2. To mimic natural feeding behavior. 3. a) A commerically prepared, nutritionally balanced diet. b) A nutritionally complete alternative diet (preferably one devised by a nutritionist) that has been approved in writing by the attending veterinarian. The written diet is to specify the type, quantity, and frequency of any nutritional supplements. c) Road Kill - feeding of which is discouraged but allowed as long as it is fresh, wholesome, free from contaminants and fed as soon as possible. In addition, it must be removed from the enclosure once spoilage begins or 12 hours after placement in the enclosure. 4. No. Exclusive meat diets result in vitamin A defieicency, metabolic disease and structural damage. 5. Animals euthanized by chemical means. Sick animals or those that died of unknown causes. Animals that are downers with signs of CNS disease, chronic wasting illness or Johne's disease. Gunshot animals must have the lead shot removed prior to being used as food. 6. A fish diet must be supplemented with vitamin E and thiamine to compensate for thiaminase and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Bakery products are not to be fed to large felids as they do not have the digestive capacity to handle large volumes of carbohydrates. Policy #26 1. No. As the biologics are destined for use in production agricultural species, use of farm animals in this manner is not deemed under the control of the AWA. 2. No, farm animals used in traditional agricultural practices are not coverd by the AWA. Taditional production agricultural purposes includes use as food and fiber, for improvement of animal nutrition, breeding, management, or production efficiency, or for improvement of the quality of food or fiber. 3. Yes to both parts. Farm animals used to produce biologics destined for exclusive use in nonproduction or nonagricultural species or for humans are covered under the AWA as are farm animals used to study human diseases. Policy #27 1 All three may be used as methods of capture so long as the animal does not suffer undue stress or become injured. The water must be natural water (without added chemicals or noxious gas) that is introduced into a burrow at a temperature, volume, and speed that does not harm or distress the prairie dogs. The vacuum method must assure that minimal suction pressure is used and the animal travels a short distance from the burrow to catch basket and is quickly removed from the catch basket upon capture. Live trapping of prairie dogs must only be done with humane traps that do not injure the prairie dog upon capture. The traps must be checked with sufficient frequency to assure that the animal does not go without food, water or shelter for a unnecessary period of time. 2. The introduction of chemicals or noxious gas into prairie dog burrows will be considered a violation of the AWA. 3. Yes. Capture methods for prairie dogs must be approved by the Animal Care Regional Director. The licensee or applicant must request approval by providing a detailed written description of the methods of capture. Changes in the capture method used by a licensee will also require approval. An Animal Care Inspector or Veterinary Medical Officer must validate that the described method does not cause unnecessary discomfort, harm or behavioral stress to the animal. An itinerary of capture dates and sites must be provided to the appropriate Animal Care Regional Office at least two days prior to collection. Policy #28 1. The intent of the policy is to ensure that all covered species receive humane care, use and handling. Humane euthanasia is one area that must be assured to purchasers of dead animals used for teaching, research or exhibition. The second intent is to protect the pet-owning public from having their pet cats and dogs stolen for the purpose of use in research, testing or exhibition. 2. Individuals exempt from licensing under this policy are: (1) Any person who acquires an animal (other than a dog or cat) that is already dead and then sells it. and (2) Any person who acquires a dead dog or cat from a USDA licensed dealer or municipal, county, or state pound/shelter and then sells it. Policy #29 1. Yes. The AWA provides coverage of farm animals when used in biomedical research, nonagricultural research or nonagricultural exhibition. 2. Animal Care has adopted two guides, the "Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching," published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies, and the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," published by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR). 3. Adoption of these guides is intended only as additional guidance on how to meet the already existing standards in the regulations. They are to be used only to supplement or interpret the regulations. Both guides contain recommendations concerning animals such as poultry and areas such as environmental enhancement and individual animal identification that are not covered or required under the regulations. Those portions of the guides that do not relate to or support the current standards in the regulations cannot be enforced by Animal Care inspectors. At the same time, nothing in the guides will be used to reduce or lessen any of the requirements in the current regulations.
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