review for midterm 2007 08 by V8OKI3ub

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									humanbio midterm review 2007-08
        WODs will be available for bonus! as usual, spelling and definition must be correct for the points.

tips on working through this review
 1. note that “pagespace doesn’t equal workspace” on this sheet!
   a) sometimes there’s many lines that can be answered quickly
   b) sometimes one line might take a long time

 2. the exam will be a subset of this review
   a) there wont’ be anything on the exam that’s NOT on this sheet’
   b) not everything on this sheet will be on the exam
   c) this sheet points to the main areas
   d) ASK if an area is likely to be large, small, “a few multiple choice questions,” etc

 3. do the whole review! it’s a homework assignment!

inflammation
   a) four hallmarks of inflammation -- what are they?

diabetes, obesity, lifestyle, BMI
 1. BMI
   a) what is it?
   b) how is it calculated?
   c) what are some advantages of using BMI as a measure of obesity?
   d) what are some disadvantages of using BMI as a measure of obesity?
   e) two people have similar BMI, but you expect they are not of equal health status. What one simple
       measurement can often help tell the difference between the two people? (think: weightlifter and couch
       potato)
   f) what are the categories of BMI for adults?
   g) OTHER than BMI, what ways are there to measure body fat? Describe three, with advantages and
       disadvantages for each.

 2. BMI-for-age
   a) how should BMI be adapted for people under 20 yrs of age?
   b) given the charts, and a person’s age, height, and weight, be able to give an accurate BMI-for-age
       measurement.

 3. diabetes
   a) what is insulin?
   b) what is glucagon?
   c) what does insulin do?
   d) what is a glucose channel, and how is it affected in diabetes?
   e) what is an insulin receptor? why is it important? what type of diabetes (type I or type II) is deficient in
       insulin receptors?
   f) what is the difference between type I diabetes and type II diabetes?
   g) in a normal (non-diabetic) person, how do insulin and glucagon work together to control levels of
       circulating blood sugar?
   h) if cells do not have sufficient glucose for fuel, what will they use instead? what is the consequence over
       time of using this alternate fuel?
   i) what happens to blood sugar levels in the bloodstream when insulin is (a) absent; (b) present

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   j) what are some complications of having high circulating blood sugar over long periods of time?
   k) define the following, and how each is related to diabetes:
        hyperglycemia
        glycosuria
        polyuria
        polydipsia
        polyphagia
        ketosis
        shock
        gangrene
        neuropathy
        nephropathy
        retinopathy

 4. trends in obesity and diabetes in the USA
   a) over the last 20 years, what has been the trend in obesity in the USA?
   b) how has obesity been defined in this case?
   c) what states appear to be “leaders” in this trend?
   d) describe a few reasons why these “leader” states might be “leaders.”
   e) why is diabetes such an expensive disease?
   f) what is happening to the number of people with diabetes in the USA?
   g) how, and WHY, does the trend in diabetes connect with the trend in obesity?

digestion
 1. digestive system anatomy
   a) name and function of all the digestive structures:
            alimentary canal,
            accessory organs,
            control structures,
            extra structures
   b) be able to fully label a diagram of the digestive system
   c) what are villi and microvilli? where are they? what is their function? why are they important?

 2. digestive enzymes and juices
   a) what are the five main digestive juices? where does each come from? what is the function for each?
   b) what are the three different general categories of digestive enzymes?
   c) what is the difference between “mechanical” digestion, and “chemical” digestion?

 3. process of digestion
   a) functions of the liver -- should be able to explain at least 7 functions
   b) what unique aspect of stomach allows it to withstand extreme acid conditions?
   c) why is the duodenum a busy place? what different organs put substances into the duodenum?
   d) “liver pipes:” what is the role of the following:
         hepatic artery
         hepatic vein
         hepatic portal vein
         hepatic duct
   e) how do nutrients get from the digestive system into the blood?
   f) why is the pancreas called a “double organ?”
   g) the human digestive functions can be listed under the following three main categories. Explain what
       structures of the digestive system are involved with each of these three main categories. in which
       organ(s) does each of these activities occur?
         break it down
         soak it up
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        throw it away

 4. digestive disorders
   a) explain diverticulitis -- what happens, and why
   b) what is jaundice? why does it happen? what are the symptoms?
   c) cirrhosis -- what happens? why does it end up being a “vicious cycle”?

nutrition
 1. nutrient types and shapes
   a) what are the 7 main categories of nutrients?
   b) what’s the difference between a micronutrient and a macronutrient?
   c) for each of the three macronutrients: what forms are they in when we eat them? what forms must they
       be in before we can absorb them?
   d) be able to draw pictures of the following. Pictures should clearly show the difference between different
       types.
            monosaccharide
            starch
            glycogen
            cellulose
            saturated fatty acid
            monounsaturated fatty acid
            polyunsaturated fatty acid
            tryglyceride
            single amino acid (cartoon version -- don’t need the atoms)
            primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structures
   e) what is the role of C=C double bonds in the structure of fatty acids?
   f) what is the effect of different kinds of fatty acids on our blood cholesterol?
   g) what is the state (solid, liquid, or gas) of different fatty acids at room temperature, and in the fridge?
   h) name some SOURCES of different kinds of fatty acids.
   i) what effect does high cholesterol have on our bodies?
   j) which has a greater effect on raising blood cholesterol: eating cholesterol, or eating saturated fats?
   k) what is an ESSENTIAL amino acid?
   l) how many different amino acids are there?
   m) how many ESSENTIAL amino acids are there?
   n) what is the difference between a complete protein, and an incomplete protein?
   o) what are complementary proteins?
   p) draw some graphs to show the IDEA of complementary proteins. (you do not need to be numerically
       correct)
   q) what is the main function for each of the seven nutrient categories in the body?

 2. nutrient deficiencies:
   a) describe the nutrients missing, good food sources, and pathogenesis in each of the following deficiency
       syndromes:
           kwashiorkor
           marasmus
           scurvy
           night blindness
           xerophthalmia
           goiter
           rickets
           beriberi
           pellagra



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cardio
 1. heart structure:
   a) four chambers,
   b) four valves,
   c) four main vessels
   d) anything else on any of the diagrams; you should be able to label using FULL NAMES – no shortforms!

 2. Cartoon pictures of the heart
   a) for each of the major vessels in the heart, know the following:
   b) where does it carry blood (from ____ to _____)
   c) is that blood oxygenated, or deoxygenated?
   d) is that blood high pressure, or low pressure?

 3. path of blood through the heart
   a) LINEAR path, and SIMULTANEOUS path
   b) Also know the SCHEMATIC diagram – the circle divided into four parts
   c) TIMING of contractions (atrial contractions and ventricular contractions): do they happen at the same
       time? WHY do they happen when they do? What system in the heart keeps them in proper time with
       each other?

 4. heart valves
   a) the LUB-DUB sounds in the heart: what causes them? when do they occur? WHY do they occur?
   b) What would “lub-swish-dub” sounds suggest? What about “lub-dub-swish”?
   c) when are the various valves open and closed during the heartbeat?
   d) why do we need valves in the heart?

 5. blood vessels
   a) what are the similarities and differences between arteries, veins, and capillaries? (review table on these)
   b) what are the functions of arteries, veins, and capillaries?
   c) explain the role of valves in the veins
   d) precapillary sphincters and thoroughfare channels (shunts) – what happens to circulation in the tissues
       when the precapillary sphincters are open? when they are closed?
   e) capillary beds – be able to label
   f) WHERE in the capillary bed would you expect to find precapillary sphincters? would they be on the
       arterial side, or the venous side?

 6. blood vessel schematic
   a) aorta --> artery --> arteriole --> capillary --> venule --> vein --> vena cava --> heart

 7. nerve signals in the heart
   a) SA node, AV node, purkinje fibers – label the diagram
   b) how does the signal travel in a normal heartbeat? know the four steps

 8. ECG (electrocardiogram)
   a) P, QRS, and T parts
   b) interpret each part and tell when each part fits with the cycle of the heartbeat
   c) be able to make some guesses at what’s happening in an abnormal ECG

 9. coronary arteries – location and function
   a) why are they important?
   b) where are they?

 10. Blood pressure
   a) sphygmomanometers, method of taking blood pressure, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure; what
       each number represents; korotkoff sounds

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 11. john’s heart attack
   a) what were the steps in john’s heart attack?
   b) Role of defibrillator, TPA, ventricular fibrillation, adrenaline
   c) Role of plaque in short-term (ripping and clotting)
   d) Long-, medium-, and short-term factors leading up to john’s heart attack
   e) Myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, arrhythmia
   f) Lifestyle factors leading to heart attack

 12. pulmonary edema
   a) what is it? how is it related to heart attack?

 13. Atherosclerosis and cholesterol
   a) What is LDL? What is HDL? What do they do? What is meant by “HDL : cholesterol ratio”?

 14. lymphatic system
   a) what is it? where is it? what is its function? what disease shows what happens if the lymphatic system
      is blocked?

CRF and THR
 1. factors contributing to cardiorespiratory fitness
   a) define each of the following:
        lung volume
        capillary infusion
        maximum heart rate
        stroke volume
   b) which of the above is most trainable?

 2. target heart rate
   a) be able to use the Karvonen method for calculating target heart rate
   b) you need to know the formula!
   c) what does resting rate tell you? if a person has a lower resting rate, is that good or bad? after several
       months of cardiorespiratory training, what would you expect to happen to your resting rate? how
       would you expect your maximum heart rate to change? who’s likely to have a higher maximum heart
       rate: couch potato 17 yrs old; athlete 60 yrs old

 3. training zones
   a) what are the pros and cons of training in, above, and below one’s target heart zone?
   b) how does target heart rate get turned into a training zone?

respiratory system
 1. respiratory anatomy
   a) be able to label a diagram of the respiratory system
         larynx
         pharynx
         epiglottis
         trachea
         bronchus
         bronchiole
         alveolus (alveoli)
         alveolar macrophage
         diaphragm
         pleural membranes
   b) five lines of defence against airborne intruders
                                                 -- page 5 of 6 --
      what are they?
c) respiratory disorders
      asthma
      tuberculosis
      pneumothorax
d) what roles are played by water’s surface tension? how is it helpful in our lungs? in what cases is surface
    tension problematic?
      see notes on “sticky slippery slides”
e) what is a surfactant? what role does it play in the development of infant lungs?
f) carbonic anhydrase -- what is it? why is it important?
g) how is carbon dioxide carried in our bloodstream?




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