What Will We Do with the CO2 by B3JK6W


									                                   Earth 691/692

     Carbon Sequestration in Sedimentary Basins
                     (What Will We Do with the CO2?)
         Maurice B Dusseault, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
            University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1
                     519 888 4590 (O) mauriced@uwaterloo.ca

                               INITIATION MEETING
                        9:00 (AM) Thursday January 08, 2009

                                    ROOM ESC 315

    Whatever you believe about the impact and consequences of anthropogenic carbon
dioxide emissions, you will soon experience the effects of political decisions to control
and even reverse emissions growth. How this will happen is still uncertain, but some
form of taxes on primary producers (oil and energy industries) will be implemented. Of
course this will mean higher fuel and electricity prices. There are two general
approaches: one is to establish a cap-and-trade emissions management system for large,
point-source emitters such as oil sands facilities, coal-fired power plants, and cement
kilns; the second it to tax the end-users who generate wide-spread dispersed emissions
that cannot be captured. Likely, some combination of the two tax approaches will be
implemented. These developments will force industry and consumers to change their
behavior, and governments already recognize that such change will not be achieved
willingly because of the price. This is an area where governments will lead in regulations
and enforcements, and industry will lead in technological developments to achieve the
desired goals. In this course, we will deal with some aspects of the capture and
geological storage (or use) of CO2 from large point-source emitters.
    Under some future C-tax regime, it will likely become economically feasible to take
CO2 from combustion gases and place it deep in the ground for permanent storage. This
process, referred to as sequestration, requires understanding of the local and regional
geology, of thermodynamics and reservoir engineering, and of geomechanics issues to
allow design and safe implementation of projects. The whole process of capture and
storage or use has come to be referred to as CCS – Carbon Capture and Sequestration.
Anyone taking this course should read, in advance, the following report:
Dooley, J.J. (lead author), 2007, Carbon Dioxide Capture and Geologic Storage. 2nd
      Report of the Global Energy Strategy Technology Program, 37 p.
Available at: www.pnl.gov/gtsp/docs/ccs_report.pdf

     Before any massive sequestration efforts are undertaken, it will be necessary to
develop better means of capture and purification. In the near-term, easy projects such as
the re-injection of CO2 stripped from natural gas will grow, sometimes for EOR –
Enhanced Oil Recovery – sometimes just for storage. The premier examples of EOR
using CO2 are undoubtedly the Permian Basin projects in the USA and Weyburn,
Saskatchewan. Re-injection of CO2 stripped from natural gas is happening in Norway
(Sleipner, Snhovit) and elsewhere (Algeria – BP).
     In the near-term, CO2 will be used for enhanced oil and gas recovery because
sequestration and improved recovery can be simultaneously achieved, likely at a
reasonable profit. However, there are other approaches such as human and animal
biosolids injection, which solves the problem of waste treatment as well as achieving
direct sequestration of carbon (rather than CO2), with the attendant possibility of methane
recovery for beneficial use, and co-injection of other waste streams (oily sludges for

     Options that appear to available for sequestration include enhanced oil and gas
recovery, storage in salt caverns (likely a temporary – < 500 yr – expedient as part of a
distribution system), biosolids injection, carbon-rich waste disposal, and supercritical
CO2 placement in deep porous and permeable strata. Of primary concern are issues such
as the viscosity and behavior of supercritical CO2, the effects of other gases (flue gas
from power plants contain only 13% CO2), the formation of carbon dioxide hydrates in
the presence of water, and other phenomena. For example, because supercritical CO2 is
fully miscible in water and conventional oil, capillary trapping phenomena are different
compared to water-gas, oil-gas or water-oil systems which have strong interfacial

    There will be large economic opportunities associated with the carbon sequestration
industry that will emerge in the future. Rather than taking resources out of the ground,
sending them to processing and then to market, we will be reversing the process: taking
combustion gases, processing them, and placing these materials into the ground. This
will be done by the petroleum industry because that is where the expertise resides.
Application of the knowledge and practical expertise that we have developed over the last
century of the oil industry in western Canada will allow carbon sequestration to take
place in an efficient and economical manner. Canada could become a world leader in
these technologies with appropriate political and industrial will. Since it is going to
happen in any case, better sooner than later; better proactive action rather than playing

The Course Requirements
    The reading course will provide each participant with a series of basic background
documents that will be treated as required reading (such as the above document). There
will be several assignments based on the required reading and on the material I present in
a short series of lectures.
    Each participant will be assigned a comprehensive Term Paper in a specific aspect
of CO2 sequestration. Some possible topics are:

           Thermal-Stress effects in Massive CO2 Injection Operations

           Density-Driven Flow Arising from CO2 Injection

           Sequestration of Carbon in Solid Form

           A Mass-Transport Model for Fixed-Site CO2 Sequestration

           Long-Term Mineralogical Issues Associated with CO2 Sequestration

           Developing Screening Criteria for CO2 Storage Site Ranking

           A Systems Approach to Development of a Carbon Sequestration Network

           Rock Fabric Issues in Geological Sequestration of CO2

           Dissolution of Supercritical CO2 into the Aqueous Phase

           The Thermodynamics of CO2 Sequestration in Porous Media

           Supercritical CO2 for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Low-Viscosity Oils

           Capillarity Effects in CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers

           Special Phase Relationships in the CO2-H2O p-T-salinity System

           Short-Term (<10 years) Geochemical Aspects of CO2 Sequestration
           YOUR IDEA HERE_____________________________

     Your work in the Term Paper may outline the history and some of the social issues,
but must mainly focus on the science and technology of C sequestration. I will be
flexible to the receipt of other proposals.
    Each student will have to also prepare a 40-min PowerPoint presentation on the
subject of their Term Paper. These presentations will be made the week of March 30th.
The presentations will be open to all interested parties.

    I will also assign each student 15 articles for a detailed scientific/engineering critique
of 600-800 words each. You may be involved in the choice of articles, but they must be
different from the topic you chose for the Term Paper. In other words, I want you to
broaden your scope in this area. If you are a Chemical Engineer, I will ask you to focus
on geological or geomechanics issues; if you are an Earth Scientist, I will ask you to
focus on an engineering aspect.
    Course Presentations
     I have a series of eight PowerPoint modules dealing with the broad issues, science
and technology, and case histories. I wish to present these in a series of about 12 hours of
lectures, preferably at the beginning of the course. Furthermore, all the materials in the
course will be made available to participants in open PowerPoint files for your use.

Module 1:      Introduction to Carbon Sequestration in Sedimentary Basins: History,
               Issues, Separation

Module 2:      Aspects of the Science and Technology of CO2 Sequestration
Module 3:      Enhanced Oil Recovery using CO2. The Permian Basin, USA, Case and
               the Weyburn, Saskatchewan, Case
Module 4:      CO2 and Natural Gas Recovery. Coal Bed Methane and Natural Gas
               Reservoir Exploitation
Module 5:      Direct CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers. The Sleipner, Norway, Case

Module 6:      Issues in Transportation and Storage of CO2. Temporary Storage of CO2
               in Salt Caverns

Module 7:      Direct Storage of Carbon through Biosolids Injection, Combined with
               Generated Methane Recovery

Module 8:      Geological and Geomechanics Issues Associated with Sequestration.
               Long-Term Risks and Concerns, Monitoring, and Related Issues
                        Dr. Maurice B. Dusseault, PhD, PEng
         Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Waterloo
           Phone: 1 250 498 5541 (May to Dec), 1 519 888 4590 (Jan to Apr)
                        E-mail:       mauriced@uwaterloo.ca


Maurice Dusseault is a professor of Geological Engineering in the Earth and
Environmental Sciences Department, University of Waterloo. Maurice worked as a
roughneck for a year, then as a drilling fluids specialist for two years, before returning to
university in 1967 and obtaining a PhD in Civil Engineering in 1977 on the subject of
Athabasca Oil Sands Geotechnical Properties. He was also awarded a five-year
AOSTRA (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority) Professorship, held in
Civil and Mineral Engineering at the University of Alberta until 1982, when he went to
the University of Waterloo to become chair of the Geological Engineering Program.

Maurice carries out active research in petroleum geomechanics, new production methods
in heavy oil, and deep waste disposal for solids, liquids and biosolids. He has co-
authored two textbooks and more than 430 professional articles in conferences and
journals. He works widely with industry as an advisor on projects ranging from rock
behavior to oil production approaches, and is an expert in areas such as heavy oil
production technologies, monitoring, hydraulic fracture and reservoir geomechanics. He
is active in developing and implementing new disposal technology involving deep solids
and fluids placement in geological strata with aspects of CH4 generation and carbon

Maurice was a Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer in 2002-2003, and
he visited 28 SPE sections in 19 countries speaking about new oil production
technologies. He has written one of the Chapters in the new edition of the SPE
Petroleum Engineers Handbook that has published later, and has developed a series of
short courses in various Petroleum Geomechanics subjects. These courses have been
presented many times, in 12 different countries.

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