Essential Skills Unit #2 – The Nature of Water
I. Be able to explain water’s unique properties: How water molecules bond to each other, what
makes water a polar molecule, and the structure of water molecules.
II. Be able to list the 6 colligative properties of seawater and explain how they affect the water.
III. Be able to graph and explain how the phases of water change as it transforms from a solid to a
1. List and describe the 5 Characteristics of Life.
2. Describe the 2 Laws of Thermodynamics.
3. What are two processes in which energy can be used to create carbohydrates? What does each
require to stimulate the electron transport chain to create carbohydrates?
4. What are the bonds that hold water molecules together? What type of bonds that hold oxygen and
hydrogen atoms together to form a water molecule?
5. What is a polar molecule?
6. Define the following:
d. Surface Tension-
7. What is a solution? What is the universal solvent?
8. What are the colligative properties of seawater? Define and list all 6.
9. Define the Principle of Constant Proportions.
10. What is a Biogeochemical Cycle? What is the importance of each of the following to living things:
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Phosphorous?
11. The ocean is a very important part of the carbon cycle. What cellular respiration waste product is
dissolved in tremendous amounts in the ocean? Where do all of the salts in the ocean come from?
12. Why is Phosphorous important to marine organisms? What does Silicon make in marine
13. Compare and contrast Osmosis vs. Diffusion. What happens to a marine fish when it is placed in a
14. Compare and contrast osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
15. Using the information from Lab #2, when ice is heated, when does the temperature start to
increase? Define the latent heat of boiling AND the latent heat of melting.
16. As water is freezing into ice, what happens to the temperature of the water and ice mixture?
17. Define density. What happens to the density of water as it nears freezing? What happens to the
density of water as it begins to actually turn into a solid? Are there many other substances that do
18. When salt is added to water, what happens to the freezing point of the water and the boiling point
of the water?
19. Define temperature and heat. Describe the difference between the two.
20. Sketch a graph showing the phase changes of water. Be sure to label where each phase change
occurs. Circle the portion of the graph where water is the most dense.