Ecology/Environment by B3JK6W

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 33

									 Integrating
Environmental
   Science
  into Your
 Curriculum


  John Siemianowski
           &
     Scott Taubitz



  TE 804, Section #19
                                                                                              Page 1


           Environmental Science Activity Set
                               John Siemianowski and Scott Taubitz

        Humans interact and change the environment in ways no other species does. Air
pollution, water pollution, ground and soil contamination all have naturally occurring causes, but
nature has a way with dealing with these, as they are often a part of nutrient cycles. However,
when humans begin to shape and change their environment to meet the needs of an ever-growing
population, nature cannot survive as it has. Each year, nearly 6 billion pounds of pesticides are
sold in the global marketplace to control or kill off pests. Most of these products may have
unknown long term effects. Uninformed use in the past has lead to devastating effects on birds,
fish and other animals. “Fossil-fuel pollution from plants, factories, cars, buses, trucks,
airplanes, and even lawn mowers produce toxic air pollutants that endanger public health,
wildlife, vegetation, buildings, statues, gravestones, and all they touch (Anthony.)” Enormous
oil tankers that leak thousands of gallons of oil into the ocean have permanently changes
habitats. How can humans curb this trend that seems to end with the destruction of the natural
environment? How can the environment be preserved so that future generations may enjoy it?
Education and information are the keys that will allow future generations to be wiser in their
decisions concerning the environment.
        This unit, or group of activities, is intended to help foster an appreciation for the natural
environment. Students should begin to think more critically about the effect that humans have
on the environment. The following activities are intended for the upper middle school or early
high school science classroom. The activities can be used as a unit but they may be more
valuable when used as a supplement to the normal biology or chemistry curriculum. The
Michigan objectives that are covered by these activities are listed below.

                   Name and Page # of Environmental Science Activities
                Name of the Activity                           Length of Activity          Page#
    Relevant Science Benchmarks and Standards                                               2-6
         Environmental Science Web Links                                                    6-7
AIR:      1. The Awful Eight Pollutants Play                         1 day                  8-9
          2. Ozone Layer Depletion Demo                              1 day                  10
          3. Air Pollution Control                                  3-4 days               11-12
LAND: 4. Measuring the pH of Soil                                   1-2 days               13-14
          5. Hazardous Waste Awareness                              1-2 days               15-16
          6. Garbage Dump in a Petri Dish                          1-2 weeks               17-18
          7. Paper Recycling Activity                               1-2days                19-20
          8. Composting slideshow                                    1 day                  21
WATER: 9. Groundwater Pollution Demo                                 1 day                 22-23
         10. Acid Rain Demo                                          1 day                 24-25
         11. Ecosystem Evaluation Through                          2-3 weeks               26-29
Observation and Water Testing
         12. Sewer Lice Demo                                         1 day                 30-31
         13. Sound and Light                                        3-4 days                32
                                                                                             Page 2


Benchmark Matrix - Strand I: Construct New Scientific and Personal Knowledge



               Middle School                                    High School
Generate scientific questions about the world Ask questions that can be investigated
based on observation. (SCI.I.1.MS.1)          empirically. (SCI.I.1.HS.1)
Design and conduct scientific investigations.    Design and conduct scientific investigations.
(SCI.I.1.MS.2)                                   (SCI.I.1.HS.2)
Use tools and equipment appropriate to           Recognize and explain the limitations of
scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.3)        measuring devices. (SCI.I.1.HS.3)
Use metric measurement devices to provide        Gather and synthesize information from books
consistency in an investigation.                 and other sources of information. (SCI.I.1.HS.4)
(SCI.I.1.MS.4)
Use sources of information in support of         Discuss topics in groups by making clear
scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.5)        presentations, restating or summarizing what
                                                 others have said, asking for clarification or
                                                 elaboration, and taking alternative perspectives
                                                 and defending a position. (SCI.I.1.HS.5)
Write and follow procedures in the form of
step-by-step instructions, formulas, flow
diagrams, and sketches. (SCI.I.1.MS.6)


Benchmark Matrix - Strand II: Reflect on the Nature, Adequacy, and Connections Across
Scientific Knowledge


                 Middle School                                      High School
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of          Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical
claims, arguments, or data. (SCI.II.1.MS.1)       or empirical basis. (SCI.II.1.HS.1)
Describe limitations in personal knowledge.       Describe some general limitations of
(SCI.II.1.MS.2)                                   scientific knowledge. (SCI.II.1.HS.2)
Show how common themes of science,                Show how common themes of science,
mathematics, and technology apply in real-        mathematics, and technology apply in real-
world contexts. (SCI.II.1.MS.3)                   world contexts. (SCI.II.1.HS.3)
Describe the advantages and risks of new          Discuss the historical development of key
technologies. (SCI.II.1.MS.4)                     scientific concepts and principles.
                                                  (SCI.II.1.HS.4)
Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the    Explain the social and economic advantages
natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)                    and risks of new technology. (SCI.II.1.HS.5)
Recognize the contributions made in science by Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to
                                                                                          Page 3


cultures and individuals of diverse              the natural world. (SCI.II.1.HS.6)
backgrounds. (SCI.II.1.MS.6)
                                                 Describe the historical, political, and social
                                                 factors affecting the developments in science.
                                                 (SCI.II.1.HS.7)

Benchmark Matrix - Strand III: Use Scientific Knowledge from the Life Sciences in Real-
World Contexts
             Middle School                                 High School
                                                 Explain how multi-cellular organisms grow,
                                                 based on how cells grow and reproduce
                                                 (SCI.III.1.HS.1).
                                                 Describe the life cycle of an organism
                                                 associated with human disease
                                                 (SCI.III.2.HS.2).


Explain how selected systems and processes       Explain how living things maintain a stable
work together in animals (SCI.III.2.MS.4).       internal environment (SCI.III.2.HS.4).
                                                 Describe technology used in the prevention,
                                                 diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and
                                                 explain its function in terms of human body
                                                 processes (SCI.III.2.HS.5).
Describe how heredity and environment may
influence/determine characteristics of an
organism (SCI.III.3.MS.2).
                                                 Explain how new traits may be established in
                                                 individuals/populations through changes in
                                                 genetic material (DNA) (SCI.III.3.HS.3).
Explain how new traits might become
established in a population and how species
become extinct (SCI.III.4.MS.2).
                                                 Describe common ecological relationships
                                                 between and among species and their
                                                 environments (SCI.III.5.HS.1).
Describe how all organisms acquire energy        Explain how energy flows through familiar
directly or indirectly from the sunlight         ecosystems (SCI.III.5.HS.2).
(SCI.III.5.MS.2).
Predict the effects of changes in one population Describe general factors regulating
in a food web on other populations               population size in ecosystems
(SCI.III.5.MS.3).                                (SCI.III.5.HS.3).
Describe the likely succession of a given        Describe responses of an ecosystem to events
                                                                                            Page 4


ecosystem over time (SCI.III.5.MS.4).           that cause it to change (SCI.III.5.HS.4).
Explain how humans use and benefit from plant Describe how carbon and soil nutrients cycle
and animal materials (SCI.III.5.MS.5).        through selected ecosystems
                                              (SCI.III.5.HS.5).
Describe ways in which humans alter the         Explain the effects of agriculture and urban
environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6).                   development on selected ecosystems
                                                (SCI.III.5.HS.6).



Benchmark Matrix - Strand IV: Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in
Real-World Contexts
             Middle School                                High School
                                                Analyze properties of common household
                                                and agricultural materials in terms of
                                                risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).


Classify substances as elements, compounds, or Explain how elements differ in terms of the
mixtures and justify classifications in terms of structural parts and electrical charges of
atoms and molecules (SCI.IV.1.MS.3).             atoms (SCI.IV.1.HS.3).
Describe the arrangement and motion of
molecules in solids, liquids, and gases.
(SCI.IV.1.MS.4).
Describe common physical changes in matter:     Explain chemical changes in terms of the
                                                breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      evaporation                              atoms to form new substances.
      condensation                             (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
      thermal expansion
      contraction

(SCI.IV.2.MS.1).
Describe common chemical changes in terms of
properties of reactants and products
(SCI.IV.2.MS.2).
Explain physical changes in terms of the        Contrast nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and
arrangement and motion of atoms and             natural radioactivity (SCI.IV.2.HS.3).
molecules
(SCI.IV.2.MS.3).
Explain how echoes occur and how they are
used (SCI.IV.4.MS.2).
                                                Describe different types of waves and their
                                                technological applications (SCI.IV.4.HS.4).
                                                                                            Page 5


Describe the motion of vibrating objects
(SCI.IV.4.MS.5).
Explain how mechanical waves transfer energy
(SCI.IV.4.MS.6).




Benchmark Matrix - Strand V: Use Scientific Knowledge from the Earth and Space
Sciences in Real-World Contexts
               Middle School                             High School
Describe and identify surface features using
maps (SCI.V.1.MS.1).


Explain how rocks are broken down, how soil     Explain how common objects are made from
is formed, and how surface features change      Earth materials and why Earth materials are
(SCI.V.1.MS.3).                                 conserved and recycled (SCI.V.1.HS.3).
                                                Evaluate alternative long-range plans for
                                                resource use and by-product disposal in terms
                                                of environmental and economic impact
                                                (SCI.V.1.HS.4).
Explain how technology changes the surface of
the Earth (SCI.V.1.MS.5).
Use maps of the Earth to locate water in its    Identify and describe regional watersheds
various forms and describe conditions under     (SCI.V.2.HS.1).
which they exist (SCI.V.2.MS.1).
Describe how water in Michigan reaches the      Describe how human activities affect the
oceans and returns (SCI.V.2.MS.2).              quality of water in the hydrosphere
                                                (SCI.V.2.HS.2).
Explain how water exists below the Earth’s
surface and how it is replenished
(SCI.V.2.MS.3).
Describe the origins of pollution in the
hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).
                Middle School                                   High School
                                                Explain how interactions of the atmosphere,
                                                hydrosphere, and geosphere create climates
                                                and how climates change over time
                                                (SCI.V.3.HS.1).
Describe the composition and characteristics of Describe patterns of air movement in the
the atmosphere (SCI.V.3.MS.2).                  atmosphere and how they affect weather
                                                conditions (SCI.V.3.HS.2).
                                                                                           Page 6


Explain the behavior of water in the
atmosphere. (SCI.V.3.MS.3)
Describe health effects of polluted air          Explain the impact of human activities on the
(SCI.V.3.MS.4).                                  atmosphere and explain ways that individuals
                                                 and society can reduce pollution
                                                 (SCI.V.3.HS.4).




                     Ecology/Environment Internet Resources

            Topic                                        Website
Main Topic of                http://www.cis.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1997/7/
Environmental Scince

1) Air/Atmosphere            http://www.cln.org/themes/air.html
                             http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/agesubject/earthsc
                             iences.html
                             http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/airpollutionlesson.ht
                             ml
            Smog (sores)    http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/ozonelesson.html

          CFCs              http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/awfuleightlesson.ht
                             ml

          Ozone
                             http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/agesubject/lesson
                             s/newton/Ozone.html
                             http://www.cln.org/themes/ozone.html

2) Land                      http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceCIHazardousWasteAwaren
                             ess610.htm
            Landfills and   http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/waste.html
             methane gas     http://aggie-
                             horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/compostfacility/les13.htm
                             http://aggie-
                             horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/compostfacility/les14.htm
                             http://www.onlineethics.org/edu/precol/classroom/lesson11.html

          Examine           Informational composting slideshow http://aggie-
           biodegradable     horticulture.tamu.edu/sustainable/slidesets/kidscompost/cover.html
           materials
                                                                                         Page 7


                            http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/dump.html

                            http://www.leeric.lsu.edu/educat/sink_or_swim.htm

      Recycling            http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci167.txt
                            http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci126.txt
                            http://www.cln.org/themes/recycle.html

3) Water
    Spills (oil spills     http://ericir.syr.edu/cgi-
      and effects)          bin/printlessons.cgi/Virtual/Lessons/Science/Environmental_Educati
                            on/ENV0206.html
                            http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/agesubject/lesson
                            s/newton/Oilspill.html
      Temperature
       change can make
       significant impact

      Water Quality        http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/waste/lessons/landfill.html
       Testing
                            http://ericir.syr.edu/%7Erjlaundr/pgems/Biological/BIO0066.html
      Examining Biotic
       Components as a
       measure of
       quality

      Examining            http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/eggshelllesson.html
       Abiotic
       Components (pH,      http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci181.txt
       dissolved O2,
       temp, flow rate,
       depth (charting
       river sections,)
       nitrogen level

      Waste water
       treatments (river
       lice demo, field
       trip)
                                                                                             Page 8


                          The Awful Eight Pollutants Play
              http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/awfuleightplay.html

Objectives Covered
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Analyze properties of common household and agricultural materials in terms of
      risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).
   Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   Explain how elements differ in terms of the structural parts and electrical charges of
      atoms (SCI.IV.1.HS.3).
   Explain the impact of human activities on the atmosphere and explain ways that
      individuals and society can reduce pollution (SCI.V.3.HS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
         This play should be used to help facilitate a classroom discussion based upon the concept
of air pollution and its many causes. Attached to the script of the play is a very informative
website that explains the characteristics and properties of several of the different gasses, such as
CFC’s, sulfur dioxides, carbon monoxides…etc, which damage to our atmosphere. The
information can be found on the follow web address:
http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/awfuleightlesson.html.
        The play requires at least 13 students to accept a role to read for. The following page
contains a cast of characters list, which briefly explains each character’s role
http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/awfuleightplay.html. Once the students have all
acquired their parts, the play can begin. The script can be found below the cast of characters.

Materials
   Markers
   Yardsticks
   large pieces of poster board
   background information on air pollution
   library books that cover air pollutants
   materials for "costumes"
   copies of play for each student
   video camera.

Teacher Notes
      The following are suggestions for the teacher by the author:

      Pollutants make picket signs by taping large pieces of poster board to yardsticks and
       writing slogans on the poster board. (See slogan suggestions in description of the play's
       setting.)
      If some kids prefer non-speaking roles, you can let them carry picket signs or be camera
       people filming the report. They could also take on the responsibilities of stage manager,
       costume designer or set designer.
                                                                                         Page 9


   Go over these pronunciations with the kids playing the Toxins; benzene (BEN-zeen),
    xylene (ZI-leen), toluene (TOL-you-een).
   If your audience is small, have Harry and Connie come up with some ways that people
    can help reduce air pollution at the end of the play.



Danger: The teacher may decide to copy and paste the script into a work processing program
like Microsoft word and make changes to the script (if needed) before printing and
distributing to the students. I would suggest changing out the name “Harry Wheezer” to
avoid any further classroom disturbances.


Extension
   The following are the author’s suggestions for enrichment after performing the play:

1. Put a Sock On It Activity - place a white sock over a car's tailpipe; have adult start engine
   and let run for a few minutes; inspect sock and compare with a clean sock.



2. Brainstorm solutions to air pollution problems - be creative.
                                                                                          Page 10


                             Ozone Layer Depletion Demo
Objectives Covered
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Analyze properties of common household and agricultural materials in terms of
      risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).
   Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   Explain how elements differ in terms of the structural parts and electrical charges of
      atoms (SCI.IV.1.HS.3).
   Explain the impact of human activities on the atmosphere and explain ways that
      individuals and society can reduce pollution (SCI.V.3.HS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
        This is a brief, yet powerful teacher lead demonstration that uses a simple real world
example that can be used to provide a visual tool for learning about ozone layer depletion. After
discussing the various layers of the Earth’s atmosphere (specifically the role of the ozone in the
Earth’s atmosphere) the teacher can implement this simple activity. To prepare the
demonstration before teaching, the teacher should use a permanent marker to draw the symbol
for Ozone (O3) on the bottom of each Hershey’s® Kiss. Once the time is correct to do the
demonstration, take out the Kisses and arrange them on the palm of your hand and offer them to
the students…however, don’t hand them to the students, let them take them without stopping
anyone from taking more than one…(this will lend more value to the demo). Once all of the
kisses are gone ask, “Wait…before you eat them, look at the bottom of the kiss…what do you
see?” The students should eventually realize that O3 has been written, which signifies an Ozone
molecule. Use this to formulate a discussion about how each individual that took away an ozone
molecule was like a CFC or other air pollutant, which take away oxygen atoms from the Ozone
molecules and leaves “holes” in the ozone. After a while, these holes would add up to a
dangerous gap in the ozone layer, and dangerous UV rays would be allowed to penetrate the
Earth’s surface.

Materials
   Several Hershey’s® Kisses (preferably with silver wrapping)
   Black permanent marker

Teacher Notes
       Because this demonstration involves snacks for the students, the teacher will need to
monitor the activity carefully and make sure that no one eats chocolate that shouldn’t. Also, the
students will likely be distracted by the presence of candy in the classroom, so the teacher will
need to keep the students interested in the activity, and not just eating the candy…drawings on
the overhead to aid in the visualization of the concept will help many students to gain even more
from the demo.

Extension
       Use this demo as a segue to discussing industry and the effects of humans on their
environment.
                                                                                           Page 11


                                  Air Pollution Control
             http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/airpollutionlesson.html

Objectives Covered
   Use tools and equipment appropriate to scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.3)
   Write and follow procedures in the form of step-by-step instructions, formulas, flow
      diagrams, and sketches. (SCI.I.1.MS.6)
   Show how common themes of science, mathematics, and technology apply in real-world
      contexts. (SCI.II.1.MS.3)
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Analyze properties of common household and agricultural materials in terms of
      risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).
   Explain physical changes in terms of the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules
      (SCI.IV.2.MS.3).
   Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   Explain how elements differ in terms of the structural parts and electrical charges of
      atoms (SCI.IV.1.HS.3).
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).
   Explain the impact of human activities on the atmosphere and explain ways that
      individuals and society can reduce pollution (SCI.V.3.HS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
        This activity comes from an internet source, which provides step-by step instructions on
how to build 2 different types of air pollution cleaning apparatuses (the wet scrubber and the
electrostatic precipitator). Although the names may sound complicated, both can be constructed
in the classroom (with the necessary materials) as outline in each activity. The teacher will
likely need 3-4 days to complete both of these activities. See the appropriate web pages (as
indicated) for directions. The website also provides the teacher with a closure section to reflect
on the activity.

Materials
  For the “Wet Scrubber”:
   paper towels
   12-cm piece of glass tubing
   three 2.5-cm pieces of glass tubing
   three 55-ml flasks
   two glass impingers (glass tubing drawn at one end to give it a smaller diameter so as to
   let out smaller bubbles)
   heat source (burner or hot plate)
   three 2-hole rubber stoppers (of a size to fit the mouths of the flasks)
   two 30-cm pieces of rubber tubing
   ring stand apparatus
   vacuum source
                                                                                            Page 12


   Directions: http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/wet.html



   For the “Electrostatic Precipiatator”

      plastic tube (fluorescent light tube)
      wire coat hanger
      plastic grocery bag
      electric blow dryer
      punch holes, black pepper or rice krispies

 Directions: http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/air/monops/lessons/precip.html


Teacher Notes
        These activities are great for providing the students with a visual explanation, along with
the verbal explanations, of how scientists have begun to develop and implement various
techniques to help solve the air pollution problem. These activities are especially valuable
because the students will be able to connect what they have learned about the atmosphere and
molecules, to explaining how and why the various forms of atmosphere cleaning techniques
work.

Extension
    Describe health effects of polluted air (SCI.V.3.MS.4).
    Evaluate alternative long-range plans for resource use and by-product disposal in terms of
      environmental and economic impact (SCI.V.1.HS.4).
      Explain the social and economic advantages and risks of new technology. (SCI.II.1.HS.5)
      Explain the impact of human activities on the atmosphere and explain ways that
       individuals and society can reduce pollution (SCI.V.3.HS.4).
                                                                                            Page 13


                                 Measuring the pH of Soil
            http://www.cis.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1997/7/97.07.10.x.html#j

Objectives Covered
   Design and conduct scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.2)
   Use tools and equipment appropriate to scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.3)
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6)
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
         The author of this web page provides a brief assay for testing the pH of different forms of
soil, like clay soil, sand soil, marsh soil, and woodland soil. After learning about the pollutants
that exist in the air around us (and how we can reduce the amount of air pollution) in the first
portion of the environmental science unit, the students will now concentrate on determining and
learning about the sources of pollution here on the Earth. Students will be introduced to the
concept of pH reading, which require a chunk of the class period to explain about acids and bases
and their effect on different objects. Once the students has sufficient background on acids and
bases and that pH is a reading of the strength and concentration of acid present, they may begin
working on the lab, as laid out in the procedure provided by the author below.

Method
    1. Select a certain type of soil and take samples in different places (at a depth of
      5-10 cm). Place these individual samples in a small bucket and mix them well.
    2. Place approx. 2 cm of the finely crushed, crumbly soil mixture in a test tube,
      add the large spoon end of the double spoon full of cooking salt and 10 milliliter
      (measuring beaker) distilled water. Close the test tube with the bung and shake
      well for one to two minutes.
    3. Leave the test tube to stand until most of the soil particles have settled to the
      bottom.
    4. Place the plastic funnel with the folded filter paper on a second test tube.
      Carefully pour the soil solution through the filter without disturbing the settled
      particles, and collect the filtered liquid until it is aprox. 2 cm high.
    5. Now add 4 drops of pH indicator solution and carefully swirl the test tube.
      Compare the resulting color with color chart.

Materials

      Small bucket
      2 test tubes
      double spoon
      cooking salt
      measuring beaker
      distilled water
      bung
                                                                                           Page 14


      plastic funnel
      filter paper
      pH indicator solution
      pH color chart

Teacher Notes
      Provided by the author are the results that should be seen.

Results:

Different pH values will be obtained depending on the kind of soil involved.

For example, clay soils have a pH of 6 - 7.5, sandy soils about pH 5.5 - 6.5. Marsh soil and
marsh water is fairly acid, with a pH of 2.5 - 3. Woodland soils is normally slightly acid (pH
5.5).

By the end of the experiment, and after discussion of the results, the students should comprehend
that the lower the pH#, the more ACIDIC the soil, and likewise, the higher the pH#, the lower
the strength and concentration of the acid (BASIC).

Extension

      After completing this activity, the students may be asked to compare their results to those
       of the author and explain the similarities and/or differences.
      Students may be asked to make scientific predictions of the pH of various different
       household cleaners and foods, and compare their predictions to the true pH.
      Students may be asked to explain and track the movement of an acidic as it moves
       through the ground after being spilled, for example: A 1,000 gallon tanker truck carrying
       a large amount of Hydrochloric acid gets involved in an accident and the acid spills to the
       ground. Where will it go? What may happen?
      Connect activity to determining the pH of household cleaners and foods using a pH
       indicator such as red cabbage or Phenolphthalein. Predict, and then test things such as
       vinegar, lemon juice, dish-washing soap, Baking soda, Bleach…etc.
                                                                                             Page 15


                             Hazardous Waste Awareness
      http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceCIHazardousWasteAwareness610.htm


Objectives Covered
   Design and conduct scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.2)
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6)
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).
   Explain the effects of agriculture and urban development on selected ecosystems
      (SCI.III.5.HS.6).

Introduction/Procedure
        This activity was prepared to inspire students to think critically about the dangers of
hazardous materials, such as those found around the house. The connection to this unit is that
many of these household chemicals and materials, as well as agricultural materials, end up being
disposed of into our Earth, and it has to go somewhere.
        The author of this activity, has created a students lead discovery, or inquiry, into the
dangers of household materials and chemicals. Within the body of the directions, the author has
included links to several websites that are to be used as a resource for investigating their
identified household materials.

Materials
      The author suggests the following materials for the discovery activity:

1. Internet
   * http://outreach.missouri.edu/owm/hhw.htm
   * http://www.epa.gov/recyclecity/
   * http://www.1800cleanup.org
   * http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/house
   * http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/seahome/housewaste/src/dispose.htm
2. KWL worksheets (3 column worksheet with the headings Know, Want to know, Learned
3. Poster board
4. Books about Hazardous Wastes

Procedure:

As a class we will:
1. Brainstorm what you know about the topic of household hazardous wastes and place information in
column 1.
2. Brainstorm different questions you have about household hazardous wastes and place questions in
column 2. (It is always good as a teacher to have a few questions thought up to guide the students)

On your own or in small groups:
1. Use the internet and texts to find answers to the questions that you have brainstormed.
2. Use the data obtained to develop an awareness poster of household hazardous wastes.
3. Be prepared to make a presentation to the class.
                                                                                                Page 16


Teacher Notes
      The author adds: **This lesson allows students to be motivated because of the real life
connection and to learn about the hazardous chemicals during physical science. It promotes creativity,
technology, and cooperative learning in a structured form, yet still allows the student to take an active
role in their education.

Danger: Because the students will be using the internet in groups, the teacher will need to
monitor closely what the students are doing and searching for. The students should be limited to
using only the website listed above.

Extension
        The students should begin to think about what happens when these hazardous materials
do end up being dumped onto our Earth, or even buried in the ground. This is what the next
activity touches upon.
                                                                                          Page 17


        Garbage Dump in a Petri Dish
               http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/dump.html

Objectives Covered
   Design and conduct scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.2)
   Use tools and equipment appropriate to scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.3)
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6)
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
        The author of this web page have designed an easy, and low material based short
lab that takes 1-2 weeks of time to examine. This activity once established, is designed to
designed to demonstrate to students that much of the material that we dispose of in our
garbage is not biodegradable, or organic, in nature. Therefore, the inorganic/non-
biodegradable material is placed into land fills and NEVER breaks down. This lab has
students use a variety of materials, organic and inorganic, which are placed into petri
dishes and stored under a mock landfill of soil. The procedure provided by the author is
as follows:

   1.    Label the bottom of 4 Petri dishes from #1 to 4. Write your name and the date on each
        dish. Section the bottom of the dish into 3 sections using a wax pencil.
   2.   Gather 12 small samples of garbage. Cut the samples into 2 centimeter squares.
   3.   Put three samples in each Petri dish - one in each section.
   4.   Record the nature of the sample materials in each dish. Indicate the size, color, texture,
        odor and any other features you think are important. Predict how each of the samples will
        look after one week.
   5.   Cover the sample materials with garden soil. Use a dropper to add enough water to make
        the soil moist but not soggy.
   6.   Tape the lid onto each dish and keep at room temperature.
   7.   After one week, examine the dishes and record any changes in the color, odor, texture,
        size of the samples.

Materials

       4 Petri dishes
       wax pencil
       tape
       garden soil
       dropper
       water
       samples of garbage which could include: paper, vegetable or fruit pieces, meat, bones and
        Styrofoam
                                                                                           Page 18


Teacher Notes
        This activity has the potential to be VERY stinky and possibly messy. I would suggest
setting up the lab in a ventilated room or fume hood to keep the odors from the decomposing
materials out of the classroom as much as possible.
        * Students will need to make daily observations of the progress in the Petri dishes, so
class period time will need to be set aside specifically for this.

Extension
      The following extensions have been provided by the author:


   1. Some landfills are sealed causing them to become an anaerobic environment. In order to
      simulate these conditions and demonstrate the effect of anaerobic environment on
      degradation rates, the following activity could be tried.

       An anaerobic environment can be devised by putting the Petri dishes with the garbage
       samples inside a bell jar with a burning votive candle inside. Place a set of the Petri
       dishes containing the garbage samples and soil inside the bell jar. Tape the jar closed.
       Leave for a week. Compare the amount of degradation in an aerobic environment to the
       anaerobic environment.

   2. For one full day, collect the garbage and trash from your house. Divide this into five
      plastic bags. Bag 1 - glass jars and bottles, Bag 2 - aluminum cans, Bag 3 - plastic
      containers, Bag 4 - paper goods, Bag 5 - wet garbage. Use a bathroom scale to find the
      mass of each bag. Using this data, predict the quantity of garbage your family will
      produce in one week, one month and one year.



* Other activities connected to the Petri dish lab:

       Long-Term Activity: Rubbish In, Rubbish Out?

       http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/dump.html

      A long term activity related to the Petri dish activity above….more complex and time
       consuing. Located on the same page, but below the Petri dish activity.


       Follow-Up Activity: Where did all the paper go?

       http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/dump.html

      A follow up activity to either of the 2 labs to reflect on the information obtained from
       each. Located on the same page, but below the Long-term Rubbish activity.
                                                                                              Page 19


                                  Paper Recycling Activity
Objectives Covered
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Explain how humans use and benefit from plant and animal materials (SCI.III.5.MS.5).
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6).
   Explain the effects of agriculture and urban development on selected ecosystems
      (SCI.III.5.HS.6).

Introduction/Procedure
         This is a simple, yet fun activity to illustrate the process of paper recycling, which uses
household materials. Before performing the activity, there are several steps that must be taken to
prepare. 1) Construct paper presses using mesh screens that are nailed between wood sticks,
which will be used to drain the paper pulp and will also provide a rectangular shape for the
pressed paper. 2 wood blocks should be cut for each press to aid in squeezing the water from the
paper pulp on each side of the press at once. 2) Plastic shoeboxes can be used to collect and
form the paper pulp on the presses before squeezing the water out. 3) Wax paper should be laid
out on the surfaces of tables or the floor to serve as drying stations. 4) Automatic dishwasher
soap can be added to warm water in a container, which will help soften the paper pulp in the
blender. This solution should be prepared in a large container to be poured into the
blender…you will need a significant amount for a whole class. 5) Students should be asked to
tear paper into small squares to be placed into the blender, prior to arriving to the teacher’s table.
        Once all steps are prepared, the teacher can call students up in groups of 1 or 2 and
collect their paper scraps, then pour them into the blender. Next, pour about ½ cup of soap
solution into the blender with the paper, cover the blender, and then pure’ the mixture for about
½ – 1 minute. Once the paper has been reduced to a soft pulp, the teacher should pour the pulp
into a plastic shoebox containing water, and the press should be placed in the water to collect the
pulp. Once the surface of the press is thoroughly covered with pulp, the students can lift the
press out of the water, and then begin pressing the water from the pulp from, squeezing as hard
as possible, draining the excess water back into the plastic shoebox. Once the Paper pulp is
firmly pressed and most of the water has been evacuated, the student can carefully peel the pulp
from the screen and place on the wax paper to dry for 1-2 days. Once the pulp dries the students
will have a fairly good representation and example of how scientists are able to recycle paper.

Materials
   Large food processor or blender
   Paper to be recycled (colored or white)   Caution: Avoid using newspapers
   Automatic dish washer soap/water solution
   Several mesh paper presses and wood blocks (2 per press)
   Wax paper for drying surface

Teacher Notes
        Caution: This is a very messy activity, but students will thoroughly enjoy it. Teachers
should seek help from aids or other teachers when performing this activity. Clean up is not
difficult, but keep a mop handy in case of spills. Avoid doing this activity over carpet. Also,
have students thoroughly wash their hands after pressing the pulp to wash dishwasher soap away.
                                                                                            Page 20



Extension

      Have students discuss how recycling objects (like paper) can reduce the amount of
       damage sustained to ecosystems caused by man.
      Discuss other alternatives to recycling, like reducing, reusing, and even land fills and the
       pro’s and con’s to each. This can lead to explaining the effect of landfills on our planet.


 Another variation of this activity can be found at: http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci167.txt
                                                                                           Page 21


                                 Composting slideshow
         http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/sustainable/slidesets/kidscompost/cover.html

Objectives Covered
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.MS.5)
   Analyze properties of common household and agricultural materials in terms of
      risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).
   Describe common chemical changes in terms of properties of reactants and products
      (SCI.IV.2.MS.2).
   Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   Explain the effects of agriculture and urban development on selected ecosystems
      (SCI.III.5.HS.6).
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6).

Introduction/Procedure
         This slideshow is available on the web, and does NOT require Microsoft Power Point or
Power Point Viewer, only a internet connection (preferably high speed). The author has laid out
clear purposed for composting, along with step-by-step instructions (with great pictures) on how
to create your own compost pile/bin. The pictures that go along with the directions are great, and
help to illustrate what needs to be done at each step. Included in the slide show is some great
data and proportions for mixing the ingredients. The writing appears to be geared at an upper
elementary/middle school level, due to some complex terms.

Materials
   Computer with Internet connection (preferably high speed)
   Large computer screen or digital projector that can be hooked up to the computer.

Teacher Notes
       Caution: This is a fairly long slide show…you may want to break it up into chunks to
avoid restlessness among the students. Please view before showing to students

Extension
       Now that the students have nearly concluded the land portion of the environmental
science unit, the teacher may want to begin formulating questions and discussions that ask the
students to reflect upon the information that they have learned throughout the unit thus far.
Some examples may be:

        “Why do scientists urge us the consumers to begin using composting and recycling in our
daily lives?”

        “Why do scientists stress that biodegradable objects NOT be placed into garbage…won’t
it decay or decompose in the landfill anyways?”
                                                                                           Page 22


                            Groundwater Pollution Demo

Objectives Covered
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).
   Describe how human activities affect the quality of water in the hydrosphere
      (SCI.V.2.HS.2).
   Evaluate alternative long-range plans for resource use and by-product disposal in terms of
      environmental and economic impact (SCI.V.1.HS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
        Poke several small holes in the bottom of a plastic cup and near the bottom on the sides
of the cup. Fill the cup with sand. Place it in a clear casserole dish that has about an inch or so
of water in it. The sand in the cup represents the soil and the water in the dish represents
groundwater. To simulate the dumping of harmful chemical waste into the earth, drop a few
drops of food coloring onto the sand. Then cover the “spill” with more earth (sand) just as the
bull dozers do at the land fill. Now it is going to rain. From another cup, pour water through the
cup containing sand. The food coloring should start to seep out into the disk, contaminating the
clear water supply.


Materials
   Two plastic cups (clear)
   Sand
   Food Coloring
   Casserole dish or pie dish (clear)

Teacher Notes
    Darker food coloring works best
    Using a clear casserole dish works best so that students can see the contamination as is
      starts. It is also visible when the dish is set up on an overhead projector. Then there is no
      worry about crowding around the demonstration.

Extension

      Describe the arrangement and motion of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases.
       (SCI.IV.1.MS.4).
      Explain how water exists below the Earth’s surface and how it is replenished
       (SCI.V.2.MS.3).

        With younger classes, this can be done in small groups. Students should make
predictions and record observations.
        This can also be used to examine the differences in particles of solids and liquid. What
properties of a liquid allow it to travel as it does through the sand?
                                                                                        Page 23


       This can also be used when discussing groundwater. How is this pollutant a part of the
water cycle now? How far will its effects reach?
                                                                                              Page 24


                         ACID RAIN DEMONSTRATION
Objectives Covered
   Describe the origins of pollution in the hydrosphere (SCI.V.2.MS.4).
   Explain how technology changes the surface of the Earth (SCI.V.1.MS.5).
   Describe common chemical changes in terms of properties of reactants and products
      (SCI.IV.2.MS.2).
   Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
      atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   Explain the effects of agriculture and urban development on selected ecosystems
      (SCI.III.5.HS.6).
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6).
   Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. (SCI.II.1.HS.6) &
      (SCI.II.1.MS. 5.)

Introduction/Procedure
        This is a teacher run demonstration that illustrates the effects of acid rain. It is simple an
easy to do. Simply watch the reaction between vinegar and a piece of chalk. The chalk is the
rock (most likely limestone or sandstone) and the vinegar is the acid rain. A few drops of
vinegar from an eyedropper onto the piece of chalk will result in a bubbling fizz and the chalk
appears to be eaten away at.

Materials
   Chalk (a single piece)
   Vinegar
   Eyedropper

Teacher Notes
        This is a short demonstration. However, it very accurately illustrates acid rain and the
key is in the discussion. Where the discussion leads, whether it is towards finding alternate fuel
sources or chemical reactions, is up to the teacher.

Extension
        This can be a good practice activity for younger students. Students can work in groups
with their own materials. They can make predictions and record observations. It would be best
to then come back together as a class to discuss results. Other objectives that can be discussed
and linked to this demonstration are below.

      Describe health effects of polluted air (SCI.V.3.MS.4).
      Explain the behavior of water in the atmosphere. (SCI.V.3.MS.3)
      Evaluate alternative long-range plans for resource use and by-product disposal in terms of
       environmental and economic impact (SCI.V.1.HS.4).
      Explain how rocks are broken down, how soil is formed and how surface features change
       (SCI.V.1.MS.3).
      Explain the social and economic advantages and risks of new technology. (SCI.II.1.HS.5)
                                                                                     Page 25


   Explain the impact of human activities on the atmosphere and explain ways that
    individuals and society can reduce pollution (SCI.V.3.HS.4).
                                                                                             Page 26


   Ecosystem Evaluation Through Observation and Water Testing
                            See “extensions” section for objectives covered

Introduction
        This is a full scale scientific investigation that can encompass every aspect of scientific
inquiry from conception of a hypothesis, to research and testing. It can be used in a variety of
ways and may take up to a week of classroom time. The main goal should be to map out an
aquatic ecosystem. This includes looking at, and making observations, about both abiotic and
biotic components of that ecosystem.
        Testing water quality is a way to examine these characteristics. It is an activity that can
enforce the real world application of many topics covered in the science classroom. No matter
where the school, there is usually a body of water, a river or a stream near by that lends itself to a
short field trip.
        Breaking down the examination of water quality allows for the activity to have an every
larger scope. Testing water quality by measuring physical characteristics of the river or lake
included looking at depth, width, flow rate, turbidity and chemical characteristics such as
dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, and pH. The biotic components of a body of water can also
give an indication of the quality. Examining the creatures that inhabit the water, either by
number or variety can be another option.
        As the teacher, the direction this activity takes is up to you. This is intended as a resource
through which you can look to find the aspects that you wish to cover.


Materials
   Water testing kits (available through any secondary science catalogue)
   Waders
   Nets (butterfly nets work well to catch insects and other small critters)
   Measuring tape (or rope)
   Meter sticks
   Tennis ball
   Stop watch
   Field Guides (for identification of insects)
   Mason Jars

Procedure
        There are multiple procedures. You may pick and choose the parts to include in your
investigation.

Mapping out a cross-section of a river or pond
       Send measuring tape perpendicularly across the river. Ends can be tied to nearby
         trees
       Record the width
       With a meter stick, measure and record the depth at 1m increments (from one bank)
         along the width of the river.
       Make a graph
                                                                                           Page 27


               o Distance from bank on the x-axis
               o Depth or the y-axis
               o *NOTE: graphing the depths as negative values works best. Your result is a
                 sketch of the cross-section observed.
Flow Rate
     Stretch one rope across the river perpendicular to the flow.
     Stretch another rope across the river in the same fashion 10 meters downstream
            o Ends may be tied to trees or weighted by rocks
     Have one student stand behind the upstream line and drop a tennis ball into the water
     Time the tennis ball’s travel to the next line.
     Calculate the flow rate using velocity = distance / time
            o Your distance is 10 m and your time is measured with your stopwatch
Chemical Testing
        Chemical testing is self explanatory. All kits come with an explanation of each test as
well as the procedure for that test. Most all involve only scooping out a small amount of water
from the bank as a sample. Be sure to try things before hand in order to spot possible hang-ups
that students may encounter. Tests can be performed in the field or mason jars can be used to
collect amounts of water that are large enough to perform many tests back in the classroom.

Observing Biotic Components
      Butterfly nets work well to catch small insects. Field guides can aide in identification.
Samples can be taken in jars. Be sure to record observations.


Teacher Notes
    As the teacher, it is important to consider safety issues. Having students in waders walking
into the middle of a stream may not be feasible in every location. Do your homework and invite
parents to help with the trip. Mason jars can be used to bring samples back to the classroom for
testing if time is an issue.

      A good introductory activity to measuring pH that gives students an idea of relative pH
       of some common samples:http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci181.txt

      This is an excellent site for ordering kits for water testing. There are many kits available
       from this site. They range from drinking water tests to advanced pond and stream testing
       kits. http://www.healthywater.org/index.html
       It is also easy to find these kits in any science catalogue



Extensions
Biotic components:
   Relate this project to life science. Emphasize food chains and biological processes such as
   photosynthesis and respiration.
                                                                                           Page 28


   There has been much recent discussion of the mutation and defects observed in the
   amphibian populations. Research this and look to make observations and predictions about
   your local amphibian population

   Have students create a food web for the ecosystem they observed using what they have
   learned from collecting organisms, researching the body of water and the chemical testing.

   Predict what would happen to organisms if certain conditions changed.

   How do physical characteristics such as flow rate, depth and turbidity effect what organisms
   can live in your ecosystem?

   How do mutations occur and stick around?

Objectives involved in the life science aspect of this investigation:
    Explain how multi-cellular organisms grow, based on how cells grow and reproduce
       (SCI.III.1.HS.1).
    Describe the life cycle of an organism associated with human disease (SCI.III.2.HS.2).
    Explain how selected systems and processes work together in animals (SCI.III.2.MS.4).
    Explain how living things maintain a stable internal environment (SCI.III.2.HS.4).
    Describe how heredity and environment may influence/determine characteristics of an
       organism (SCI.III.3.MS.2)
    Explain how new traits may be established in individuals/populations through changes in
       genetic material (DNA) (SCI.III.3.HS.3).
    Explain how energy flows through familiar ecosystems (SCI.III.5.HS.2



High School:
       With rivers and watersheds, there are often local organized plans in place for taking,
sharing and updating water quality data. Often teachers enlist their class in the project and the
student get a real sense of helping the local community.
       Have students design their own plan for “mapping” out the aquatic ecosystem. Working
in groups they can come up with ways to present their findings to the class, to other classes, or
even to the local government.

Objectives covered by this type of scientific investigation and presentation of findings are:
    Generate scientific questions about the world based on observation. (SCI.I.1.MS.1)
    Ask questions that can be investigated empirically. (SCI.I.1.HS.1)
    Design and conduct scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.2)& (SCI.I.1.HS.2)
    Use tools and equipment appropriate to scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.3)
    Recognize and explain the limitations of measuring devices. (SCI.I.1.HS.3)
    Use metric measurement devices to provide consistency in an investigation.
       (SCI.I.1.MS.4)
                                                                                           Page 29


    Gather and synthesize information from books and other sources of information.
       (SCI.I.1.HS.4)
      Use sources of information in support of scientific investigations. (SCI.I.1.MS.5)
      Discuss topics in groups by making clear presentations, restating or summarizing what
       others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and taking alternative
       perspectives and defending a position. (SCI.I.1.HS.5)
      Write and follow procedures in the form of step-by-step instructions, formulas, flow
       diagrams, and sketches. (SCI.I.1.MS.6)
      Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data. (SCI.II.1.MS.1
      Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis. (SCI.II.1.HS.1)


Chemistry/Physical Science:
       Make a strong connection to chemistry. Take a close look at the chemical interactions
involved in the tests performed. Test other sources such as drinking fountain water or tap water.

Objectives that can be covered when relating this to physical science:

   o Analyze properties of common household and agricultural materials in terms of
     risk/benefit balance (SCI.IV.1.HS.1).
   o Explain chemical changes in terms of the breaking of bonds and the rearrangement of
     atoms to form new substances. (SCI.IV.2.HS.1).
   o Describe common chemical changes in terms of properties of reactants and products
     (SCI.IV.2.MS.2).
   o Explain physical changes in terms of the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules
     (SCI.IV.2.MS.3).
   o Describe the arrangement and motion of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases.
     (SCI.IV.1.MS.4).


Research Project
    Recognize the contributions made in science by cultures and individuals of diverse
       backgrounds. (SCI.II.1.MS.6)
   Relate this objective to aquatic ecology, water treatment and testing or other discoveries.
                                                                                            Page 30


                                     Sewer Lice Demo

Objectives Covered
   Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data. (SCI.II.1.MS.1)
   Describe limitations in personal knowledge. (SCI.II.1.MS.2)
   Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis. (SCI.II.1.HS.1)
   Describe how human activities affect the quality of water in the hydrosphere
      (SCI.V.2.HS.2).
   Evaluate alternative long-range plans for resource use and by-product disposal in terms of
      environmental and economic impact (SCI.V.1.HS.4).

Introduction/Procedure
       Simply place the rasins in a beaker full of soda and they will rise and fall as the carbon
dioxide bubbles gather on the raisin then pop. The soda is the “waste water” and the raisins are
“sewer lice” that can actually filter waste out of waste water. The discussion can actually
diverge from here. See teacher notes.

Materials
   Beaker (clear)
   Raisins
   Yellow Pop

Teacher Notes
    Mixing a Moutian Dew like pop with just a splash of cola gives the “waste water” a more
      realistic color
    A nice demonstration to do on April 1st! Tell the students that this is actual waste water
      and that the raisins are genetically modified organisms that filter and clean the water.
      Then say that in the time that we have been talking about this, they have actually filtered
      the water to the point that one can drink it. Then plug your nose and drink some down.
      You can even talk about how in most places on Earth, people supplement their diet with
      insects which are good source of protein….then munch on a raisin from the beaker.
    The discussion that follows is that of waste water treatment and management. If only it
      were as easy as dropping a few bugs into a cup of water.

Extension

        An alternate use for this demonstration is during a discussion of density or buoyancy.
Should the raisins float? No. Why do they float?
        Another use for this demonstration is for discussing the characteristics of life. The raisins
are moving but are they alive? Have the students determine if what they are seeing is actually a
living creature.
        Discussion can lead into these objectives as well:
     Explain how living things maintain a stable internal environment (SCI.III.2.HS.4).
                                                                                      Page 31


   Explain the effects of agriculture and urban development on selected ecosystems
    (SCI.III.5.HS.6).
   Describe ways in which humans alter the environment (SCI.III.5.MS.6).
   Describe how carbon and soil nutrients cycle through selected ecosystems
    (SCI.III.5.HS.5).
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                                      Sound and Light
Objectives
   Explain how echoes occur and how they are used (SCI.IV.4.MS.2).
   Describe different types of waves and their technological applications (SCI.IV.4.HS.4).
   Describe the motion of vibrating objects (SCI.IV.4.MS.5).
   Explain how mechanical waves transfer energy (SCI.IV.4.MS.6).

Introduction
        Sound and light is not often a topic that is though of when discussing ecology. In fact,
there are many interesting examples of sound and light interacting with the natural environment.
When discussing the following objectives, consider covering them by discussing issues such as
sound and light pollution. A research project also serves as an enrichment opportunity. Issues in
ecology involving sound and light:

-Artificial light changing natural behaviors of animals.
-Artificial sound hindering specific species from communicating with other members of the
species to reproduce
-Combating noise pollution using active control

Here are a few web pages that highlight sound and light pollution
    http://www.celfosc.org/biblio/bio/020420sciweek.htm
    http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/gov/eqac/pdf_files/chapter_7.pdf.
      http://www.njaa.org/light.html
      http://www.emunix.emich.edu/~hueilee/assignment8lee.html
      http://www.pwsrcac.org/oldsite/NewPWSRCACContent/854.431.2001.0001.pdf
      http://www.science.org.au/nova/072/072key.htm

								
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