UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES, LAHORE
DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
Synopsis for BS (Hons.) Fisheries and Aquaculture
TITLE: Assessment of heavy metals in ternaries of kasoor
Name of Student Waqas Ali
Regd. No. 2008-va-609
Date of Admission
Date of Initiation
Supervisory Name: Dr. Noor Khan
RELEVANCE TO RESEARCH PRIORITY
The title of the synopsis relates to research priority,
“Assessment of heavy metals ternaries of kasoor “.
Recommended and Forwarded by Chairman Board of Studies of the Department of
Fisheries and Aquaculture.
Recommended and Forwarded by Synopsis Scrutiny Committee:
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Faculty of Fisheries and Wildlife
University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Aquatic ecosystem is the ultimate receiver of almost everything including heavy metals due to
industrialization. Heavy metals cannot be degraded or destroyed because they are natural
components of the Earth’s crust. Heavy metals are five times denser than water. The
contamination of fresh waters with a wide range of pollutants and heavy metals has become a
matter of concern over the last few decades (Vutukuru, 2005; Dirilgen, 2001; Voegborlo et al.,
1999; Canli et al., 1998). Heavy metals are considered the most important form of pollution
Heavy metals have serious problem for human health, fauna and flora of aquatic water body.
Disposal of heavy metals in water is due to many activities i-e chemical manufacturing, painting
and coating, mining, and extractive metallurgy, nuclear and other industries. Humans activities
also affect the water like industrial effluents, anthropogenic activities, recreational activities,
atmospheric deposition as well as non point source of run off is the main cause for metals in
rivers and other water bodies. Heavy metals effects on human like poisoning effects are serious
hematological and brain damage, anemia and kidney malfunctioning due to biomagnifications,
inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Biomagnifications is the process in which the lower
aquatic organisms absorb contaminates and transfer them to higher trophic levels through the
food chain like the heavy metals present in the water may have a effect on the micro algae
which is the main food source for, zooplankton (rotifers, copepods, and brine shrimps) and for
larval stages fish species.
Fishes that cannot escape from the hazardous effects of these pollutants and heavy metals (Olaifa
et al.,; Clarkson, 1998; Dickman and Leung, 1998). The toxicity of heavy metals has been
concerned because it is important to the health of humans and ecology. Therefore estimation of
the heavy metals in fish and water is become important to determine the freshwater pollution and
the risk to human health (Dural et al., 2007; Göksu et al., 2003). The bioaccumulation of metals
in various fish and shellfish organisms is well studied (Canli and Furness, 1993; Wolfe et al.,
1996), Heavy metals can also accumulate in the soil due to application of untreated wastewaters.
Soils irrigated by wastewater accumulate heavy metals such as Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, etc in surface
soil. Due to repeated application of wastewater, the capacity of the soil to retain heavy metals is
reduced then heavy metals leach into ground water or soil solution available for plant uptake.
Fish is biomonitors and use for assessment of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of
Other workers have found that heavy metals has threat to the water bodies problem to fishing
(Edgardo, 1993) poor water quality and injury to aquatic organisms (UNEP, 1982,1984);
contamination of benthic fauna via bioaccumulation and biomagnifications and changes in
bottom communities (Odiete, 1999); indirect effect on man through biomagnifications and use of
sea foods (Odiete, 1999).lead has a long residue time as compared to other pollutants when it is
released into the aquatic environment,(Jacob, 1997).Some heavy metals In trace amount e.g.
copper, selenium and zinc are essential to maintain themetabolism of the human body but the
higher concentrations can lead to poisoning (Cambra et al.,1999).Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Mn have
adverse effect on aquatic life when present in higher amount than standards even though some
of them are essential While zinc is less dangerous elements, its toxicity may be increased by the
presence of As, Cd, and Pb as impurities.Iron reacts with sulphide in the presence of water to
produce sulphuric acid or react directly with water to produce ferric hydroxide. Due to acidic
characteristics of ferric hydroxide it makes the water body deficient in oxygen. Manganese in
high amounts affects animals badly by causing tremors and Hallucination. High amount of
chromium cause diseases such as chromosome abnormalities and kidney damage. Lead is mainly
cause the disease called plumbism. Lead also cause damage to the brain, CNS, Liver and
reproductive System (Ademoroti, 1996a). Cadmium has harmful effects on plants, animal and
humans. Cadmium cause the disease called itai-itai (damage the joints, cause bones to
Soften)(Ademoroti, 1996a). Mercury enters into human body through the respiratory and
gastrointestinal tract and deposited into the liver, kidney and nervous tissue. There are
approximately 70 friendly trace element heavy metals, but there are 12 poisonous heavy metals
that are poisonous to metabolism and enzyme systems of the body.
Among different techniques, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is the most
frequently used and the popular one. Present study reports the analysis of selected metals (Cd,
Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the ternaries of kasoor.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Y. Sanayei et al. 2009 reported Heavy metals in Zayandeh-Rood River in Iran. The river
started from Koohrang Mountains and passes through Chaharmohal-Bakhtiari and
Isfahan (two Provinces of Iran) The River discharge to Gavkhooni Wetland. The Zayandeh-Rood
River water is used for several purpose i-e for drinking, industrial and agricultural so experiment
is conducted for the determination of pesticides, heavy metals and other chemical parameters for
the control of ecological condition of this River. Due to the quick development of industry the
anthropogenic impact on the environment in the last four to five decade has revealed to be
extremely negative. Heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured
seasonal in the Zayandeh Rood River waters during October 2004 to September 2005. In this
experiment, ICP-AES as a multi-elemental technique has been used for the determination of
trace heavy metals. After studying seven different experimental sites no significant differences of
heavy metals was observed because of industrialization in this region and runoff.
Abida Begum et al. 2009 conducted an experiment to analyze Heavy metal i-e Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni
concentration in water sediments and fish in Madivala lake. Heavy metal concentrations increase
from the water to the sediment samples. In water Heavy metal concentration order was Pb > Cr >
Cd > Ni, and in sediments was Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. Fish species used in experiment were Catla,
Silver carp, Common carp, Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Mrigal Etroplus suratensis, Murrels
(Channa marulius), Nandus nandus Amblypharyngodon mola Catfishes (Heteropneustes fossilis)
and analyzed for Heavy metal in muscle, liver, gills and kidney tissues. Kidney and liver showed
the maximum concentration of heavy metals. Order of heavy metal level in various organs was
Muscle >Gills >liver >kidney and the Order in Muscle was Pb >Cd>Ni>Cr, in Gills Pb
=Cd>Ni>Cr, in kidney Pb >>Cd>Ni>Cr and in liver Pb >Cd>Ni>Cr. Experiment showed that Pb
and Cd exposure to human in this region is due to eating fish caught in this lake.
D.O. Ogoyi et al. 2011 studied on Lake Victoria (largest fresh water lake in Africa) lake have a
unique ecosystem that has the larges fresh water fishery in Africa. Due to increase in
anthropogenic activities, pollution and also heavy metals increased in lake. Which may be
dangerous to humans and aquatic fauna. Dry, long and short rainy periods of 2008, Samples of
water, soil sediments and algae were collected, and analyses of heavy metal is done by Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer. in sediment samples the concentration of Zn is high
both(Winam1.0 19 ppm)and Mwanza gulf (0.889 ppm). The water samples of Hippo point
showed highest level of pb.Mwanza gulfand and Kisat showed highest level Zn.Kisat Showed
maximaum mass of macroalgae during short raining season (November-December) followed by
Kamito in the same season
Suhendan Mol et al.2010 conducted an experiment to determine the heavy metals(Zn, Cu, As,
Cd, Hg and Pb) levels of the fish species (Silurus triostegus, Acanthobrama marmid, Aspius
vorax,Capoeta trutta, Carasobarbus luteus, Chalcalburnus mossulens and Cyprinus carpio) of
Ataturk Dam Lake (Euphrates, Turkey).Main purpose of the experiment was the estimation of
the risk to human by consumption fish species from Euphrates River.fish species living in
similar habitats showed the difference in trace metal amount concentration. The variations of
measured heavy metals (mg/kg d.w.) were 10.27-19.74 for Zn; 0.101-2.785 for Cu, 0.164-0.279
for As; ND(Not determined)-0.649 for Hg; ND-0.236 for Pb. Cd was not Mercury and lead were
not present in some of the fish samples, but their amounts exceeded the limits in S. triostegus and
A. marmid, respectively. In this experiment it was concluded that the fish from Ataturk Lake are
not have high concentration of metals, but they should be controlled in regular interval of time
to avoid excessive intake of heavy metals by human, and to monitoring the pollution of aquatic
C. Shinn et al. 2009 reported the contamination of heavy metals in River Lot (SW France). For
this experiment several fish species from three sampling sites were captured in October 1987 and
2007.In this experiment levels of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were checked in fish muscle
and liver and also in water, sediments and moss samples. Studies showed that level of heavy
metals in fish was decreased during 1987-2007 because the situation of the River Lot has
improved over the last 2 decades, although according to US EPA criterion to protect freshwater
aquatic life there is still margin for amelioration. The average concentrations
Of cadmium in fish muscle in 2007 were above the maximum safe for human consumption
defined by the European Commission.
Zafer Ayas et al.2007 analyzed the Concentration of some heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and
Ni in water, sediment and fish samples. fish samples collected from Nallihan Bird Paradise
(NBP) and its vicinity (Sariyar Dam).Fish Species used in this experiment were (Alburnus
escherichii, Cyprinus carpio and Silurus glanis).Results Showed that heavy metals found in high
concentration in experimental area and the concentration of metals in water was low. The
concentrations of heavy metals in sediments were higher than water and fish muscles. The
highest amount of metal concentrations were determined in Usakbuku (Pb: 0.49 ppm), Sakarya
River (Cu: 1.12 ppm) and Sariyar (Ni: 0.77 ppm).Unlikely to the other stations, no metal
residues were determined in the sediment samples of Aladag Creek Station.
M. Nassef et al.2006 conducted an experiment on groundwater and soil of sadat city Egypt to
assess the heavy metal concentration due to industrialization in this area. 10 soil samples and 18
groundwater samples were collected from experimental site to determine the levels of Pb, Cr,
Cu, Cd, Zr, and V. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) used to determine
the heavy metals. The levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zr, and V analyzed (in ppm) in the soil samples
Ranged from 0.48 to 11.3, 0.36 to 2.56, 43.7 to 304.0, 0.34 to 2.64, 0.209 to 21.7, and 0.10 to
17.0, respectively and the levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zr, and V analyzed (in ppb) in the
Groundwater samples of all studied wells ranged from 0.11 to 41.32, 0.10 to 2.63, 0.14 to 5.76,
0.03 to 21.7, 11.4 to 134, and 0.08 to 5.08, respectively. According to WHO health-based
guideline for drinking water the levels of Pb and Zr exceeded in groundwater wells.
Ekpo, K. E. et al. 2008 reported the concentration of some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and
mercury) investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, in the muscles and
theorgans of fish species Metacembelus Iconnbergii, Clarias lazera, Citarinus citharus,
Tilapia zilli and Erpetoichithy.The mean concentrations of lead in the muscle, kidney and liver
were in the ranges of 0.00 – 0.004mg/kg, 0.010 – 0.015 mg/kg, and 0.004 – 0.010 mg/kg
respectively, while that of the surrounding waters were between and 0.001 – 0.005 mg/kg.
Cadmium concentrations were in the range of 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the muscles, 0.004 – 0.006
mg/kg in the kidney and 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver while that of the surrounding water was
0.001 mg/kg. The levels of mercury were 0.001– 0.002 mg/kg in the Muscle, 0.004 – 0.006
mg/kg in the kidney, 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver and 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the
surrounding waters. From the results, it was revealed that the levels of heavy metals in the fishes
were higher than that obtained in the surrounding waters from which the fishes were obtained
also variation occur from muscles and organs of fishes. The kidney had higher concentration of
the metals compared to the liver, which is in turn higher than that in the muscle. This indicates
that the kidney of fish is a better bio-accumulator of heavy metals than the liver and the muscle.
The accumulation patterns of heavy metals contaminants in fish depend on uptake and
elimination rate. The implications of these contaminants beyond the World Health Organization
(WHO) and Food and Agricultural organization (FAO) permissible limits were discussed.
Indrajit Sen et al. 2011 Studied the fish samples Rahu (Labeo rohita), Tilapia (Tilapia zilli) and
Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigatatus) for heavy metals concentration. Fish samples were
collected from Yamuna River in Delhi. In this experiment Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical
Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique was used for determination of Al (Aluminum), B
(Boron), Ba (Barium),Cd (Cadmium), Co (Cobalt), Cr (Chromium), Cu (Copper), Fe (Iron), K
(Potassium), Mg(Magnesium), Mn (Manganese), Na (Sodium), Ni (Nickel), Pb (Lead), Sb
(Antimony), Sn (Tin), Si(Silicon), P (Phosphorus) and Zn (Zinc).Results Showed the high
concentration of Ca, K, Mg, Na and P as compared with other metals as these metals were not in
the maximum permissible level set by World Health Organization (WHO).
R. A. OLOWU et al. 2010 conducted an experiment in Badagry lagoons in Lagos State, Nigeria
to check the presence of zinc, nickel and iron using Perking Elmer atomic absorption
Spectrophotometer. Results showed that sediment contains higher concentration of Fe with a
Value of 13.30 μg/g as compare to fishes 8.400 μg/g and in water7.30 mg/L,
Different parts of the fish Showed higher concentrations of 4.00 μg/g Ni on the head of tilapia
fish followed by 2.40 μg/g Ni in the intestine of catfish. The highest concentration of 1.95 μg/g
Zn was detected on the head of the cat fish while the lowest concentration with a value of 0.16
μg/g was recorded in tilapia head. The concentration of Zn in the water is within the range as
Permitted by the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) of
1.0 mg/L Zn set for water. None of the trace metals investigated was above the
Maximum permissible level set by world health organization (WHO).
W. J. S. Mwegoha et al. 2010 reported heavy metals in soil and water were determined in
Msimbazi River valley in Dar es Salaam city at four points.Results indicated that the levels of
chromium in water ranged from (1.414±0.922) to 0.01 mg/L. Maximum and minimum lead
concentrations of 0.113 and 0.083 mg/L were detected. The concentration of copper was
generally low at all sites, ranging from (0.013±0.005) to (0.016±0.005) mg/L. The concentration
of lead in water throughout the river exceeds the WHO (2004) drinking water limit of 0.01 mg/L,
ranging from (0.113±0.104) to (0.083±0.059) mg/L. Cadmium concentration at all sampling
points was below detection limit of0.01 mg/L. Soil analysis showed that the concentrations of
heavy metals are highest at the top soil and decreased with depth. Lead had the highest
concentration of (22.85±1.502) mg/kg; which did not exceed the TZS (2003) maximum limit of
200 mg/kg for soils. Chromium had maximum and minimum concentrations of
(502.33±150.991) and (174.707±168.278) mg/kg, respectively, with most of samples exceeding
the TZS (2003) permissible limit of 200 mg/kg. The maximum and minimum concentrations of
copper were (21.073±2.881) and (4.513±1.713) mg/kg, respectively, lower than the TZS (2003)
permissible limit of 100 mg/kg. Cadmium concentrations at all sampling points were lower than
the permissible concentration of 100 mg/kg in soils (TZS, 2003). The presence of heavy metals
in soil and water indicates the potential for pollution transfer from these media to the food chain,
especially since this valley is popular for vegetable cultivation.
V. Diagomanolin et al. 2004 studies the concentration of heavy metals in
Karoon river.(biggest river in South of Iran).Due to industrialization along the river and
wastewater drainage into river increase the concentration of heavy metals in river.
For this experiment water Samples were collected from 16 different points along the river, in
winter and spring 1996. By using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry heavy metal
concentrations were measured. The minimum and maximum concentrations of heavy metals (Ni,
Cr, Cu) metals in winter were 69.3–110.7, 1.7–118.3, and 5.5–70.3_g/l respectively.
The minimum and maximum concentrations of heavy metals (Ni,Cr, Cu) metals in spring were
41.0–60.7, 0.7–19.8, and 0.5–28.7_g/l, respectively. The results showed that the pollution and
heavy metals concentration has increased in the river, down to the estuary at the Persian Gulf.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A-DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA
Kasur District (Urdu: )روصق علضis one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan It
came into existence on 1 July 1976. Earlier it was part of Lahore District. The total area of the
district is 3,995 square kilometers. The general height of the area is from 150 to 200 meters
above the sea level.
Collection of water Sample
Water sampling will be carried out in kasoor, Punjab Pakistan. Water
samples will be collected from seventeen different points to analyze the
heavy metals. Water samples will be collected in plastic bottles. Then
samples will bring to laboratory for analysis.
Water Sample Preparation
The heavy metal analysis will be done according to standard methods for
heavy metal determination using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
W. J. S. Mwegoha and C. Kihampa 2010. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and
water in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.African Journal of Environmental Science and
Technology Vol. 4(11), pp. 763-769, November, 2010.
C. Shinn, F. Dauba, G. Grenouillet, G. Guenard, S. Lek 2009. Temporal variation of heavy
metal contamination in fish of the river lot in southern France. Ecotoxicology and
Environmental Safety 72 (2009) 1957–1965.
Y. Sanayei, Norli Ismail and S.M. Talebi 2009. Determination of Heavy Metals in Zayandeh
Rood River, Isfahan-Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (9): 1209-1214, 2009.
Abida Begum, HariKrishna, Irfanulla Khan 2009. Analysis of Heavy metals in Water,
Sediments and Fish samples of Madivala Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka. International
Journal of ChemTech Research CODEN (USA): IJCRGG ISSN: 0974-4290 Vol.1, No.2,
pp 245-249, April-June 2009.
D. O. Ogoyi1, C.J. Mwita, E.K. Nguu1 and P.M. Shiundu 2011. Determination of Heavy Metal
Content in Water, Sediment and Microalgae from Lake Victoria, East Africa. The Open
Environmental Engineering Journal, 2011, 4, 156-161.
Suhendan Mol1, Özkan Özden1,S. Ahmet Oymak 2010. Trace Metal Contents in Fish Species
from Ataturk Dam Lake (Euphrates, Turkey).Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences 10: 209-213 (2010).
W. J. S. Mwegoha and C. Kihampa 2010. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and
water in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and
Technology Vol. 4(11), pp. 763-769, November, 2010.
R. A. OLOWU,O. O. AYEJUYO,G. O. ADEWUYI I. A. ADEJORO,A. A. B. DENLOYE, A. O.
BABATUNDE and A. L. OGUNDAJO 2010. Determination of Heavy Metals in Fish
Tissues,Water and Sediment from Epe and Badagry Lagoons, Lagos, Nigeria-Journal of
Chemistry 2010, 7(1), 215-221.
Indrajit Sen, Ajay Shandil and V. S. Shrivastava 2011. Study for Determination of Heavy
Metals in Fish Species of the River Yamuna (Delhi) by Inductively Coupled Plasma-
Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Advances in Applied Science Research,
2011, 2 (2): 161-166.
Ekpo, K. E., Asia, I. O., Amayo, K. O. and Jegede, D. A. 2008. Determination of lead, cadmium
and mercury in surrounding water and organs of some species of fish from Ikpoba river
in Benin city, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 3 (11), pp. 289-
292, November 2008.
M. Nassef, R. Hannigan, K. A. EL Sayed, and M. S. El. Tahawy 2006. DETERMINATION OF
SOME HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF SADAT INDUSTRIAL CITY.
Proceedings of the 2nd Environmental Physics Conference, 18-22 Feb. 2006,
Zafer Ayas, Guler Ekmekci, Sedat Vahdet Yerli and Murat Ozmen 2007. Heavy metal
accumulation in water, sediments and fishes of Nallihan Bird Paradise, Turkey. Journal
of Environmental Biology July 2007, 28(3) 545-549 (2007).