Review Guide for Standard Psychology Final Exam Research Methods All research must first be proposed to the Institutional Review Board and meet the following APA Ethical Guidelines Animal Research- - Clear, scientific purpose - Humane treatment - Acquire subjects legally - Use procedures’ employing least amount of suffering feasible Human Research- - Informed consent (explain research and receive a signature) - No coercion (cannot force to do) - Debriefing (explain to subject the purpose (even if deceived a little) and results. - No mental/physical risk/harm CORRELATION Correlation- expresses a relationship between 2 variables. Correlations may be positive or negative, strong or weak. A Positive correlation is when both variables increase or both variables decrease at the same time. (Hint: when multiplying integers in math a negative times a negative equals a positive.) Negative correlation is when one variable increases, the other variable decreases. Sometimes a survey is used Correlation does not mean causation- there are usually several different causes of something. Naturalistic observation- Research conducted in natural habitat (animals or humans). Case study- Positive: in-depth detailed study of individual or small groups. Criticism is that findings cannot be generalized to larger population. EXPERIMENT Experimental method- this is the preferred method because it expresses a cause and effect relationship. You can do this by manipulating a variable. The disadvantage is that sometimes you cannot generalize what happens in a controlled laboratory environment to the real world. Random assignment- participants are randomly assigned to either the control (group not receiving the treatment) or experimental group. (group receiving treatment) Double-blind procedure- neither the subjects nor researchers are aware of control/experiment (or those receiving placebo). This eliminates experimenter or subject bias. A single blind controls foe subject bias (he/she does not know about the experiment) Independent variable- manipulated variable. (Ex.-the pill if you’re testing a pill to see if it relieves hyperactivity or depression.) Dependent variable- (measured variable) change in this is dependent on change in independent variable. This is the outcome and is often a score or number Sampling- process by which subjects (participants) are selected Representative Sample- goal of sampling, select a sample representative of a larger population. (Example- a representative sample at Butler would have roughly 12% African-Americans). Random selection- Ex-.Picking out of a hat OR Computer generated sample of 100 Butler students for survey. (Only use one of these examples). This increases likelihood of sample being representative Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Theory: if behaviors and attitudes/beliefs do not match then tension arises. Attitudes or behaviors must become consistent to relieve tension. EX. You think speeding is wrong and yet, you speed. You either stop speeding or say speeding is ok. Just world phenomenon tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve. (EX- poor are poor because they’re lazy) Outgroup homogeneity – tendency to see members of your own group as more diverse than members of other groups In-group bias– preference for members of own group (most similar to you in gender, race, class, age, proximity (EX- belief that Butler students are better than Providence students (even though this is a fact). Prejudice and Contact Theory – Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if the two groups are made to work toward a superordinate goal. Sherifs’ study– combative boys’ at summer camp began getting along after working cooperatively toward a shared superordinate goal. This led to the use of cooperative learning groups to help alleviate prejudice. This also caused an increased use of cooperative learning (groupwork- with one grade) in schools during integration. Asch’s study of Conformity –Q. Which line matches the standard line? Group pressure caused participants to change opinions (even when answer is obvious) about a third of the time. Conformity did not increase after 3 members were in group. Milgram’s study of Obedience: Subjects were deceived into thinking that they were shocking someone. Participants continued shocking other participants while they were screaming to Stop! Obedience increased when: 1) authority close at hand 2) authority by prestigious institution 3) victim depersonalized (in another room) 4) no role models for defiance. This experiment has been criticized on ethical grounds. 70% went to XXX. It showed how ordinary people can be influenced by authority figures to do immoral things. Deindividuation –loss of self-restraint in-group situations where one becomes anonymous. “If you could be invisible for 24 hours what would you do. Group Think- mode of thinking when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. EX- Pres. Kennedy’s advisors decided to invade Cuba or the decision to launch the spaceship challenger or Iraq invasion. Biological Basis of Behavior (Neuroscience) Neurotransmitter- _______ Function Problem associated with it a.) Acetylcholine (Ach) motor movement Alzheimer’s (lack of Ach) b.) Dopamine motor movement Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia (excess) c.) Serotonin mood Depression d.) Endorphins (substance p) pain Addictions e.) Norepenephrine mood Depression PARTS OF THE BRAIN Medulla- heartbeat, breathing Pons- controls facial expressions. Cerebellum- balance, motor movement (Mnemonic: Sara on a balance beam) Thalamus- contains sensory (senses) cortex (except smell) Hypothalamus – body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst Amygdala- emotions (Mnemonic: Picture a friend named Amy that is very emotional) Hippocampus- formation of new memories (Mnemonic: If you saw a hippo on campus you wouldn’t forget it) Reticular Formation – responsible for body arousal (Mnemonic: tic toc an alarm clock wakes you up) HEMISPHERES Contra lateral control- the left hemisphere controls the motor movement of the right hand. Hemispheric Specialization- outdated theory suggesting that each hemisphere controls all specific functions. It’s factual however that the left is where most language takes place. Right is spatial. (map reading etc.) Split brain patients can write a word they see in the right visual field but cannot say it because the left hemisphere controls language Corpus collosum- connects the 2 hemispheres and transmits messages to each other. People who get epileptic seizures have this surgically cut and become split brain patients. Developmental Psychology (7-9 %) Imprinting- during critical period animals will become attached to its earliest caregiver. Konrad Lorenz studied ducks that attached to him and to a bouncing ball over other their biological mothers. Critical Period – the vital time in which some development must occur Ex. Lorenz and Imprinting Ex. Language development PARENTING Attachment Theories (bond between child and parent) o Harlow’s monkeys. Baby monkeys preferred wire mother with fur over wire mother with bottle. This proved that babies do not form attachment to mothers just because of nourishment but rather contact comfort. Also showed monkeys becoming stressed/frightened when placed in new situation o Mary Ainsworth studied how human babies reacted when placed in strange situations away from mother. This suggested whether they had formed secure or insecure attachments which effected then throughout their life. Secure babies explore environment, stressed when mom leaves and come to parents upon return. Parenting Styles o authoritative (most well adjusted individuals- consistent rules with an explanation, sometimes rules are arrived at democratically) o authoritarian (rhymes with librarian or totalitarian). Q. Why can’t I stay out later? A. Because I said so. o permissive (few rules or consequences) KOHLBERG”S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT- gave people of varying ages the Heinz Dilemma (Q. Should he steal drug to save wife?) o Preconventional- morality based on rewards and punishment. o Conventional- morality based on social acceptance, approval. Ex. obeying laws. o Postconventional-morality based on ethical principles (Ex- breaking a law that you think is unjust (civil disobedience) States of Consciousness Sleep Disorders Insomnia- difficulty getting or staying asleep Narcolepsy- sudden sleep attacks Sleep apnea- difficulty breathing during sleep Night terrors/sleepwalking- during stage 4 deep sleep. (not nightmares) Theories of Dreams- Freud says they are meaningful. They may be used to uncover repressed memories/conflicts in the unconscious mind. Manifest content- literal content of dream. (Freud) Latent content- underlying meaning of dream (Freud). Our ego protects us by presenting these repressed desires in symbols. Activation-synthesis theory – biological explanation of dreams (random bursts of neurons in which the brain processes and makes up a Story Information-Processing Theory- in between previous 2 theories. The function of dreams is to process and give meaning to the days events/stresses. This is why we have REM rebound and why babies have longer REM sleep DRUGS Psychoactive Drugs induce altered state of consciousness. Tolerance- varying level at which different people can feel the effects of a psychoactive drug Withdrawal- physical and psychological effects after stopping the use of a drug. Stimulants- (caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine (Dopamine causes this effect)) – speed up nervous system. Depressants- (barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol) – slow down nervous system Hallucinogens (psychedelics) - (LSD, marijuana) Opiates- heroine, morphine, codeine- painkillers (take place of endorphins) Learning (Behaviorism- observable responses to environmental stimuli) 7-9% CLASSICAL CONDITIONING -(Pavlov, Watson) learning through associations. EX- the story of the women who was raped and she now gets anxieties when she is alone with men. Stimulus (being alone with men) Involuntary Response (experiencing anxiety) UCS-original stimulus eliciting a response (food) UCR- natural response (salivation) CS- conditioned or learned stimulus (bell) CR-conditioned response (salivation). Associating food with bell elicits salivation. OPERANT CONDITIONING – learning to associate behaviors (stimulus) with their consequences (Skinner, Thorndike) Thorndike’s Law of Effect- behavior is more likely to continue if it has a positive consequence. Less likely with a negative consequence. Skinner Box- pigeons, rats, a bar/key, pellets, shaping of behavior using reinforcers or punishers. Reinforcers- behavior is more likely to happen. Positive (hint: think of adding not good) reinforcer- adds something positive. EX. Good grades = money Negative (hint: think of subtracting not bad) reinforcer- takes away something negative. Ex. Good grades = no chores Punisher- decreases the likelihood of behavior occurring. Best when given soon after behavior. Negative punishment- subtracting something pleasant EX. Bad grades = no car for the week Positive punishment- add something negative (EX. Bad grades = Spanking.) Shaping - Ex. teaching a dog to roll over Testing and Intelligence Gardner’s’ Theory of Multiple Intelligences: says we have several different types of intelligences. He and other contemporaries deemphasized the math/verbal definitions. linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial (reading maps, playing checkers), musical, bodily kinesthetic (athletes), intrapersonal (knowing oneself), and interpersonal (relating to others) Evidence supporting that nature (genetics) plays a role in intelligence -Identical Twin studies score closer in intelligence than fraternal. -Identical raised apart also score close. Evidence supporting that nurture (environment) plays a role in intelligence - Twins raised apart don’t score as close as those raised together - Flynn Effect- standardized test scores have continually increased because of better schooling, nutrition. ALSO USE THE STUDY GUIDE FROM LAST WEEKS TEST ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND TREATMENT.
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