Experimental method by opn1mPE


									                            Review Guide for Standard Psychology Final Exam

                                               Research Methods

All research must first be proposed to the Institutional Review Board and meet the following APA Ethical

Animal Research-
- Clear, scientific purpose
- Humane treatment
- Acquire subjects legally
- Use procedures’ employing least amount of suffering feasible

Human Research-
- Informed consent (explain research and receive a signature)
- No coercion (cannot force to do)
- Debriefing (explain to subject the purpose (even if deceived a little) and results.
- No mental/physical risk/harm

     Correlation- expresses a relationship between 2 variables. Correlations may be positive or negative, strong
     or weak. A Positive correlation is when both variables increase or both variables decrease at the same
     time. (Hint: when multiplying integers in math a negative times a negative equals a positive.) Negative
     correlation is when one variable increases, the other variable decreases. Sometimes a survey is used

         Correlation does not mean causation- there are usually several different causes of something.

Naturalistic observation- Research conducted in natural habitat (animals or humans).

Case study- Positive: in-depth detailed study of individual or small groups. Criticism is that findings cannot be
generalized to larger population.


         Experimental method- this is the preferred method because it expresses a cause and effect relationship.
         You can do this by manipulating a variable. The disadvantage is that sometimes you cannot generalize what
         happens in a controlled laboratory environment to the real world.

         Random assignment- participants are randomly assigned to either the control (group not receiving the
         treatment) or experimental group. (group receiving treatment)

         Double-blind procedure- neither the subjects nor researchers are aware of control/experiment (or those
         receiving placebo). This eliminates experimenter or subject bias. A single blind controls foe subject bias
         (he/she does not know about the experiment)

Independent variable- manipulated variable. (Ex.-the pill if you’re testing a pill to see if it relieves hyperactivity or

Dependent variable- (measured variable) change in this is dependent on change in independent variable. This is the
outcome and is often a score or number

Sampling- process by which subjects (participants) are selected
Representative Sample- goal of sampling, select a sample representative of a larger population. (Example- a
representative sample at Butler would have roughly 12% African-Americans).

Random selection- Ex-.Picking out of a hat OR Computer generated sample of 100 Butler students for survey.
(Only use one of these examples). This increases likelihood of sample being representative

                                                 Social Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: if behaviors and attitudes/beliefs do not match then tension arises. Attitudes or
behaviors must become consistent to relieve tension. EX. You think speeding is wrong and yet, you speed. You
either stop speeding or say speeding is ok.

Just world phenomenon tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they
deserve. (EX- poor are poor because they’re lazy)

Outgroup homogeneity – tendency to see members of your own group as more diverse than members of other

In-group bias– preference for members of own group (most similar to you in gender, race, class, age, proximity
(EX- belief that Butler students are better than Providence students (even though this is a fact).

Prejudice and Contact Theory – Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if the two groups are made
to work toward a superordinate goal.

Sherifs’ study– combative boys’ at summer camp began getting along after working cooperatively toward a shared
superordinate goal. This led to the use of cooperative learning groups to help alleviate prejudice. This also caused
an increased use of cooperative learning (groupwork- with one grade) in schools during integration.

Asch’s study of Conformity –Q. Which line matches the standard line? Group pressure caused participants to
        change opinions (even when answer is obvious) about a third of the time. Conformity did not increase after
        3 members were in group.

Milgram’s study of Obedience: Subjects were deceived into thinking that they were shocking someone.
Participants continued shocking other participants while they were screaming to Stop! Obedience increased when: 1)
authority close at hand 2) authority by prestigious institution 3) victim depersonalized (in another room) 4) no role
models for defiance. This experiment has been criticized on ethical grounds. 70% went to XXX. It showed how
ordinary people can be influenced by authority figures to do immoral things.

Deindividuation –loss of self-restraint in-group situations where one becomes anonymous. “If you could be
invisible for 24 hours what would you do.

Group Think- mode of thinking when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic
appraisal of alternatives. EX- Pres. Kennedy’s advisors decided to invade Cuba or the decision to launch the
spaceship challenger or Iraq invasion.

                                   Biological Basis of Behavior (Neuroscience)

Neurotransmitter-       _______ Function                       Problem associated with it
a.) Acetylcholine (Ach)      motor movement                    Alzheimer’s (lack of Ach)
b.) Dopamine               motor movement                    Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia (excess)
c.) Serotonin                mood                              Depression
d.) Endorphins (substance p) pain                               Addictions
e.) Norepenephrine           mood                                 Depression
           Medulla- heartbeat, breathing
           Pons- controls facial expressions.
           Cerebellum- balance, motor movement (Mnemonic: Sara on a balance beam)
           Thalamus- contains sensory (senses) cortex (except smell)
           Hypothalamus – body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst
           Amygdala- emotions (Mnemonic: Picture a friend named Amy that is very emotional)
           Hippocampus- formation of new memories (Mnemonic: If you saw a hippo on campus you wouldn’t
forget it)
           Reticular Formation – responsible for body arousal (Mnemonic: tic toc an alarm clock wakes you up)

      Contra lateral control- the left hemisphere controls the motor movement of the right hand.
      Hemispheric Specialization- outdated theory suggesting that each hemisphere controls all specific
      functions. It’s factual however that the left is where most language takes place. Right is spatial. (map
      reading etc.)
      Split brain patients can write a word they see in the right visual field but cannot say it because the left
      hemisphere controls language
      Corpus collosum- connects the 2 hemispheres and transmits messages to each other. People who get
      epileptic seizures have this surgically cut and become split brain patients.

                                        Developmental Psychology (7-9 %)
Imprinting- during critical period animals will become attached to its earliest caregiver. Konrad Lorenz studied
ducks that attached to him and to a bouncing ball over other their biological mothers.
Critical Period – the vital time in which some development must occur
     Ex. Lorenz and Imprinting
     Ex. Language development
Attachment Theories (bond between child and parent)
    o Harlow’s monkeys. Baby monkeys preferred wire mother with fur over wire mother with bottle. This
         proved that babies do not form attachment to mothers just because of nourishment but rather contact
         comfort. Also showed monkeys becoming stressed/frightened when placed in new situation

    o    Mary Ainsworth studied how human babies reacted when placed in strange situations away from mother.
         This suggested whether they had formed secure or insecure attachments which effected then throughout
         their life. Secure babies explore environment, stressed when mom leaves and come to parents upon return.

Parenting Styles
    o authoritative (most well adjusted individuals- consistent rules with an explanation, sometimes rules are
        arrived at democratically)
    o authoritarian (rhymes with librarian or totalitarian). Q. Why can’t I stay out later? A. Because I said so.
    o permissive (few rules or consequences)

KOHLBERG”S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT- gave people of varying ages the Heinz Dilemma (Q. Should he
steal drug to save wife?)
    o Preconventional- morality based on rewards and punishment.
    o Conventional- morality based on social acceptance, approval. Ex. obeying laws.
    o Postconventional-morality based on ethical principles (Ex- breaking a law that you think is unjust (civil

                                                 States of Consciousness
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia- difficulty getting or staying asleep
Narcolepsy- sudden sleep attacks
Sleep apnea- difficulty breathing during sleep
Night terrors/sleepwalking- during stage 4 deep sleep. (not nightmares)
Theories of Dreams-
        Freud says they are meaningful. They may be used to uncover repressed memories/conflicts in the
unconscious mind.
                 Manifest content- literal content of dream. (Freud)
                 Latent content- underlying meaning of dream (Freud). Our ego protects us by presenting these
                 repressed desires in symbols.
        Activation-synthesis theory – biological explanation of dreams (random bursts of neurons in which the
        brain processes and makes up a Story
        Information-Processing Theory- in between previous 2 theories. The function of dreams is to process and
        give meaning to the days events/stresses. This is why we have REM rebound and why babies have longer
        REM sleep


          Psychoactive Drugs induce altered state of consciousness.
          Tolerance- varying level at which different people can feel the effects of a psychoactive drug
          Withdrawal- physical and psychological effects after stopping the use of a drug.
          Stimulants- (caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine (Dopamine causes this effect)) – speed up nervous
          Depressants- (barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol) – slow down nervous system
          Hallucinogens (psychedelics) - (LSD, marijuana)
          Opiates- heroine, morphine, codeine- painkillers (take place of endorphins)

                  Learning (Behaviorism- observable responses to environmental stimuli) 7-9%

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING -(Pavlov, Watson) learning through associations. EX- the story of the women who
was raped and she now gets anxieties when she is alone with men. Stimulus (being alone with men) Involuntary
Response (experiencing anxiety)
        UCS-original stimulus eliciting a response (food)
        UCR- natural response (salivation)
        CS- conditioned or learned stimulus (bell)
        CR-conditioned response (salivation). Associating food with bell elicits salivation.

OPERANT CONDITIONING – learning to associate behaviors (stimulus) with their consequences (Skinner,
        Thorndike’s Law of Effect- behavior is more likely to continue if it has a positive consequence. Less
        likely with a negative consequence.
        Skinner Box- pigeons, rats, a bar/key, pellets, shaping of behavior using reinforcers or punishers.
        Reinforcers- behavior is more likely to happen.

                  Positive (hint: think of adding not good) reinforcer- adds something positive. EX. Good
          grades = money

                  Negative (hint: think of subtracting not bad) reinforcer- takes away something negative.
                  Ex. Good grades = no chores

          Punisher- decreases the likelihood of behavior occurring. Best when given soon after behavior.
                 Negative punishment- subtracting something pleasant EX. Bad grades = no car for the week
                 Positive punishment- add something negative (EX. Bad grades = Spanking.)

          Shaping - Ex. teaching a dog to roll over
                                             Testing and Intelligence

Gardner’s’ Theory of Multiple Intelligences: says we have several different types of intelligences. He and other
contemporaries deemphasized the math/verbal definitions. linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial (reading maps,
playing checkers), musical, bodily kinesthetic (athletes), intrapersonal (knowing oneself), and interpersonal (relating
to others)

Evidence supporting that nature (genetics) plays a role in intelligence
       -Identical Twin studies score closer in intelligence than fraternal.
       -Identical raised apart also score close.

Evidence supporting that nurture (environment) plays a role in intelligence
- Twins raised apart don’t score as close as those raised together
- Flynn Effect- standardized test scores have continually increased because of better schooling, nutrition.


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