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3 Grade Michigan Studies                                                                    SS030105
Unit 1: The Geography of Michigan                                                            Lesson 5


                   Lesson 5: Michigan’s Human Characteristics

Big Ideas of the Lesson


     To study a place geographers ask the question: What is the place like?
     To answer that question geographers study the human characteristics of the place.
     Human characteristics are often connected to natural (physical) characteristics. For example,
      people often build bridges across rivers and cities next to rivers.
     Human characteristics include bridges, highways, cities and buildings.
     Special purpose maps can be used to learn about these human characteristics.



Lesson Abstract:
In this lesson students continue their study of the geographic theme of ‘place’ by exploring
significant human characteristics of Michigan including bridges, cities, highways and lighthouses.
In addition, students explore how people interact with natural (physical) characteristics by creating
human characteristics (e.g. bridges are built over rivers, towns are built along bays.)

Content Expectations
3 - G1.0.2: Use thematic maps to identify and describe the physical and human characteristics of
            Michigan.

Integrated GLCE’s
R.NT.03.04: Explain how authors use literary devices including prediction, personification, and
            point of view to develop a story level theme, depict the setting, reveal how thoughts
            and actions convey important character traits. (English Language Arts)

Key Concepts
human characteristics
place

Instructional Resources
Equipment/Manipulative
Chart paper and markers
Desktop maps of Michigan for students or a Michigan map from a textbook or a paper copy of a
      Michigan map
Overhead projector or document camera/projector
Student journal or notebook
Wall map of Michigan or overhead of a Michigan map

Student Resource
Lewis, Anne Margaret. Lighthouse Fireflies. Traverse City, Michigan: Mackinac Island Press, 2005.


Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum                                              Page 1 of 5
www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org                                                        August 19, 2009
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3 Grade Michigan Studies                                                                 SS030105
Unit 1: The Geography of Michigan                                                         Lesson 5



McConnell, David. Meet Michigan. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 2009. 27-31

Munsch, Robert. Lighthouse, A Story of Remembrance. New York: Cartwheel Books, 2003.

Seeing the Light: Michigan Lighthouses. 10 July 2009
      http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/state_michigan.htm

Whelan, Gloria. Mackinac Bridge: The Story of the Five Mile Poem. Chelsea, Michigan: Sleeping
     Bear Press, 2006.

Teacher Resource
Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Teacher-made material. Michigan
      Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 2009.

Major Highways Map. Michigan Economic Development Website. 10 July 2009
      <http://ref.michiganadvantage.org/cm/attach/ab7251e3-c65b-4867-8584-
      90278c437381/majorhighways.pdf>.

Map of Michigan Lighthouses. 10 July 2009 <http://michiganlighthouse.org/lh_map.htm>.

Teacher’s Lighthouse Resource for Grades K-4. 10 July 2009
      <http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/LighthouseCurriculum.pdf>.

Lesson Sequence
1. Make and display an overhead of the “Reviewing What We’ve Learned Chart” located in the
   Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) or make a similar chart on large chart paper. Guide
   students in reviewing what they learned about natural (physical) characteristics in Lessons 3
   and 4 by adding information to the chart. Encourage them to make use of the Word Cards, Big
   Idea Cards and graphic organizers from the two lessons.

 2. Remind students that geographers are also interested in the human characteristics of a place.
    Review this term and ask students for examples of human characteristics. Note that common
    examples include cities, buildings, bridges and roads. Using the following examples discuss
    how natural (physical) characteristics and human characteristics are often connected. In other
    words, people often interact with natural (physical) characteristics by creating human
    characteristics.
           People build docks on islands because they use boats to get to islands.
           People build bridges over rivers so they can cross the river.
           People build sawmills near forests so they can make use of the trees.
    Ask students to come up with their own examples of connections between natural (physical)
    and human characteristics.

 3. Using a map of Michigan point out the two peninsulas and pose this question: What human
    characteristic do you think people had to build because Michigan had two separate
    peninsulas? Guide students to the idea that the Mackinac Bridge had to be constructed. Pose

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum                                           Page 2 of 5
www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org                                                     August 19, 2009
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3 Grade Michigan Studies                                                                    SS030105
Unit 1: The Geography of Michigan                                                            Lesson 5

      the following question and ask students to write an answer in their Michigan studies journals
      but don’t discuss responses (until step #7): How do you think people got from the Lower
      Peninsula to the Upper Peninsula before the bridge was built?

 4. Introduce the book Mackinac Bridge: The Story of the Five Mile Poem to students by writing
    the term ‘point of view’’ on an overhead or board and explaining that authors often include
    characters with different points of view in a story. Show the cover of the book and explain that
    this book describes the building of the Mackinac Bridge from the viewpoint of three different
    characters, a father and his two sons.

 5. Read the book aloud to students, stopping at appropriate times to discuss the characters and
    their points of view regarding the construction of the bridge as well as the impact of the bridge
    itself.

 6. Give each student a copy of the “Different Points of View” chart located in the Supplemental
    Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) and go over the directions. Give students time to complete the
    chart. Note that a chart showing sample answers has also been included in the Supplemental
    Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) for reference. Place students in pairs and have them share what
    they wrote with their partner. Then, bring the whole class together again to discuss the book
    and different points of view of the characters.

 7. Have students return to their Michigan studies journals and review how they answered the
    question posed in Step 3. Ask them to answer the question again in their journals. Give them
    time to write and then discuss their responses to the question before and after they heard the
    book.

 8. Explain that there are many other important bridges in Michigan including three that connect
    Michigan with the country of Canada. Using a Michigan map point out the Ambassador Bridge
    at Detroit, the Bluewater Bridge at Port Huron and the International Bridge at Sault Ste. Marie.

 9. Pose the following question: Is there any other way to cross water besides using a ferry or a
    bridge? Discuss student responses and guide them to the idea that people sometimes build
    tunnels under bodies of water. Explain that in Detroit there is a tunnel connecting the city of
    Detroit and the city of Windsor in Canada.

 10. Explain that it would be hard to use either a bridge or a tunnel without building another kind of
     human characteristic. Ask students what they think this might be. Display an overhead of the
     “Major Highways of Michigan” map located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5),
     and explain that bridges and tunnels require highways. Ask students to carefully look at the
     map and write one thing they can conclude about the highways of Michigan based on the map.
     Give students time to write and then have them share their answers. Note that possible ideas
     include:
            Most highways go either north/south or east/west.
            A lot of highways go to the Detroit area.
            There are fewer highways in the Upper Peninsula.
            In the Lower Peninsula highways go almost all the way round the coastlines.

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum                                              Page 3 of 5
www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org                                                        August 19, 2009
 rd
3 Grade Michigan Studies                                                                   SS030105
Unit 1: The Geography of Michigan                                                           Lesson 5



 11. Give each student a copy of the highway map and a copy of the “Reading a Highway Map”
    skill sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Explain that students
    should use the map to complete the sheet. A completed answer sheet has also been included
    in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Note that the skill sheet could also be given
    as homework.

 12. Ask students to look at the Major Highways map again and find another kind of human
     characteristic that is shown on this special purpose map. Discuss student ideas and guide
     them to identifying cities as the other human characteristic shown on this map. Using your own
     overhead of the map, guide students in identifying the following Michigan cities. Have them
     place a red dot on each city as they locate it:
            St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, the two cities on either side of the Mackinac Bridge
            Detroit, the largest city in Michigan
            Marquette, the largest city in the Upper Peninsula
            Lansing, the state capital
            Grand Rapids, another large city
            Sault Ste. Marie, an important city in the Upper Peninsula
            Ludington, a city where you can take a ferry across Lake Michigan to the state of
               Wisconsin

 13. Remind students that early in this lesson they explored how natural (physical) and human
    characteristics are often connected. Using Word Card #28 explain that because of the Great
    Lakes people in Michigan have had to build a very special kind of human characteristic called
    a lighthouse. Show students a photograph of a Michigan lighthouse and explain that
    lighthouses are some of Michigan’s most unique human characteristics. Good photographs
    can be found at the following website:
    <http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/state_michigan.htm>.

 14. Make and display an overhead of the “Michigan Lighthouses Map” located in the
    Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) and give students a copy of the map. Have students
    write something in their Michigan studies journals that they can infer from the map about
    Michigan lighthouses from the map. Discuss their responses. Note that possible ideas include:
           In some places there are a lot of lighthouses clustered together.
           Near the Mackinac Bridge there are a lot of lighthouses.
           Lighthouses are sometimes on islands.
           Lighthouses are often at the end of points, or peninsulas.
           Lighthouses are often at the end of a bay.

 15. Note that some excellent teaching materials relating to lighthouses can be found in the
    Teacher’s Lighthouse Resource created by the U.S. Coast Guard. This can be downloaded at
    the following website: http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/LighthouseCurriculum.pdf

 16. As a literature connection read students one, or both, of the following books: Lighthouse, A
     Story of Remembrance, Lighthouse Fireflies. Note that reading both books allows for an


Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum                                             Page 4 of 5
www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org                                                       August 19, 2009
 rd
3 Grade Michigan Studies                                                                    SS030105
Unit 1: The Geography of Michigan                                                            Lesson 5

      interesting text-to-text comparison since both books are on the same theme of lighthouses but
      are very different kinds of books.

 17. Note that this lesson can be supplemented by pages 27 – 31 in Meet Michigan or similar
     pages in another textbook on Michigan.

18. As a culminating project for Lessons 3, 4, and 5 have students create a poster, brochure, or
   other visual project describing in words and in illustrations significant natural (physical) and
   human characteristics of Michigan.


Assessment
As an assessment, students could identify and describe three significant human characteristics of
Michigan. Note that the culminating project described in Step 18 could also be used as an
assessment.




Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum                                              Page 5 of 5
www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org                                                        August 19, 2009

				
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