Theory into Practice: Teaching Guide by y9PrGiY


									                       Theory into Practice: Student Guide
Another interactive feature of the text is the series of boxes in Part 1 entitled “Theory into
Practice.” The purpose of these boxes it to provide students with activities that emphasize
reasoning and problem solving connected to the pedagogical topics addressed in the first
five chapters. Part 2 of the text contains the 100 key experiments, and thus, is extremely
activity rich. The Theory into Practice boxes present students with activities to go with
Part 1. The following table describes each of the Theory into Practice activities. The
Instructor’s Resource CD provides ideas for how best to use these activities in the context
of a science methods course.

 Theory       Theory into              Description of Theory into Practice Activity
   into        Practice
 Practice       Name
                           A number of statements are presented that represent a variety
Theory       Nature of     of perspectives on scientific inquiry and the values and
into         Science Cards processes that underlie it. The statements can be used to help
Practice                   students clarify their beliefs about science.
(TIP) 1.1
TIP 1.2      Hidden            Students are given folders with small holes cut in one side so
             Shapes            that they can see only part of a picture hidden inside. They
                               then need to draw what they think the whole picture looks
TIP 1.3      The               This activity is a model and a metaphor of one of the
             Hypothesis        challenges that scientists sometimes face. You can build the
             Box               hypothesis box following the diagram and directions provided
                               in the book and then challenge your students to image what is
                               going on inside the box even though they can’t see in. Don’t
                               let the students see inside right away. Making them wait until
                               the next class period emphasizes the fact that scientists don’t
                               always get to “see inside the box.”
TIP 2.1      What would        This activity asks students to consider technologies and
             life be like      inventions that make their lives significantly different from
             without           the lives of their great-great grandparents. They should
             certain           consider what they gain from these inventions and what they
             inventions?       lose.
                               Students then keep a log of all the inventions that they use in a
                               single day (car, phone, washing machine, clock, toilet, etc.).
                               Finally, they try to spend a day without using one of these
                               inventions, such as a car, a cell phone, or a clock and reflect
                               on this experience influenced their day.
TIP 2.2      Education         Students are asked to reflect on their own experiences in the
             Reform and        K–12 educational system and as college students, and to
          You            consider how they think the standards-based reform efforts
                         have affected their education in science. They are asked in
                         terms of curriculum (Have these reforms influenced what you
                         were taught?), instruction (How you were taught?) and
                         assessment (How you were assessed?) at both the K-12 and
                         college levels. Students then exchange their ideas with other
                         classmates, consider areas of agreement and disagreement,
                         and propose reasons for any disagreements.
TIP 2.3   Definitions of This theory into practice box presents several definitions of
          Scientific     scientific literacy. The most commonly quoted and used
          Literacy       definition comes form the National science education
                         standards document. However, the multiple definitions
                         proposed by Bybee provide students with the opportunity to
                         reflect on and shape their own views on scientific literacy.
TIP 2.4   Metaphors in This activity presents some metaphors have been used to
          Science        describe science, such as:
                         Science is a MACHINE
                         Science is a TEXT
                         Science is an ORGANISM
                         Science is a CIRCUIT
                         Students are asked to explain what each of these metaphors is
                         saying about science, and then to
                         come up with their own metaphor for science. Students then
                         write a paragraph that discusses their metaphor, what it
                         means, and what it implies about science. Finally,
                         students share their metaphor paragraph with a classmate,
                         comparing and contrasting the two metaphors.
TIP 2.5   Ethics and the This activity will help students consider the limits that we
          Humane         should set for the ethical treatment of animals. Students will
          Treatment of discuss when is it appropriate to use animals in experiments
          Experimental and if so, in what kinds?
          Animals        Where is the line between ethical and unethical treatment of
                         animals, how should this be determined, and by whom? After
                         students consider these and related questions, they confer with
                         a classmate or friend and compare their thoughts on these
                         ethical issues.

TIP 3.1   Helping         Have each pre-service teacher pick one experiment from Part
          Students        2 of the text and do the activity with one elementary grade
          Make            student. Help the student understand the directions and then
          Meaning of      let her carry out the procedure. Carefully observe what the
          Experience      student does, making note of places where she gets stuck.
                          After the student is done, interview the student and try to
                          construct a concept map of her understanding of the key
                          concept. Then share the concept map with the student and
                          discuss it. Finally, each pre-service teacher should write a
                         reflection paper on what she learned about the child’s learning
TIP 3.2   Learning By    Students will select one of the design-based science project
          Design         Web sites that is listed at the end of the chapter, and then read
                         about that project and consider questions such as the
                         What is the model of learning that is presented in this project?
                         What science content or topics do students learn about in this
                         project? Is this project consistent with a standards-based
                         approach to science teaching? Why or why not? After the
                         students respond individually to these and other questions,
                         they should get in small groups and compare the projects they
                         read about.
TIP 3.3   Learning       Students will borrow a copy of a “teacher’s edition” of a
          Theories       science textbook that is used in a nearby school district, and
          Textbook       read the front matter explaining the philosophy behind the
          Review         book. They will then write a reflection on the learning theory
                         or theories that influence the book, whether or not those
                         theories are made explicit to the reader and whether or not
                         they use theories that take into account our current
                         understandings about how students best learn science.
                         Students in the class can then compare different books that
                         they reviews and consider the degree to which the district is
                         adopting science texts that are in line with current thinking in
                         the field.
TIP 4.1   Draw a         Students are asked to picture a scientist in their mind and then
          Scientist      draw a picture of what their scientist looks like and what their
                         scientist is doing. Students then post their pictures on the
                         board and compare and contrast their scientists, looking for
                         similarities and differences.
TIP 4.2   Mapping the    Students are asked to create a data table showing how the
          Increasing     population of children attending school has changed over the
          Diversity in   last century. They will look at websites for data from 1900,
          American       1950, and 2000, and compare the data on gender,
          Classrooms     race/ethnicity, disabilities, and home language, then plot a
                         graph showing the results. Students will then compare and
                         discuss their graph with a partner.
TIP 4.3   Two-Column     Students will brainstorm two lists of characteristics, one list of
          Girls and      characteristics of girls and the other list of characteristics of
          Scientists     scientists. For each column they should try to get at least a
          Activity       dozen characteristics or qualities.
                         Students then compare the two lists using a colored marker,
                         and connect terms that seem to be antonyms (opposites) with
                         one color and connect terms that seem to be synonyms with a
                         second color. They will then discuss in small groups the
                         implications of the similarities and differences between the
                         two lists.
TIP 4.4   Modifying      In this activity students will select several experiments from
          Lab Activities Part 2 of the book and consider what accommodations would
                         need to be made for each of the three activities to best meet
                         the needs of students with certain disabilities. Students should
                         then show their list of accommodations to an experienced
                         teacher, or (even better) to a trained special educator to see
                         what additional suggestions for accommodations he or she can
TIP 4.5   Sheltered      Students will be taught a fairly simple hands-on inquiry-based
          Second-        lesson entirely in a language other than English.
          Language       The instructor should be sure to use good ESOL teaching
          Activity       strategies and to let the students speak in English (or whatever
                         language they prefer) while working in small groups to try to
                         make sense of the task. When students present their findings
                         to the whole class, however, they should be forced to try to
                         use the language of instruction as best as they can.
TIP 4.6   Debating the   The student is asked to role-play a scenario in which as a
          “Fairness” of teacher, she is asked to defend the value of her school’s gifted
          Gifted         program to a parent who does not believe that the program is
          Education      fair. Students need to reflect on how
                         they might respond to this parent and then write a one-page
                         paper outlining their argument in support of gifted education
                         programs. Selected students can then be asked to act out their
                         role play in front of the class.
TIP 5.1                  Students will practice their observation skills by studying
                         traffic patterns. Have students pick a busy intersection at a
                         time of day when traffic usually backs up and observe the
          Watching a
                         flow of traffic. After watching the traffic at the intersection for
                         a few minutes, they should write a hypothesis to explain why
                         the cars at the light don’t all start moving when the light turns
                         green. They should then develop a plan for systematically
                         observing the cars to test out their hypothesis.
                         Test the hypothesis and write a paragraph describing the
                         findings and interpreting what they mean.
TIP 5.2                  The activities for Theory into Practice 5.2 and 5.3 are parallel
                         observations, with one taking place in a science classroom and
                         the other taking place in an informal education setting such as
                         a science museum. In both cases, the student will be making
                         careful observations of the learning environment and the
                         learning interactions. Follow the specifics of the observation
                         form for each observation.
TIP 5.3   Observing in See the description of TIP 5.2 above, the only difference being
                         that this observation is in an informal science learning setting
          a Science
                         such as a museum.
          Museum or
          Other Non-
TIP 5.4                  In this activity, the student will begin by observing an
                         experienced teacher conducting an inquiry-based science
          a Teacher
                         lesson. After observing the lesson, the student will then
                         interview the teacher using the questions from the TIP 5.4
          Observing a
                         protocol. These questions focus on how the teacher
                         encourages her students to reason and think critically about
                         the science activities they are engaged in.

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