Theory into Practice: Student Guide Another interactive feature of the text is the series of boxes in Part 1 entitled “Theory into Practice.” The purpose of these boxes it to provide students with activities that emphasize reasoning and problem solving connected to the pedagogical topics addressed in the first five chapters. Part 2 of the text contains the 100 key experiments, and thus, is extremely activity rich. The Theory into Practice boxes present students with activities to go with Part 1. The following table describes each of the Theory into Practice activities. The Instructor’s Resource CD provides ideas for how best to use these activities in the context of a science methods course. Theory Theory into Description of Theory into Practice Activity into Practice Practice Name # A number of statements are presented that represent a variety Theory Nature of of perspectives on scientific inquiry and the values and into Science Cards processes that underlie it. The statements can be used to help Practice students clarify their beliefs about science. (TIP) 1.1 TIP 1.2 Hidden Students are given folders with small holes cut in one side so Shapes that they can see only part of a picture hidden inside. They then need to draw what they think the whole picture looks like. TIP 1.3 The This activity is a model and a metaphor of one of the Hypothesis challenges that scientists sometimes face. You can build the Box hypothesis box following the diagram and directions provided in the book and then challenge your students to image what is going on inside the box even though they can’t see in. Don’t let the students see inside right away. Making them wait until the next class period emphasizes the fact that scientists don’t always get to “see inside the box.” TIP 2.1 What would This activity asks students to consider technologies and life be like inventions that make their lives significantly different from without the lives of their great-great grandparents. They should certain consider what they gain from these inventions and what they inventions? lose. Students then keep a log of all the inventions that they use in a single day (car, phone, washing machine, clock, toilet, etc.). Finally, they try to spend a day without using one of these inventions, such as a car, a cell phone, or a clock and reflect on this experience influenced their day. TIP 2.2 Education Students are asked to reflect on their own experiences in the Reform and K–12 educational system and as college students, and to You consider how they think the standards-based reform efforts have affected their education in science. They are asked in terms of curriculum (Have these reforms influenced what you were taught?), instruction (How you were taught?) and assessment (How you were assessed?) at both the K-12 and college levels. Students then exchange their ideas with other classmates, consider areas of agreement and disagreement, and propose reasons for any disagreements. TIP 2.3 Definitions of This theory into practice box presents several definitions of Scientific scientific literacy. The most commonly quoted and used Literacy definition comes form the National science education standards document. However, the multiple definitions proposed by Bybee provide students with the opportunity to reflect on and shape their own views on scientific literacy. TIP 2.4 Metaphors in This activity presents some metaphors have been used to Science describe science, such as: Science is a MACHINE Science is a TEXT Science is an ORGANISM Science is a CIRCUIT Students are asked to explain what each of these metaphors is saying about science, and then to come up with their own metaphor for science. Students then write a paragraph that discusses their metaphor, what it means, and what it implies about science. Finally, students share their metaphor paragraph with a classmate, comparing and contrasting the two metaphors. TIP 2.5 Ethics and the This activity will help students consider the limits that we Humane should set for the ethical treatment of animals. Students will Treatment of discuss when is it appropriate to use animals in experiments Experimental and if so, in what kinds? Animals Where is the line between ethical and unethical treatment of animals, how should this be determined, and by whom? After students consider these and related questions, they confer with a classmate or friend and compare their thoughts on these ethical issues. TIP 3.1 Helping Have each pre-service teacher pick one experiment from Part Students 2 of the text and do the activity with one elementary grade Make student. Help the student understand the directions and then Meaning of let her carry out the procedure. Carefully observe what the Experience student does, making note of places where she gets stuck. After the student is done, interview the student and try to construct a concept map of her understanding of the key concept. Then share the concept map with the student and discuss it. Finally, each pre-service teacher should write a reflection paper on what she learned about the child’s learning experience. TIP 3.2 Learning By Students will select one of the design-based science project Design Web sites that is listed at the end of the chapter, and then read about that project and consider questions such as the following. What is the model of learning that is presented in this project? What science content or topics do students learn about in this project? Is this project consistent with a standards-based approach to science teaching? Why or why not? After the students respond individually to these and other questions, they should get in small groups and compare the projects they read about. TIP 3.3 Learning Students will borrow a copy of a “teacher’s edition” of a Theories science textbook that is used in a nearby school district, and Textbook read the front matter explaining the philosophy behind the Review book. They will then write a reflection on the learning theory or theories that influence the book, whether or not those theories are made explicit to the reader and whether or not they use theories that take into account our current understandings about how students best learn science. Students in the class can then compare different books that they reviews and consider the degree to which the district is adopting science texts that are in line with current thinking in the field. TIP 4.1 Draw a Students are asked to picture a scientist in their mind and then Scientist draw a picture of what their scientist looks like and what their scientist is doing. Students then post their pictures on the board and compare and contrast their scientists, looking for similarities and differences. TIP 4.2 Mapping the Students are asked to create a data table showing how the Increasing population of children attending school has changed over the Diversity in last century. They will look at websites for data from 1900, American 1950, and 2000, and compare the data on gender, Classrooms race/ethnicity, disabilities, and home language, then plot a graph showing the results. Students will then compare and discuss their graph with a partner. TIP 4.3 Two-Column Students will brainstorm two lists of characteristics, one list of Girls and characteristics of girls and the other list of characteristics of Scientists scientists. For each column they should try to get at least a Activity dozen characteristics or qualities. Students then compare the two lists using a colored marker, and connect terms that seem to be antonyms (opposites) with one color and connect terms that seem to be synonyms with a second color. They will then discuss in small groups the implications of the similarities and differences between the two lists. TIP 4.4 Modifying In this activity students will select several experiments from Lab Activities Part 2 of the book and consider what accommodations would need to be made for each of the three activities to best meet the needs of students with certain disabilities. Students should then show their list of accommodations to an experienced teacher, or (even better) to a trained special educator to see what additional suggestions for accommodations he or she can provide. TIP 4.5 Sheltered Students will be taught a fairly simple hands-on inquiry-based Second- lesson entirely in a language other than English. Language The instructor should be sure to use good ESOL teaching Activity strategies and to let the students speak in English (or whatever language they prefer) while working in small groups to try to make sense of the task. When students present their findings to the whole class, however, they should be forced to try to use the language of instruction as best as they can. TIP 4.6 Debating the The student is asked to role-play a scenario in which as a “Fairness” of teacher, she is asked to defend the value of her school’s gifted Gifted program to a parent who does not believe that the program is Education fair. Students need to reflect on how they might respond to this parent and then write a one-page paper outlining their argument in support of gifted education programs. Selected students can then be asked to act out their role play in front of the class. TIP 5.1 Students will practice their observation skills by studying Observation traffic patterns. Have students pick a busy intersection at a Experiment: time of day when traffic usually backs up and observe the Watching a flow of traffic. After watching the traffic at the intersection for Traffic a few minutes, they should write a hypothesis to explain why Pattern the cars at the light don’t all start moving when the light turns green. They should then develop a plan for systematically observing the cars to test out their hypothesis. Test the hypothesis and write a paragraph describing the findings and interpreting what they mean. TIP 5.2 The activities for Theory into Practice 5.2 and 5.3 are parallel Science observations, with one taking place in a science classroom and Lesson the other taking place in an informal education setting such as Observation a science museum. In both cases, the student will be making Form careful observations of the learning environment and the learning interactions. Follow the specifics of the observation form for each observation. TIP 5.3 Observing in See the description of TIP 5.2 above, the only difference being that this observation is in an informal science learning setting a Science such as a museum. Museum or Other Non- School Setting TIP 5.4 In this activity, the student will begin by observing an Interviewing experienced teacher conducting an inquiry-based science a Teacher lesson. After observing the lesson, the student will then After interview the teacher using the questions from the TIP 5.4 Observing a protocol. These questions focus on how the teacher Science encourages her students to reason and think critically about Lesson the science activities they are engaged in.
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