ISMS Moving beyond enlightenment, several groupings of thought acted as agents of change leading up to the 20th century Romanticism: A reaction to rigid classicism, rationalism, and deism. 1800-1850 (strongest) Emphasized change, so differed from place to place and individual to individual; considered revolutionary. Appealed to emotion more than reason Nature centered Believed in the mystical sense of religion Encouraged personal freedom and flexibility Optimistic about life Romantic Art Nature loving vs. Violence, death, disaster and patriotic remembrances Romantic Philosophy Kant: reality has 2 parts (physical and spiritual)—reason only works for the physical world Fichte and Shelling Hegel: dialectic (God leads the world to an ultimate end through opposing forces—thesis; antithesis; synthesis) Impact Challenged the simplicity and clarity of thought of the enlightenment More complex view of the world Conservatism: Reaction to the chaos of the French Revolution. Support came from the traditional ruling classes. They believed in order, society, and the state, faith and tradition. Rejected social contracts Self interest led to conflict not social harmony Rejected natural rights; not universal, but determined by the state Said philosophes underestimated the complexities of human nature. Impact Hated “liberal society” Poked holes in the “heartlessly selfish middle-class” Liberalism More like the enlightenment thoughts concerning individualism. More reform the revolutionary minded Mostly from the middle class or bourgeoisie, and emphasized individual rights as long as it didn’t upset the apple cart. People had natural rights and gov’t should protect them Written constitution important Adam Smith’s view of economics was believed in Free trade was needed Education was key Impact Led to many written constitutions in German states Warned against giving up personal liberty to order and protection Nationalism Raised the level of consciousness of people having common language, soil, customs, history, culture, and shared experiences. Early 19th century was more positive and civic minded as opposed to the more hate-filled characteristics of later in the century. Breakdown of loyalties to church and dynasties led people to look for new places to give their loyalty. Impact Johann Gottfried Herder (German—father of nationalism) said everyone has unique national character or Volksgeist which evolved over centuries. Each grouping had a right to become a sovereign nation. Radicals would argue that because no area was pure, that no one group could dominate, thus all were equal and the overthrow of govt’s was imminent. Socialism: Social evils of industrialisms led some to look at controlling laissez-faire ideas of capitalism. Utopian Societies; society to be organized as a community, rather than a clash of competing, selfish individuals Anarchy; advocated terrorism as a means to ending capitalism and the state. Christian Socialism; believed the evils of industrialism could be overcome by Christian principles. Later took on a more sinister, racist turn. Scientific Socialism or Marxism; creation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that promoted a violent end of capitalist rule. Replaced utopian hopes with a brutal militant blueprint for socialist, working class success. o Marx’s dialectical materialism borrowed from Hegel’s dialectic theories, using history as the force. o All history has been determined by economic factors—who controls the means of production and distribution o Throughout history there has been a struggle between the haves and have nots. o The true value of a product is labor, and since the worker receives a small portion of his just labor price, the difference is surplus value, “stolen” from him by the capitalist. o Socialism is inevitable. Capitalism will “eat itself” by the ever increasing gap between the owners of production and the laboring class.
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