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									   KARL MARX




SOCIAL SCIENTIST
                   Biography
• Born in Germany (1818-
  1883)

• Married Jenny von
  Westphalen

• Editor of newspaper that
  is eventually closed by
  the government

• Moves to Paris

• Identified problems of
  capitalism
Life in Paris
   • Editor of newspaper

   • Met with émigré German
     workers and French
     socialists

   • Became friends with
     Friedrich Engels (1820-
     1895)

   • Wrote Economic and
     Philosophical
     Manuscripts (1844)
  “ The worker becomes all the poorer
the more wealth he produces, the more
 his production increases in power and
  range. The worker becomes an ever
       cheaper commodity the more
    commodities he creates. With the
 increasing value of the world of things
   proceeds in direct proportion to the
devaluation of the world of men. Labour
    produces not only commodities; it
   produces itself and the worker as a
     commodity -- and does so in the
      proportion in which it produces
      commodities generally.”
            Life After Paris
• Moved to Brussels with
  Engels

• Joined Communist
  League

• Wrote The Communist
  Manifesto (1848)

• Moved back to Paris then
  to Cologne
  Marx’s Interpretation of History
• Class struggle:
  “Haves” vs. “Have-
  nots”

• “Haves”
  (Bourgeoisie)
  exploit and abuse
  the “Have-nots”
  (Proletariat)
Marx’s Interpretation of History

              • “Materialist conception
                of history”: Whoever
                controls the economic
                system controls
                society
         Failure of Capitalism
• Bourgeoisie control
  means of production
  (factories, machines, and
  raw materials)

• Proletariat owns nothing

• Low wages

• Competition for jobs

• Dehumanization and
  alienation of workers

• Formation of monopolies
       Proletariat Revolution
• Predicted an
  international proletariat
  revolution against the
  bourgeoisie: “Workers
  of the world, unite! You
  have nothing to lose but
  your chains.”

• Revolution must be
  violent
                   Socialism
• Temporary stage preceding
  communism
• Proletariats rule the state
• Public ownership of the means
  of production (command
  economy)
• State determines and regulates
  wages: “From each according
  to his ability, to each according
  to his work.”
• Poverty and inequality will end
              Communism
• Evolves from socialism
• Classless society
• No state or government
• Work together freely and
  equally
• Nations cease to exist
• No money (bartering):
  “From each according to
  his ability, to each
  according to his needs.”
           Exile in London
• Moved to London when
  newspaper was
  suppressed in Cologne
  (1849)

• Lived in poverty

• Wrote weekly articles as
  a foreign correspondent
  for the New York Daily
  Tribune
          Engel’s Eulogy
“His real mission in life was to contribute, in
 one way or another, to the overthrow of
 capitalist society and of the state
 institutions which it had brought into being,
 to contribute to the liberation of the
 modern proletariat, which he was the first
 to make conscious of its own position and
 its needs, conscious of the conditions of its
 emancipation.”
          Engel’s Eulogy

“…though he may
have had many
opponents, he had
hardly one personal
enemy…His name
will endure through
the ages, and so also
will his work.”

								
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