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International BRT Developments.Intl Vrsn.3

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 69

									                                                                   1
China Planning Network Urban Transport Congress, August 2007
                                                      WORLD BANK
                                                     World Bank
• Status of BRT Development
• Mexico City Case study
• Lessons learned




                                   2


                      WORLD BANK
                      World Bank
  BRT: Developing City Context
• Flexibility and adaptability
  – Ability to serve variety of travel and land use
    patterns
  – Can work even if <100% ROW dedication
• Incremental development; Can easily
  upgrade vehicles, systems, running ways,
  extend dedicated running ways
• Speed of implementation
  – Simplicity
  – Experience with bus-based systems and
    highways
  – Procurement of vehicles and systems                 3


                                           WORLD BANK
                                           World Bank
     BRT: Developing City Context
• BRT service attractive for competitive tendering
• Modest total cost, leaving $ for more system,
  NMT, secondary street investments
• Can utilize local construction, operations
  expertise; More $ stays in country
• Can fix initial problems at modest cost
• Sufficient capacity for all but busiest corridors in
  largest cities
• Already significant amount of road space
  used for public transport buses, etc.
                                                       4


                                          WORLD BANK
                                          World Bank
                  Bangalore
  Xian




Beijing
  Shijiazhuang        Cairo




                              5


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              BRT Roster
(Best Information Available, July 2007 )




                                            6


                               WORLD BANK
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Cities with Metros and Operating BRT
                 (18)
•   Beijing*               • Amsterdam
•   Seoul (BRT Lite)*      • London (BRT Lite)*
•   Nagoya (BRT Lite)      • Miami ( BRT Lite)
•   Sao Paulo*             • Los Angeles*
•   Porto Alegre           • Boston
•   Mexico City*           • San Francisco (BRT
•   Santiago (BRT Lite)      Lite)
•   Paris*                 • Toronto (York BRT
•   Sydney                   Lite)
                           • Vancouver
(*Mega cities > 8M Pop.)   • Montreal (BRT Lite)     7


                                        WORLD BANK
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    Cities with Metros Planning or
         Constructing BRT (15)
•   Delhi*               •   Chongqing, China*
•   New York*            •   Shenzhen, China*
•   Chicago*             •   Tianjin, China*
•   Bangkok*             •   Istanbul, Turkey
•   Manila*              •   Ankara, Turkey
•   Guangzhou, China**   •   Baltimore
•   Shanghai, China*     •   Atlanta
(*Mega cities > 8 M)
                         •   Cleveland            8


                                     WORLD BANK
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        Cities Planning Metros and
       Operating or Planning BRT as
            Incremental Step (8)
•   Pune, India          • Xian, China
•   Ahmadabad, India     • Hangzhou, China *
•   Hyderabad, India                   Jakarta
•   Jakarta *, **
•   Hanoi
•   Ho Chi Minh City

(* Operating BRT)
( **Mega cities > 8 M)                           9


                                    WORLD BANK
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     Other Operating BRT Applications
                   (40)
•   Leon, Mexico            •   Recife, Brazil
•   Quito, Ecuador *        •   Goiania, Brazil
•   Guayaquil, Ecuador      •   Brisbane, Australia
•   Bogota, Colombia        •   Perth, Australia
•   Pereira, Colombia       •   Auckland, NZ
•   Guatemala City          •   Ottawa, Canada
•   Porto Alegre Brazil     •   Halifax, Canada
•   Curitiba, Brazil        •   Calgary (Lite)
•   Florianopolis, Brazil   •   Bradford, UK (Lite)
•   Manaus, Brazil          •   Ipswich, UK (Lite)
                                                        10


                                           WORLD BANK
                                           World Bank
    Other Operating BRT Applications
                      (Contd.)

•   Runcorn, UK              •   Utrecht, Netherlands
•   West Sussex, UK          •   Nancy, France
•   Leeds, UK (lite)         •   Caen, France
•   Crawley, UK              •   Houston, Texas (Lite)
•   Nice, France             •   Pittsburgh, Penn.
•   Rouen, France            •   Orlando, Florida
•   Nantes, France           •   Albuquerque (Lite)
•   Clermont Ferrand, Fr.    •   Las Vegas, Nev.
•   Almere, Netherlands      •   Kansas City (lite)
•   Eindhoven, Netherlands   •   Eugene, Oregon
                                                          11


                                             WORLD BANK
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Other Cities Planning/Constructing BRT
                     (43)
• Chengdu, China      • Puebla, Mexico
• Jinan, China        • Guadalajara, Mexico
• Shenyang, China     • Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
• Hanoi, Vietnam      • El Paso, U.S.
• HCMC, Vietnam       • Puebla, Mexico
• Chiang Mi, Thailand • Barranquilla, Columbia
• Dhaka, Bangladesh • Bucaramanga, Col.
• Colombo, Sri Lanka • Cali, Colombia
• Monterey, Mexico    • Cartagena, Colombia
• Beirut, Lebanon     • Medellin, Colombia
• Haifa, Israel       • Cuenca, Ecuador          12

l                                     WORLD BANK
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Other Cities Planning/Constructing BRT
                      (Contd.)
•   Coventry, UK             •   Winnipeg, Canada
•   Panama City                  Edmonton, Can.
•   San Salvador, El Salvador•   Waterloo, Canada
•   Mérida, Venezuela        •   San Jose, Calfrnia.
•   Lima                     •   Orange Cnty. Cal.
•   Accra, Ghana             •   Reno, Nevada
•   Cape Town, So. Africa    •   Tampa, Florida
•   Johannesburg, SA         •   Albany, NY
•   Dakar, Senegal           •   Charlotte, NC
•   Dar es Salaam, Tanzania •    Hartford, Conn.
                             •   Louisville, Ken. 13
                                         WORLD BANK
                                         World Bank
        Case Study
• Mexico City (>20 million Pop.)
• Good example of developing
  country experience
• If it can work there it can work
  anywhere

                                        14


                           WORLD BANK
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              Mexico City
• First BRT application in World’s largest
  city
• Part of integrated public transport and
  clean air initiative
• Very strong champion in former mayor
  (running for president)
• Rapid implementation with help of NGO
• Second corridor in process
                                               15


                                  WORLD BANK
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Before Situation




                      16


         WORLD BANK
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                                                                              LB

                           G. A. MADERO


      L7                                                  Eje 3 Ote
           L6
                               L5

                                               L4
                                                    L6
                 AZCAPOTZALCO                                                      Red actual del
                           Eje Central
                                                                                   Metro
 L2                                                                                BRT linees de
                       LB
                                    L8
                                                                                   Transporte Público
MIGUEL                                                     VENUSTIANO              Seleccionados
HIDALGO                                                     CARRANZA


                                                               L 1, 5, 9, A
                   CUAUHTÉMOC


      L1    L9                            L4             IZTACALCO

                  BENITO
ÁLVARO
                  JUÁREZ
OBREGÓN



            L7
                                 L2
                                                                L8    Eje 8 Sur                         LA

                   Eje Central
                                                                         IZTAPALAPA

                  L3
                           COYOACÁN                                                   TLÁHUAC


   TLALPAN                    Eje 3 Ote
                                               XOCHIMILCO
                                                                                                                 17


                                                                                                    WORLD BANK
                                                                                                    World Bank
                 System
• 2 all-stops services, one full length of
  corridor, one turn-back
• 20 Km. of Transitway in median of major
  arterial
• No passing capability
• 36 high platform stations, 2 termini
  (Average spacing, Approx. 540 mtrs.)



                                                 18


                                    WORLD BANK
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                  System
• Station platform edge doors
• Initial fleet, 80 18 meter high floor “BRT”
  vehicles, four double stream doors
• ITS including AVL, operations
  management, security, passenger
  information
• Smart Card Fare collection



                                                   19


                                      WORLD BANK
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                 System
• Cost: Total initial cost $61M, Approx.
  $3M/Km. (cost to date, about $5m/Km)
• $39M public (mostly infrastructure),
  $21.5M private (mostly buses)
• Before BRT, services in corridor mostly
  operated by private sector (180 companies
  operating 268 mini-buses); Limited service
  by public operator (100 buses)
• BRT service mostly operated by share
  capital company; Shareholders, former
  mini-bus operators
                                                20


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Stations




                        21


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Metro Interchange Station




M

                                     22


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Indio Verdes (Metro) Terminal

M




                                     23


                        WORLD BANK
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High Floor
 Vehicles




                          24


             WORLD BANK
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Running
 Ways




                       25


          WORLD BANK
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Fare Collection




                               26


                  WORLD BANK
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Results (one year after opening)
• Ridership > 250,000/day
  – ~5%+ of riders from autos
  – ~5% from taxi’s
  – ~5% from Metro
  – Rest from minibuses and buses
• Public transport revenue speeds doubled
  to 20Km./Hr.
• Close to covering O/M and vehicle costs
  out of fare box
• Excellent public acceptance
• Excellent enforcement                          27


                                    WORLD BANK
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Excellent Enforcement




                                 28


                    WORLD BANK
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   Results
• Early opening led to teething problems
  – Fare collection system not ready
  – Capacity issues: Not enough vehicles
• Premature pavement failure
• Still some bunching and over-crowding




                                                        29


                                           WORLD BANK
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Pavement
Collapse




                        30


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Operations Supervision Issues




                                     31


                        WORLD BANK
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         Lessons Learned
• What are essential elements of BRT
• Begin BRT planning with market
  analysis and service planning, not
  hardware design/selection
• System integration is critical
• Need a careful, thoughtful champion
• Get current operators, traffic
  engineers on your side
• Time to mainstream BRT                   32


                              WORLD BANK
                              World Bank
          Observation:

Still evidence of confusion RE:

• What is essential for BRT
• How to plan/design BRT

                                        33


                           WORLD BANK
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      BRT: Bus Rapid Transit

• Flexible, permanently integrated, high
  performance rapid transit system with a
  strong ID and quality image

• Integrated system appropriate to:
   – Markets served
   – Physical, operating environment



                                                34


                                   WORLD BANK
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                  BRT
Vehicles
                 System
                Elements

               Running Ways

Stations

               Systems


Service Plan                    35


                   WORLD BANK
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          Essential for BRT
• All elements planned as part of an
 integrated system;
• As much dedicated ROW as physically,
  operationally and financially feasible
  – Need for reliable service, high speed
    governs;
• Simple, all-day, frequent service plan;
• Unique brand identity;
• Efficient, convenient fare collection.
                                                   36


                                      WORLD BANK
                                      World Bank
     Dedicated Running Ways
• If none, but are other “essential
  ingredients,” call application
  something other than “BRT”, e.g.,
  BRT Lite, Metro Rapid Bus, Rapid
  Bus, Quality Bus …..
• If only dedicated running way, e.g.,
  bus lane, busway, even with one or
  two other elements, not BRT

                                            37


                               WORLD BANK
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     Dedicated Running Ways
                  (Contd.)
• Alignment and design criteria:
  – need to sustain reliable, fast and
    sufficient service
    • passing @ stations?
  – relationship to market and service plan
  – physical and operational insertion
    concerns
  – identity
  – pavement strength
  – costs                                        38


                                    WORLD BANK
                                    World Bank
 Shijiazhuang          Bogotá (Before)




                BRT?     Seoul (Before)
Pune




                                         39


                            WORLD BANK
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         What BRT is not!

• Bus/HOV lanes, busways with little
  or nothing else
• Un-integrated improvements in local
  bus systems
  – Some nice stations or terminals
  – New, “hi-tech.” buses
• Express or limited-stop bus routes on
  freeways, toll roads or arterial streets
                                                   40


                                      WORLD BANK
                                      World Bank
Begin BRT planning with market
 analysis and service planning.
• Before market analysis and service/operating
  planning completed, resist temptation or
  pressure to:
  – specify vehicles (e.g., floor heights, #,
   placement of doors, number of seats)
  – locate, design stations
  – finalize running way cross sections

                                                       41


                                          WORLD BANK
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             44


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System integration is critical.




 Beijing BRT                            45


                Leon “La Oruga”Bank
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   Service Planning Guidelines
• Match service/operating plan to market
  – O/D patterns
  – Magnitude of flows
• Simplicity is a virtue
  – Limit number of lines serving any given
    station
• With on-line stops, limit flow of “consists”
  to under 100 per hour/lane

                                                     46


                                        WORLD BANK
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 Engineering Issues
• Premature pavement failure almost
  universal




      Beijing              Mexico City     47


                              WORLD BANK
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     Premature Pavement Failure
• Axle loads can easily exceed 20,000 lbs (loads of
  160 people)
• Repeated passes (>800/day not unusual)
  – Narrow lanes
• Frequent stopping/starting at stations in same
  places
• Standard flexible pavement design for medium-
  volume arterials was often starting point
• At minimum, need PCC pads at stations
• Preference for all PCC, freeway standards
  (>240mm + overlay)                                   48


                                          WORLD BANK
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          Traffic Engineering
• Still favors cars
  – 3+ minute cycle lengths
  – Reluctance to ban turns of any type
  – Reluctance to provide ped-only signal phases
• Enormous bus, pedestrian and bike flows
  at critical intersections, NMT safety issues




                                                    49


                                       WORLD BANK
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Need Better Service Planning, Traffic
Engineering, Operations Supervision

   Beijing



                         Mexico City




                                           50


                              WORLD BANK
                              World Bank
Need a thoughtful, patient champion
 • Need help overcoming:
   – Poor image of bus-based transit
   – Bureaucratic inertia
   – Criticism by rail enthusiasts and salespeople
 • Avoid
   – Rushed planning
   – Political interference in purely technical
     matters (e.g., selection of vehicle propulsion
     system and fuel)
   – Early opening before all is in place and tested
                                                       51


                                          WORLD BANK
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             52


WORLD BANK
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Luckily, early BRT problems
        can be fixed.




                                    53


                       WORLD BANK
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Jakarta BRT




                                      54


              Emergency Exit Bank
                         WORLD
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              Increasing Capacity at
               Modest Cost: Jakarta
More Buses,
 More Doors




                                          55

                 Longer Platforms
                             WORLD BANK
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 Increasing Capacity at Modest Cost:
Beijing: New Quinmen Square Station:
 Two Platforms, Platform Edge Doors




                        New



                                           56
    Old
                              WORLD BANK
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Increasing Capacity at Modest Cost:
 Beijing, New Vehicles: Fewer Steps




                                         57
  Old                      New
                            WORLD BANK
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 Increasing Capacity at Modest Cost:
Wider Aisles, More Net Passenger Space


      Initial
      Fleet




                          New
                                             58


                                WORLD BANK
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Transitway Pavement: Mexico City




                                       59


                          WORLD BANK
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  Get current operators, SOE or private,
    on your side as part of solution.
• Have an obvious stake in PT in corridor
• Know the corridor and its market
• Have a lot of clout for good reasons
  – Money
  – Numbers of workers and effected families
• Latin American institutional reform model is to
  organize share-capital corporations to run BRT
  and “feeder” services
  – Less risky way to make more money for all

                                                       60


                                          WORLD BANK
                                          World Bank
Mexico City: Feeders/Pesaro's,
  Indio Verdes Metro Station:



   Before




                     After
                                      61


                         WORLD BANK
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      Get the Traffic Police and
       Engineers on Your Side
• Any type of surface (or “semi”) rapid transit
  cannot work without good traffic engineering
  and enforcement: Too many conflicts,
  especially at intersections
  – BRT will be using already occupied road space
    that must be reorganized
  – Objective for work with traffic police and
    engineers is to maximize people movement
    safety, reliability and speed
  – BRT operation cannot exceed if rules not
    enforced (Mexico City good example of how it     62

    can work)
                                        WORLD BANK
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             63


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     Time to Mainstream BRT
• We now know that can BRT can work well
  in developing as well as developed world
  contexts
• Need to treat BRT as another
  “mainstream” mode in the pantheon of
  public transport
  – Make sure that BRT projects emerge from an
    objective, broadly-based multi-modal planning
    process
  – Include land development effects as both
    evaluation criterion and design objective
                                                     64


                                        WORLD BANK
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Transit-Oriented Land Use, Curitiba



High Density Residential



                           Shopping Mall



                                              65


                                 WORLD BANK
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    Bogotá Transmilenio


                  New Mixed-Use
                   Development




Transmilenio
                                       66


                          WORLD BANK
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Please forgive indirect criticisms:
Getting anything done anywhere is
tough, but it still pays to evaluate
what you did to do better next time!



Thanks!!!
                                         67


                            WORLD BANK
                            World Bank
       Images, Data Provided by:
• Dongquan He, Energy Foundation/Center for Sustainable
  Transportation, Beijing,
• Quan Yongxin, Sun Zhuangzhi, Beijing Transport Research
  Center
• Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design & Research
  Institute
• Beijing BRT Corp. Ltd.
• Prof. Jason Chang, National Taiwan University
• Metrobus S.A., Mexico City
• Nancy Kete, Lee Schipper, Wei-Shiuen Ng, Adrianna Lobo,
  WRI/EMBARQ
• Walter Hook, John Ernst, Lloyd Wright, ITDP
• Shomik Mehndaratta, Gerhardt Menkhoff, World Bank
• George Darido, U.S. National BRT Institute, CUTR, University
  of South Florida                                          68


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             69


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World Bank

								
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