b1112 exercise 1 by 6ZFkcr

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 14

									          Chapter 2: Recognizing Arguments
              Recognizing Statements

           What is an argument?
           (What is a statement?)
Statement: a sentence/utterance that can be viewed as
  either true or false.
Argument: group of statements, one or more of which
  is/are intended to prove or support another statement.
Premises: statements in an argument offered as evidence
  or reasons why one should accept another statement.
The Conclusion: the statement that the premises
  support/prove.
               Tricky statements
Rhetorical question: a sentence that has the grammatical
  form of a question but is meant to be understood as a
  statement.
   Don’t you know smoking will kill you?
       (means: Smoking will kill you.)
   How am I supposed to do that?
       (means: I can’t do that.)
Ought imperative: a sentence that has the form of a
  command but is a statement about what ought to be
  done.
   “Do X!” really means “You should do X.”
   “Don’t blow dry your hair in the tub!” really means “You should not
     blow dry your hair in the tub.”
Determine whether, in typical contexts, the
  following sentences are statements or
  nonstatements. (Note: Some of these are tough.)
1. What time is the concert tonight?
2. My feet are sore.
3. Cowabunga, dude!
4. Why is man less durable than the works of his
  hand, but because this is not the place of his
  rest? (William Penn)
5. Harrisburg is the capital of Pennsylvania.
6. Give me a call if you have trouble downloading
  the file.
7. You'd better quit while you're ahead.
1. What time is the concert tonight? Nonstatement (question)

2. My feet are sore. Statement

3. Cowabunga, dude! Nonstatement (exclamation)

4. Why is man less durable than the works of his hand, but because
   this is not the place of his rest? (William Penn) Statement
   (rhetorical question)

5. Harrisburg is the capital of Pennsylvania. Statement

6. Give me a call if you have trouble downloading the file.
   Nonstatement (suggestion or request)

7. You'd better quit while you're ahead. Statement (ought imperative)
Indicate in the space provided whether the
  following statements are true (T) or false
  (F).
_____ 1. All statements are sentences and
  all sentences are statements.
_____ 2. Rhetorical questions are
  statements.
_____ 3. A single grammatical sentence
  may be used to express more than one
  statement.
____F_ 1. All statements are sentences and
  all sentences are statements.
____T_ 2. Rhetorical questions are
  statements.
____T_ 3. A single grammatical sentence
  may be used to express more than one
  statement.
Identifying Premises and Conclusions
Identify the premises and conclusions in the
   following arguments.
1. Writing is revision because excellence
   emerges only through many cycles of
   writing and reading, performance and
   feedback.
2. No scientific hypothesis can be
   conclusively confirmed because the
   possibility of someday finding evidence
   to the contrary can't be ruled out.
1. Writing is revision because excellence
   emerges only through many cycles of writing
   and reading, performance and feedback.
2. No scientific hypothesis can be conclusively
   confirmed because the possibility of someday
   finding evidence to the contrary can't be ruled
   out.
  1. Premise:     Excellence emerges only through
     many cycles of writing and
           reading, performance and feedback.
     Conclusion: Writing is revision.
  2. Premise:     The possibility of someday finding
     evidence against a scientific
           hypothesis can never be ruled out.
     Conclusion: No scientific hypothesis can be
     conclusively confirmed.
Distinguishing Arguments from
  Explanations.
Determine whether the following arguments
  are best understood as arguments or
  explanations.
1. My computer crashed because I spilled
  coffee on it.
2. My wife's towel is wet. Therefore, she
  must have already taken her shower this
  morning.
1. My computer crashed because I spilled
  coffee on it.
2. My wife's towel is wet. Therefore, she
  must have already taken her shower this
  morning.
1. Explanation
2. Argument
Distinguishing Arguments from Nonarguments
For each of the following, indicate whether the
  passage is best interpreted as an argument (A),
  an explanation (E), or neither an argument nor
  an explanation (N).
1. I’m calling about all these protestors against the
  [second Gulf] war. Why can’t people rally
  around our president and support our men? My
  God, Saddam Hussein kills his own people, he
  has no mercy, he cares nothing about anybody
  but himself. Don’t people realize that if you don’t
  stop a madman we might not have the freedom
  to protest or the freedom to come and go as we
  please in this country?
1. I’m calling about all these protestors
     against the [second Gulf] war. Why can’t
     people rally around our president and
     support our men? My God, Saddam
     Hussein kills his own people, he has no
     mercy, he cares nothing about anybody
     but himself. Don’t people realize that if
     you don’t stop a madman we might not
     have the freedom to protest or the
     freedom to come and go as we please in
     this country?
     argument
Multiple Choice
Select the best answer to the following multiple-
   choice questions by circling the appropriate
   letter.
1. Never try to discourage thinking for you are
   sure to succeed. (Bertrand Russell,
   Autobiography, 1969)
a. nonargument; explanation
b. nonargument; unsupported assertion
c. argument; conclusion: Never try to discourage
   thinking.
d. argument; conclusion: You are sure to succeed.
Never try to discourage thinking for you are
  sure to succeed.
a. nonargument; explanation
b. nonargument; unsupported assertion
c. argument; conclusion: Never try to
  discourage thinking.
d. argument; conclusion: You are sure to
  succeed.
1. c

								
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