economic activities by 26WIJj8


									Economic Activities Survey
                 Methods or Stages
• Informal
   – Documentary sources
        • History, economic anthropology, geography, …
   – Observation
   – Household accounts and previous surveys
• Field & Participatory (RRA, PRA/ PLA) research
   –   Ethnography
   –   Mapping & transects
   –   Seasonality charts
   –   Participatory Budgeting (key informants, focus groups)
        • Expenditure
        • Enterprises
            – Agriculture
            – Non-agriculture – businesses, employment, home production
• Formal Surveys
        • Multi-purpose surveys
                   Multi-purpose surveys
Objectives                     - Assess trends in and policies
                               towards well-being
Research                       - How is well-being distributed and
questions                      how has well-being has well-being
                               changed over time? ….
Theories, concepts,            - Households and their composition, livelihoods
variables                      & capabilities, risk and insurance
Choosing                       -Household; housing & utilities; employment;
topics/modules                 agricultural income; household business;
                               education; health & nutrition (children, women, men?);
                               community (infrastructure, and public services,
                               “environment”, markets & prices)
Survey process
  Background research + stakeholders consultation (ethics)
   Plan – funding, staffing, transport, accommodation, expenses, health & safety
   draft     assemble   test     re-test   implement, and      capture, clean,
     Train enumerators                     manage              process, validate
     & supervisors                                            Analyse, report &
        Design sample                                         communicate
Labour, land,              Common and open access
capital, human capital     resources (environmental
                                      Endowments and common or open access resources
Production            Exchange        are transformed intogoods that the household is entitled to
                                      directly by home production, and indirectly through
               F1                     labour markets and goods markets (e.g. for goods the household
                                      produces, such as agricultural products and consumer goods
                                      that it purchases)
             Goods                    Entitlements
                                      Goods are transformed into commodities/characteristics by combining
                                      them with time, household assets, utilities, knowledge

                                      The division of commodities/characteristics among household
                    F2                members depends on:
                                      Household characteristics
                                      personal characteristics - desert, need, and culture
             Intra-household allocation

                                      The transformation of commodities/characteristics into capabilities
                                       depends on:
                     F3               household characteristics (assets)
                                      personal characteristics
                                      environment - climate, health (infectivity)

                                      The transformation of capabilities into functionings depends on
                                      personal characteristics
                                      choices and agency

                                      Psychological characteristics


  Figure 1: The Entitlements and Capabilities Framework
  Note: 1. F1, F2, and F3 make up the “household technology” that transforms goods into capabilities
        2. This is a particular interpretation of the entitlements and capabilities frameworks.
Ghana LSMS Method (multi-purpose survey)
Multiple visits; semi panel; See Grosh, Margaret E. and Glewwe, G., 1998, The World Bank’s
Living Standards Measurement Study Household Surveys, Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 12(1):187-196. (also Grosh & Glewwe, 2000 in RTA Manual)
And use of the Ghana data: See : Higgins, P. A. and Alderman, H., 1997. Labor And Women's
Nutrition - The Impact Of Work Effort And Fertility On Nutritional Status In Ghana. Journal Of
Human Resources. 32(3):577-595.
Part A
Section 0 Survey Information
Section 1 Household Membership
Section 2 Education & Literacy
Section 3 Health status (previous 2 weeks) & health practices; fertility (15-49 yr old women)
Section 4 Employment & time use, primary and secondary occupations – previous year
Section 5 Migration (all > 15 yrs), in and out, and work while migrant
Section 6 Identification of Respondents chosen for Round 3 (50%) – semi-panel
Section 7 Characteristics of Housing, and utilities
Part B
Section 8 Agricultural and Pastoral Assets and Activities (previous year) including harvests and
sales, consumption of own production
Section 9. Household Consumption – non-food, infrequent and frequently purchased,; food
Section 10 Non-food Expenditures and Inventory of Durable Goods
     Non-farm enterprises – characteristics, expenditures on and income from
Section 12 Credit, Assets and Savings
Section 13 Anthropometrics - children
Section 14 Cognitive Skills -
 Household Incomes & Wealth – “farming/agro-eco
 systems” & “livelihoods” frameworks & capabilities
Agriculture                                           Non-agriculture
Farming systems                            Production             Expenditures
crops                                      Trade                     Raw materials
horticulture                                                         Labour & supervision
homestead                                  Financial – interest on   Consumables
                                           Loans and security        Utilities
livestock                                                            Financial (interest &
   Poultry (chickens, ducks, pigeons ..                              working capital)
   Small (sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits ..   Remittances/transfers
   Large (cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, (inc. pensions)
      camels …                               Rents of land & property
Forestry                                                                change in stocks
Fish                                        Business assets buildings &
Gathering                                     equipment, stocks, “good-
Household assets – material – wealth index – who owns/controls?
   Land, buildings (no. rooms, materials for walls, roofs, floors; water and sanitation,
    jewellery, bank accounts, furniture & household equipment, consumer durables
   (radio, TV, fridge, stove), bicycles …..

Public Goods, Common and Open Access Properties and Environment
  Crops – farm budgeting
areas                 Field mapping                   Inputs                     Outputs
                                                       (by season)                  Quantities
 Number & location     -farmer report (local units)    -tillage (tractors,          Point
 of fields/parcels     -Participatory mapping          power tillers, animal,       (cereals,etc)
 (subplots)            (relative sizes)                human)                       - units, number
 – soils, aspect,      -mapping with                   -seed/lings                  and weights
 slope, hydrology,     tape/wheel/rangefinder          -fertlisers (type, quantity
 irrigation            & compass                       timing – cost with           Multiple
 -Tenure – own,        (triangles)                     transport and credit)          -diaries, chitis?
 rented, mortgaged,    -Plan table &                   -Chemicals (pesticides/
 shared, customary     dumpy level                     insecticides, herbicides)    Disposal
 -Land use             (angle&distance)                -Manure (household,          -sale, storage
                       -GPS (waypoints                 farmyard, bought,            home consumption,
                       or coupled to                   grazing, gathered)           animal feed)
                       handheld computer               -Labour (household,          -quantities
                       -Total station                  hired & exchange/            -values (transport&
                       -Electronic compass             communal)                    marketing, credit)
                       & laser rangefinder             task (sowing, weeding,
                       coupled to handheld             fertilising, spraying,
                       computer                        other) and timing
                       -Remote sensing                 -Irrigation own costs, purchases
                                                       water charges
                                                       -Hired services & contractors
                                                       -Finance & credit
                                                       interest …
                                                       -Subsidies & taxes
                                 Livestock & Fish
Multi-purpose – store of wealth , savings, social status
Multi-output – meat, milk, progeny
             - multi-point/frequent/continuous outputs

Costs – purchase; feed, labour (multi-tasking); vetinary
Outputs - home consumption, sales, gifts & ceremonies,
Confusions of stock and flow
   Opening Stock                        Flow – quantities & values -> prices
   (Cattle, poultry …)                  Cattle - milk, whole animals, part animals, sold
   Beginning stock                               or home consumed (meat, hides …
   + births – deaths                             & manure (by-products)
   + purchases & gifts received         Poultry – eggs, whole animals, part animals
   – sales, gifts out & sacrifices..
   Closing stock                       Avoid double counting – i.e. do not include value
                                       of sales in stock transactions;
                                       Consistency checks – stock change & transactions
                                       - Sales & disposals no greater than net stock transactions
For poultry include hatchlings etc.    - compute unit values (+/- 2.5sd)

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