julius_caesar by liwenting


									English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar   Name: ________________

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                    Name: ________________
    Act One: Quotations

    Identify who said it, to whom they are speaking, and what it means.

    1. “O you hard-hearts, you cruel men of Rome, knew you not Pompey?”

    Speaker: ________________ to: _______________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    2. “These growing feathers plucked from Caesar’s wing, will make him fly an ordinary

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    3. “I love the name of honour, more than I fear death”

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    4. “The fault dear Brutus is not in our stars, But in ourselves that we are underlings”

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    5. “the barren touched in this holy chase, Shake off their sterile curse.”

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    6. “I shall remember / When Caesar says ‘Do this,’ / It is performed.”

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                     Name: ________________
    7. “Beware the Ides of March.”

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    8. “I do fear, the people choose Caesar For their king.”

    Speaker:_______________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    9. “I was born free as Caesar, so were you.
       We were both fed as well, and we can both
       Endure the winter’s cold as well as he.”

       Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    10. “Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry looking; he thinks too much. Such men are

    Speaker: ________________ to: ________________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    11. “Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man Most like this dreadful night”

    Speaker: ______________ to: _______________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

    12. “O, he sits high in all the people’s hearts”

    Speaker: _______________ to: _______________

    Meaning / Significance: ___________________________________________________

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                 Name: ________________
    ACT II


    1. What question is Brutus pondering at the opening of the scene?

    2. Why do the conspirators want Cicero to join them?

    3. Why does Brutus reject Cicero?

    4. What is Cassius's reaction and what does this show about his and Brutus's

    5. How does Decius say he will make sure that Caesar will come to the Capitol?

    6. What strange and horrible things does Calphurnia report to Caesar that have been
    seen that night?

    7. What does Calphurnia mean when she says:

    “When beggars die, there are no comets seen;/The heavens themselves blaze forth the
    death of princes.”?

    8. How does Decius convince Caesar to go to the Capitol?

    9. What is Artemidorus's plan?

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________
    Act III Scene 1

    1. What roles do the following characters play in the conspiracy?

       a.     Trebonius:

       b.     Metellus Cimber:

       c.     Casca:

    2. What is Caesar’s opinion of himself?

    3. How does “Et tu, Brute?” relate to the theme of friendship in the play?

    4. What does Brutus tell the conspirators to do after killing Caesar?

    5. What promise does Brutus tell the servant to relay to Antony?

    6. After being assured he is in no danger, what favor does Antony ask of the

    7. What does Cassius think about granting Antony this favor?

    8. What restrictions does Brutus set?

    9. Summarize Antony’s main points in his speech to Caesar’s body?

    10. Who is coming to Rome to meet with Antony?

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                  Name: ________________
    Scene 2

    11. According to Brutus’s speech to the commoners, what reasons does he give for
    Caesar’s death?

    12. What is the mood of the crowd as Brutus finishes his speech?

    13. What does Brutus offer at the end of his speech?

    14. List three points of Antony’s speech that work to persuade the crowd to turn on the

    15. What reason does Antony give for why he cannot read Caesar’s will?

    16. What has Caesar bequeathed the Romans in his will?

    17. How does the crowd react to Antony’s speech?

    Scene 3
    18. What happens to Cinna the Poet? Why?

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________
    Act IV

    Scene 1:

    1. Who are the members of the triumvirate?

    2. What kind of list are the three making at the beginning of the scene?

    3. What does Antony say they will do to Caesar’s will?

    4. What is Antony’s opinion of Lepidus?

    Scene 2:

    No questions

    Scene 3:

    5. Why is Cassius mad at Brutus?

    6. What does Brutus accuse Cassius of?

    7. What does Brutus refuse to do as a means to raise money for his army?

    8. Explain the disagreement that Brutus and Cassius have about the battle strategy?

    9. Who wins the argument?

    10. What unexpected visitor does Brutus see when everyone else is asleep?

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                    Name: ________________

    Act V

    Scene 1:

    1. About what do Octavius and Antony argue?

    2. What is significant about this day for Cassius?

    3. What are two things Brutus says he will never do, even if he loses the war?

    Scene 2:

    4. How does Brutus feel about the battle at this point?

    Scene 3:

    5. Who wins the first battle?

    6. What does Cassius send Titinius to do?

    7. Why does Cassius decide to kill himself?

    8. What mistake caused Cassius’s death?

    9. What does Titinius do when Messala goes to inform Brutus of Cassius’s death?
English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                 Name: ________________

    Scene 4:

    10. What happens to Cato?

    11. Who does Lucilius pretend to be?

    12. What happens to Lucilius?

    Scene 5:

    13. What does Brutus ask Clitus, Dardanius, and Volomnius to do?

    14. How does Brutus die?

    15. According to Marc Antony, why is Brutus better than the other conspirators?

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                 Name: ________________

                                     Character Analysis:

     Towards the end of his life; declining mentally and physically
     Believes in his own divinity
     Pompous, vain, arrogant and lacking the ability to understand both the true motives
      and the behavior of the men around him

     Highly sensitize moral conscience
     Stoic
     Cultured
     Unable to understand the complexities of down-to-earth poetics
     Head is in the clouds
     Conceive of a Utopia

     Motivated by self-interest and envy of Caesar
     Quick witted and practical
     Cassius is a good judge of men and plays to their weaknesses in order to persuade
      them that his cause is just

     Shrewd
     Passionately loyal to Caesar
     Can be harsh and inhumane
     Can be powerfully understanding and gracious in victory

    Julius Caesar:
        The victorious leader of Rome, it is the fear that he may become King and revoke
          the privileges of men like Cassius
        This fear leads to his death at the hands of Cassius, Brutus and their fellow
        The threat that Caesar was moving away from the ideals of the Roman republic
          towards an Empire ruled directly by himself is the chief reason so many senators,
          aristocrats and even Caesar's friend Brutus, conspired to kill him.
        Caesar, early in the play, is seen as a great and arrogant leader who fears
        Caesar is warned by Artemidorus, The Soothsayer and wife (Calphurnia) not to
          go to the Senate on the "ides of March" the very day he is assassinated.
        He is easily flattered by Decius: Caesar appears to us as a man almost guided
          not so much by his own will but what he believes are the expectations his people
          have of "Caesar."
        This is why he is reluctant to show fear, Caesar, as he frequently refers to
          himself in the third person, fears nothing and can show no sign of weakness or
          indeed mortality...

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                  Name: ________________

    Octavius Caesar:
       Caesar’s nephew who, along with Mark Antony, destroy the forces of Brutus and
          Cassius on the Plains of Philippi, which results in the death of both these

    Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony):
       A friend to Caesar.
       One of the Triumvirate (leaders) who rule Rome following Caesar's
       Mark Antony is famous in this play for his speech, which turns the Romans
         against Brutus following his group's assassination of Caesar. Famous for the
         immortal lines "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;".

        A member of the Triumvirate
        an old man who holds little real power and is used in Mark Antony's own words
          as a loyal, trusted man "Meet [fit] to be sent on errands:"

        A well-known orator (public speaker) and Senator
        Cicero is killed by the Triumvirate (Mark Antony, Octavius and Lepidus) following
          Caesar's assassination
        Cassius wanted to include Cicero in the conspiracy but Brutus over-ruled it

       A Senator who travels with Caesar to the Senate House the day Caesar is killed,
          he witnesses Caesar's assassination.
       Though deeply "confounded" or confused and shaken by the assassination of
          Caesar, he is used by Brutus to tell the citizens of Rome that Caesar aside, no
          one else will be hurt.

    Popilius Lena:
       The Senator who terrifies Cassius by telling Cassius that he hopes his
          "enterprise [assassination attempt] today may thrive" or be successful just as
          Caesar goes into the Senate house on the "ides of March".

        The most complex character in this play
        Brutus is one of the men who assassinates Caesar in the Senate.
        Brutus is complex, because he does not kill Caesar for greed, envy nor to
          preserve his social position like so many of the other conspirators against
        This Brutus makes very clear in his speech in Act III when he explains his actions
          as being for the good of Rome.
        Unlike the other conspirators, Brutus is in fact a dear friend of Caesar's but kills
          his beloved friend not for who he is, but what he could become as a King.

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                    Name: ________________
          It is for this reason that when Brutus dies by suicide in Act V, Mark Antony
           describes his bitter enemy by saying "This was the noblest Roman of them all;"
           (Act V, Scene V, Line 68).
          Mark Antony recognizes with these words that Brutus acted from a sense of civic
           duty, not malice, nor greed nor envy.
          Ironically, though it can be argued that Brutus assassinated his friend to prevent
           one man ruling the Roman Empire, history was later to make this a reality.
          Octavius, one of the Triumvirs who defeated Brutus and Cassius, was later to
           become a Roman Emperor ruling the entire Roman Empire alone following his
           victory over Cleopatra and Mark Antony.

       One of the original conspirators against Caesar.
       Like the other conspirators he fears what life under King Caesar's rule could
          mean for him and the privileges he has.
       Unlike the other conspirators, however, Cassius plays a leading role in Caesar's
       It is he who gathers those against Caesar around him and it is Cassius who
          carefully manipulates Brutus to their cause by appealing to Brutus' sense of civic
          duty which believes that Caesar as a King would be bad for the people of Rome
          and by Cassius' clever use of forged letters.
       The great thinker of the conspiracy, his advice is continually overruled by Brutus
          with tragic results for the conspirators.
       First, his advice to kill Mark Antony as well as Caesar is ignored leading to Mark
          Antony becoming their greatest enemy.
       Later at Caesar's funeral, Cassius' advice that Mark Antony should not speak at
          the funeral is also ignored leading to Antony turning the masses against the
          previously popular conspirators.
       Finally in Act V, Brutus ignores Cassius' advise to stay on high ground, leading to
          a battle on the plains of Philippi, a battle favored by Mark Antony and Octavius,
          their enemies.
       Like Brutus, he dies by suicide in Act V, when fearing Brutus dead, he commits

       One of the conspirators against Caesar, he starts the actual assassination of
         Caesar by stabbing first from behind.

        The reluctantly assassin, Caius Ligarius at first hesitates in killing Caesar, but
          later enthusiastically follows the others in killing Caesar after Brutus restores his

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________
    Decius Brutus:
       A man who lures Caesar to his death by his deep understanding of Caesar's true
       Not to be confused with Brutus, the main character. It is Decius Brutus who
         convinces Caesar to turn up to the Senate on the "ides of March" after Caesar
         announces that he is unwilling to attend the day's Senate because of his wife
         Calphurnia's dream foretelling doom.
       Decius Brutus turns Calphurnia's dream into a reason to attend the Senate by
         cleverly reinterpreting its negative imagery to instead symbolize Caesar's

    Metellus Cimber:
       A conspirator against Caesar, it is his petition or request to Caesar for his
          brother's banishment to be overturned, that allows the conspirators to move close
          to Caesar, before they assassinate him with multiple stab wounds.

        A conspirator against Caesar, who plays a key role in enlisting Brutus to their
        It is Cinna who suggests to Cassius that Brutus join their conspiracy.
        Also assists Cassius' manipulation of Brutus by placing Cassius' letters
          responsible for manipulating Brutus where Brutus is sure to find and read them.
        Indirectly responsible for Cinna, the poet's death; since it is he the mob originally
          wished to kill...

    Flavius and Marullus:
        Two Tribunes introduced to us at the beginning of the play.
        Their conversation reveals the deep mistrust and fear many in Rome have about
          Caesar's growing popularity, which eventually leads to Caesar's assassination.
        These two men criticize Rome's citizens for praising Caesar almost without
          reason and are later put to death or "put to silence" for "pulling scarfs off
          Caesar's images”.

        The man who nearly saves Caesar, he presents Caesar with a letter warning
         warning Caesar that he will be killed.
        Caesar, however, does not read the letter and so proceeds to his doom.

    Cinna, the Poet:
        A humble poet, this man dies because he has the wrong name at the wrong time.
        After Mark Antony incites (angers) the people of Rome against Caesar's
          assassins, Cinna who shares the same name as one of the assassins, is killed
          despite his explaining his identity as a poet.
        The mob, eager for blood, kill him regardless and use the excuse that they never
          liked his poems much anyway.

    Lucilius, Titinius, Messala, Young Cato and Volumnius:
        Friends to Brutus and Cassius.
English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________

    Varro, Clitus, Claudius, Strato, Lucius and Dardanius:
        Servants to Brutus.

        A servant to Cassius, he is also the messenger bearing the wrong news.
        In Act V, Pindarus misreports to Cassius that Titinius, a scout sent to Brutus'
          forces was captured by the Triumvirate's forces when he was actually welcomed
          by Brutus' army.
        On Pindarus' information, Cassius assumes that Brutus has been defeated and
          so thinking all is lost, decides to kill himself, using Pindarus to hold a sword out
          which he runs onto, the very sword, Cassius used against Caesar.

        The wife of Caesar, she begs her husband not to go to the Senate on "the ides of
         March" (March 15) when she cries out "'Help, ho! They murder Caesar!'" three
         times in her sleep, the day before Caesar's death.
        This and strange occurrences such as a lioness whelping in the streets of Rome
         and graves yawning and yielding up their dead, convince Calphurnia that her
         husband Julius Caesar, must stay home on the "ides of March".
        Unfortunately just as Calphurnia convinces Caesar to stay home and avoid the
         death that awaits him, Decius Brutus (not to be confused with Brutus), arrives at
         Caesar's home convincing him that these images mean that Rome will be revived
         by Caesar's presence at the Senate the following day.
        Caesar ignores his wife's pleas and meets his bloody destiny at the hands of
         Brutus and company the very next day.

        The wife of Brutus, she tries to learn from Brutus the assassination conspiracy he
          is hiding from her.
        She is later assumed to have committed suicide at the end of the play when her
          death is reported as being under strange circumstances.

    Plot Summary
          The play opens with a scene of class conflict, the plebeians ( tradesmen) versus
           the tribunes.
          The plebeians are celebrating Caesar's victory over the sons of Pompey, one of
           the former leaders of Rome.
          The tribunes verbally attack the masses for their fickleness in celebrating the
           defeat of a man who was once their leader.
          Caesar enters Rome accompanied by his supporters and a throng of citizens. It
           is the feast of Lupercalia, February 15, a feast day of fertility. Caesar orders
           Mark Antony to touch his wife Calpurnia in order to cure her barrenness.
          A soothsayer calls out to Caesar as he passes and warns him against the Ides of
           March, March 15. Caesar ignores the man and dismisses him as a dreamer.
           Upon seeing Cassius, Caesar informs Antony that he would rather be
           surrounded by men who are fat and happy than thin men like Cassius.

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________
          He is worried that Cassius is dangerous because he "thinks too much". Antony
           tells him not to worry about Cassius.
          Meanwhile, Brutus and Cassius meet and talk about how much power Caesar
           has gained. During their conversation they are interrupted three times by cheers
           from the crowd.
          Cassius informs Brutus that he is forming a plot against Caesar and wants Brutus
           to join it.
          Brutus tells him he cannot commit to anything immediately.
          Casca soon joins them, and informs them that the cheers they heard were
           Caesar turning down a fake crown.
          According to Casca, Antony offered Caesar a crown three times, and three times
           he refused it.
          Casca meets with Cicero and tells the orator that there are many strange things
           happening in Rome that night, such as a lion in the streets and an owl screeching
           during the day.
          Cicero tells him that men read omens the way they see fit.
          Cassius eventually arrives and learns from Casca that the senators are planning
           on making Caesar a king the next morning.
          He starts to tell Casca about the plot to kill Caesar, but Cinna shows up and
           interrupts him.
          He hands Cinna some letters to plant anonymously in Brutus' home and invites
           Casca to dinner that night in order to convince him to join the conspiracy.
          Brutus discovers the letters from Cinna, not knowing who wrote them. He reads
           one of the letters and interprets it as a request to prevent Caesar from seizing
          Brutus attributes the letter to Rome as a whole, saying, "O Rome, I make thee
           promise", implying that he will carry out what he perceives as the will of the
           Roman people.
          Brutus meets with Cassius and the other conspirators and shakes all their hands,
           agreeing to join their plot.
          He convinces them to only kill Caesar, and not his most loyal friend Antony,
           because he does not want them to "seem too bloody".
          After the other men leave, Brutus is unable to sleep. His wife Portia finds him
           awake and begs him to tell her what is troubling him. At first he refuses, but after
           she stabs herself in the thigh to prove her strength and ability to keep a secret he
           agrees to inform her.
          Meanwhile, Caesar's wife Calpurnia dreamt of a statue of Caesar bleeding from a
           hundred wounds. Caesar, naturally superstitious, orders the priests to kill an
           animal and read the entrails to see if he should go to the Senate that day.
          The priests tell him that the animal did not have a heart, a very bad sign.
          However, Decius, one of the conspirators, arrives and reinterprets Calpurnia's
           dream to mean that all of Rome sucked the reviving blood of Caesar for its
          Caesar finally agrees with him that it is laughable to stay home on account of a
          The other conspirators, including Brutus and Cassius, arrive at his house to
           escort him to the Senate House.

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________
          On the way to the Senate House Caesar is approached by the same soothsayer
           that previously warned him about the ides of March. He again refuses to listen to
           the man and continues.
          A man named Artemidorus then comes up to him and tries to give him a letter
           revealing the entire conspiracy, but Decius cleverly tells Caesar that Trebonius
           has a suit ( request) he would like Caesar to read instead.
          Caesar refuses to look at what Artemidorus offers him on account of it being
           personal. He explains, "What touches us ourself shall be last served".
          The conspirators arrive at the Senate House and Caesar assumes his seat.
          A man named Metellus kneels before him and petitions to have his banished
           brother returned to Rome.
          Caesar refuses, but is surprised when Brutus and then Cassius come forward
           and plead for the brother as well.
          However, he continues to refuse to change the sentence even as all of the
           conspirators gather around him.
          On Casca's comment, "Speak hands for me" the group attacks Caesar, stabbing
           him to death.
          The conspirators, now led by Brutus and Cassius, dip their hands in Caesar's
           blood and prepare to run to the streets crying out "peace, freedom, and liberty".
          Antony arrives and begs them to let him take the body and give Caesar a public
          Brutus agrees, overriding Cassius' misgivings about allowing Antony to speak.
          They move out into the streets of Rome and Cassius and Brutus split up in order
           to speak to the plebeians.
          Brutus defends his murder of Caesar on the grounds that he was removing a
           tyrant who was destroying the freedom of all Romans. He ends his speech by
           asking the crowd if they want him to commit suicide for what he has done, to
           which they reply, "Live, Brutus, live, live!". Next, Brutus allows Antony to speak
           and returns home.
          Antony takes full advantage of his speech and informs the crowd that Caesar
           was a selfless man who cared for Rome above everything. The highlight of his
           speech is when he pulls out Caesar's will and reads from it, telling the citizens
           that Caesar has given every Roman a part of his inheritance, in both land and
           drachmas ( approx. $100 today ).
          The plebeians now believe Caesar to have been great and good, seize his body
           and vow revenge upon Brutus and the rest of the conspirators. Their rioting
           develops into pure anarchy.
          Antony comments that he has done his part in creating social upheaval, and now
           must wait to see what happens.
          Brutus and Cassius are forced to flee the city, and in the meantime the young
           general Octavius Caesar, loyal to Julius Caesar, arrives and allies with Antony.
           He, Antony and Lepidus form a triumvirate and prepare to purge the city of
           anyone who is against them. They map out their plans to scour the city and make
           a list of names of those whom they wish to kill, including relatives and friends.
          Cassius and Brutus set up camp in Sardis.
          Cassius arrives with his army at the campsite where Brutus is waiting for him, but
           is furious with Brutus for having ignored letters he sent asking Brutus to release a

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                    Name: ________________
           prisoner. Brutus has instead punished the man for accepting bribes. But Brutus
           also argues that he needs money.
          Cassius and Brutus argue until Cassius, in exasperation, pulls out his dagger and
           asks Brutus to kill him if he hates so. Of course, Brutus refuses. The two men
           embrace and forget their differences.
          Next, Brutus sadly informs Cassius that his wife Portia is dead. She swallowed
           live embers after Antony and Octavius assumed power.
          When two underlings enter the tent, Brutus stops talking about Portia and
           focuses on the military matters at hand. In fact, when one of the men asks him
           about his wife, he denies having heard any news about her. Brutus convinces
           Cassius during the strategy meeting that it would be best for them to march to
           where Antony and Octavius are located in Philippi in order to defeat them before
           they get too strong, gaining additional soldiers on their march.
          Cassius reluctantly agrees to Brutus' plan and departs for the night.
          Brutus calls some men into his tent in case he needs to send them away as
           messengers during the night. He makes them go to sleep. He himself stays up
           reading, but he is disturbed by the ghost of Julius Caesar who appears.
          The ghost tells Brutus that he is his "evil spirit" and that he will be on the
           battlefield at Philippi. Brutus is so shaken by this image that he wakes up all the
           men in his tent and sends them to Cassius with orders that Cassius should
           depart before him the next morning.
          On the battlefield at Philippi, Antony and Octavius agree to their battle plans.
           They meet with Brutus and Cassius before entering battle, but only exchange
           insults. Battle is imminent. All four men return to their armies to prepare for war.
          In the middle of the battle Brutus sees a chance to destroy Octavius' army and
           rushes away to attack it. He leaves Cassius behind.
          Cassius,less militarily adept, quickly begins losing to Antony's forces. Even
           worse, Pindarus misleads him, telling him Titinius has been taken by the enemy
           near Cassius' tents. Upon hearing this news, Cassius orders Pindarus to kill him.
           After completing the task, Pindarus flees. Brutus arrives, finds his friend dead
           and remarks, "O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet".
          Cato is quickly killed, and Lucillius, a man pretending to be Brutus, is soon
           captured and handed over to Antony. Antony recognizes him and tells his
           soldiers to keep attacking until they capture Brutus.
          Brutus, now almost completely defeated, begs several of his soldiers to kill him.
          They all refuse and leave him rather than carrying his blood on their hands.
          Finally, Strato accepts Brutus' request. Brutus runs into his sword as Strato holds
           it for him, killing himself.
          Antony and Octavius arrive and find Brutus dead upon the ground. Antony
           remarks, "This was the noblest Roman of them all".
          Octavius, unemotional through all of the carnage, merely ends the play with the
           lines, "So call the field to rest, and let's away / To part the glories of this happy

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                   Name: ________________

    Possible Essay Questions

     1.   Julius Caesar was a powerful person at the time of his death. The possibility that
          he could have been supreme ruler was great. Consider the character of Julius
          Caesar and compare him to Brutus to show what type of leader each would
          have been if given the opportunity.

     2.   In Julius Caesar, Brutus is a naive and gullible man; he is also the tragic hero in
          the play. Explain how Brutus brought about his own downfall in this story due to
          his naiveté and gullibility. Think about the mistakes that he makes, or his errors in

     3.   After the death of Caesar, Antony rises to power. Brutus permits him to address
          the crowd. Explain how he managed to turn the crowd against the conspirators,
          namely Brutus.

     4.   Themes:

             a. Ambitions can change a man’s character so that he no longer seeks the
                good of all men, but rather, seeks more power for himself.

             b. Power tends to corrupt those who hold it.

             c. Courage in the face of great challenge.

English 2201: The Tragedy of Julius Caesar                          Name: ________________
    How to write a well-developed essay:

    Introductory Paragraph
    (a) Make it interesting: min. 2 sentences
    Common openings:
     Quotation
     Ask a question
         State a relevant fact
         State something unusual
         Definition

    (b) Thesis Statement
    (c) Sentence Map: outline in 2 – 3 sentences the key points to be discussed in the body

    Body paragraph 1: Key point # 1
    - State a well-crafted topic sentence which is related to the thesis
    - All sentences must be relevant to the topic sentence
    - Show relationships between the sentences
    - Give sufficient information to fully develop the topic sentence
    - Use direct / supportive references to support your ideas

    Body paragraph 2: Key point # 2
    - Create a transition between the first and the second body paragraph
    - State a well-crafted topic sentence which is related to the thesis
    - All sentences must be relevant to the topic sentence
    - Show relationships between the sentences
    - Give sufficient information to fully develop the topic sentence
    - Use direct / supportive references to support your ideas

    Body paragraph 3: Key point # 3
    - Create a transition between the second and the third body paragraph
    - State a well-crafted topic sentence which is related to the thesis
    - All sentences must be relevant to the topic sentence
    - Show relationships between the sentences
    - Give sufficient information to fully develop the topic sentence
    - Use direct / supportive references to support your ideas

    - Tie together all loose ends
    - No new ideas are introduced
    - Summary of key points
    - thesis re-statement
    - close by return


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