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Service Technician

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 146

									 Swimming Pool & Spa Service
                                                                                         This free copy is provided to you by:




                        Training Guide
                                nd
                            2        Edition, March, 2010




                                              Introduction
  Welcome to the Swimming Pool & Spa Service Training Guide. This guide is a tool
to assist you, a swimming pool & spa service technician in providing the highest
quality and most efficient swimming pool and spa service experience to your valued
customers and a more efficient and safe service experience for you.
  This manual will cover service expectations in a chronological order from the time
you gear up and start your truck to the time you end your day. This guide will cover
such topics as service equipment, service techniques, equipment inspections, how
to handle customer service in the field, basic and advanced chemistry techniques
and much more. There will also be helpful and education notes located in gray
boxes and caution notes in yellow boxes
throughout this guide. You will see an example of             Did you know?
this in the gray box on the right.                     The two most common service
                                                      reasons for a customer to cancel
 At the end of each chapter there will be a brief
                                                      their swimming pool and spa
review of that chapter with a summary of things to
                                                      service are also the two easiest to
remember. There will also be an accompanying
                                                      prevent, algae growth and no
multiple choice test at the end of this training
                                                      shows. Don’t make the mistake
guide to aid you in your service education and
                                                      of allowing either one of these
understanding of each topic. I believe that the
                                                      issues to affect your customers.
more educated a service technician is than the
more confident and capable that technician will be in the field and that will reflect to
the customer giving them the peace of mind that they deserve.




 *Disclaimer notice* This training guide is intended to be used as a guide for swimming pool and spa service
technicians and is not intended to be used as a study guide for other service tests such as C.P.O. certification, water
chemistry certification or any other service or chemistry tests. The views and policies of the writer may differ from
those in other water chemistry manuals and are intended for us as a guide only.
                                                            1
                        Table of Contents

i.) Introduction
……………………………………….……………………..…                                                     1
c.) Table of Contents                                                           2
……………………………………………………...…                                                      3–5
1.) Equipment Found on a Typical Pool Service Vehicle                           6
…………...…..                                                                    7–8
2.) Chemicals Commonly Found on a Pool Service Vehicle                        9 – 17
……...…….                                                                     18 – 19
3.) Three Keys to Clear, Clean and Healthy Water                             20 – 21
……………...……….                                                                 22 – 23
4.) About Chlorine, Sanitizers and Oxidizers                                 24 – 25
……………………..………                                                                26 – 28
5.) pH Balance (Power of Hydrogen)                                           29 – 33
………………………………………                                                              34 – 51
6.) Total Alkalinity (T.A.)                                                  52 – 57
……………………….........................................                           58 – 62
7.) Conditioner, Stabilizer (Cyanuric Acid)                                  63 – 68
………………………….……..                                                                 69
8.) Calcium Hardness                                                         70 – 72
……………………………………………..…….…..                                                    73 – 76
9.) Algae! Know Your Enemy                                                   77 – 81
…………………………………………..…..                                                        82 – 85
10.) Algaecides and Phosphate Removers                                       86 – 90
….……………………...…….                                                             91 – 95
11.) Treatments for Algae                                                       96
……………………………………………...……                                                       97 – 99
12.) Salt Chlorination Systems                                              100 – 101
……………………………………………..                                                         102 – 112
13.) About Swimming Pool Filters                                            113 – 138
………………………………….………                                                           139 – 142
14.) Different Types of Pool and Spa Surfaces                                  143
…………………….…….
15.) Types of Surface Staining ……………………………………………..
16.) A Typical Service Stop ………………………....................................
17.) Common Problems Encountered in the Field …………………….…
18.) Examples of Chemicals Added at Typical Service Stops …………..
                                         2
19.) Desired Chemistry Levels Reference Chart …………………………
20.) What is Expected of a Service Technician ……………………….….
21.) Specialty Services (Chemical Only and Spa Service) ……..............
22.) How to Calculate a Pool’s Volume (Gallons) ………………………..
23.) Safety Revisited ……………………………………….........................
24.) Additional Notes About the Pool Service Business ……..…………..
25.) Helpful Pool Service Forms and Documents ………………………..
26.) Service Technician Training Guide Tests ……………..……………..
27.) Glossary of Pool and Spa Service Terms ……………………………
28.) Final Notes from the Author ………………………………………...…




     1. Equipment Found on a Typical Pool Service Vehicle


The typical pool service vehicle can be equipped with a large variety of items, depending upon the
service technician and his or her particular style. The following is a list of commonly used
equipment and their descriptions to better understand the tools of the trade.

 Pole: The service technician’s pole is usually an extendable 8 foot
 long pool with a locking mechanism. The pole will extend to16 fee               Safety Tip!
t depending upon the brand and style. The pole is used in many             Always make sure that
 functions of pool service including netting, brushing and                your pole and other
vacuuming                                                                 equipment in the back of
 the pool. I prefer the Elipto-lock brand pole as it can be extended      your service vehicle are
and locked into place with a single twist of the pole and is very         safely secured to avoid
durable. There are many types of poles from aluminum to
fiberglass of varying qualities. Check with your service manager to       load shift and losing any
see which poles are available to you.                                     equipment while driving.

Net: The net or also commonly called a “leaf rake” is a very important tool in pool service. It is
attached to the pole and used to collect larger debris such as leaves, sticks and any other floating
material on the water’s surface as well as collecting debris from the pool floor. There is a wide
variety of brands and styles of new to be used. I prefer a lighter, more disposable net as they
move faster in the water and are less expensive than the heavy duty nets. Some nets have
replacement parts, while others are cheap and disposable.

Fine mesh net: A fine mesh net is also a form of net; however it is made from a very fine mesh
material and is used to collect very fine debris from the water’s surface or the pool floor. It can
collect sand, dirt and grit and is a handy tool to use if the pool has very little debris and does not
warrant vacuuming.
                                                   3
Wall brush: Wall brushes come in a variety of sizes and are usually made with nylon bristles as to
not scratch the surface of the pool. A standard wall brush for use in pool service would be 18
inches however there are many larger and smaller sizes available. The wall brush attaches to the
pole and is used to brush the sides of the pool surface, wiping away any dirt and debris.

Steel wire wall brush: A steel wire wall brush is also a wall brush and comes in a variety of sizes.
Its bristles are made of steel and are very sharp and abrasive. A steel wire wall brush should
never be used on a fiberglass, painted, vinyl or other plastic lined type of surface as it can
damage the surface. A steel wire brush attaches to the pole and is used to brush away and score
or scratch the surface of algae to expose it to chemicals.

Vacuum head: The vacuum head is a plastic, underwater vacuum device on rollers that attaches
to your pole and to a vacuum hose. The vacuum head is rolled over the pool’s surface using the
pole to direct it. I personally use an Excalibur vacuum head as I have found it to be sturdy, user
friendly and long lasting however there are many available. Even if brand new, out of the box be
sure that your vacuum head’s rollers are screwed in tight as the wheels do tend to unscrew and
fall off from time to time.

 Brush-Vac vacuum head: A brush-vac is a vacuum head
made with bristles, much like a wall brush and is made for            Brush-Vac Notes
vacuuming new plaster. New plaster should be brush-          A Brush-Vac is only used on new
vaced for the first 5 weeks as to not leave permanent roller plaster and in most cases will not be
marks from a regular vacuum on the soft new plaster          required to keep on your vehicle on
surface.                                                     a regular basis. Never use a regular
                                                             vacuum on new plaster as it will
Vacuum head swivel: A vacuum head swivel is an               leave permanent roller marks on the
accessory that attaches to the vacuum head and the hose      new and soft plaster. Brush-Vac the
and causes the hose to spin freely allowing it better        plaster for the first 5 weeks.
movement and preventing it from getting tangled and twisted up in the pool as you vacuum.

Vacuum hose: The vacuum hose is the hose that connects to the vacuum head and directs the
suction from the pools skimmer or suction line to the vacuum. With this suction the vacuum head
can be rolled over the pool’s floor and debris is sucked up and sent into the filter where it is held
and collected allowing the clean water to return to the pool. There are many sizes, styles and
colors of vacuum hoses to choose from. I prefer the 50 foot Smooth Bore brand of hose as the
inside of the hose is smooth, allowing water and debris to pass more quickly through it and the
length of 50 feet is ample length to service any but the largest residential pools. The vacuum hose
connects to the vacuum head.

Vacuum leaf canister: A vacuum leaf canister is an attachment that the vacuum hose fits onto. It
is a basket, enclosed in a clear plastic canister that collects debris vacuumed up before it reaches
the pools pump basket or filter. Some pump baskets are very small and hold very little debris
before the basket is filled or even breaks. The vacuum leaf canister holds a much larger amount of
debris and is easily cleaned out. It is a very handy tool to have for large debris pools or during the
wind season.

Tile brush and tile soap: A tile brush is a short pole and replaceable brush or pad that is used to
reach the tile of the pool. There are a couple different styles of tile brush but they are all similar
and serve the same function. Brushing the tile cleans the scum or water line of the tile from debris
and oils from swimmer waste, sun scream or any other impurities that might be sticking to the tile.

                                                 4
Brushing the tile does not remove calcium or staining. There are many tile soaps to use, all of
them serving the same basic function. A small amount of the tile soap is applied to the tile brush
pad and is quickly brushed around the tile of the pool.

Bottled soap (Skimmer in a Bottle): Some technicians have been known to carry a bottle of
“Skimmer in a Bottle”, “Liquid Skimmer”, “Naked Pool” or simply a bottle of dish washing liquid. A
squirt of these soap based products across the center of a swimming pool will cause the surface
debris to move to the sides of the pool making it easier to net out. This is an especially popular
technique to use during the wind season when the days are shorter and there is much more
debris in the pool. There are a few products available that do this however they are all soap
based. The soap itself does not last long and does not affect the water chemistry.

Chemical test kit: There are many chemical test kits available in the market. The most commonly
used test kits use liquids to be mixed to gain chemical readings. There are also test strips that are
dipped into the water to gain the same chemical readings. There is also a new electronic test
device that is either dipped or held in the water or has its own test strips inserted into it to gain a
reading. All of these test kits will need replacement items such as test reagents or liquids or test
strips. A good test kit will test for the following:

                                                 Free and Available Chlorine (FAC)
          Did you know?                          pH Balance
 Charlie Taylor is the pioneer and               Total Alkalinity (T.A.)
forefather of modern water                       Conditioner, Stabilizer (Cyanuric Acid)
chemistry as we know it today. He                Calcium Hardness
is the inventor of the “Taylor Test
Kit”.                                  There are also test kits to test for Phosphates and Salt or
                                       Salinity levels that are handy to have on hand.
Personally, I recommend and use the “Taylor Test Kit, Complete”.

1 lbs. D.E. scoop: It is always good to have a few 1 lbs. D.E. scoops on hand. A 1 lbs. D.E.
(Diatomaceous Earth) scoop measures 1 lbs. of D.E., but can also contain up to about 3 lbs. of
Dichlor or Trichlor chlorine, and other dry chemicals. They are useful in containing water should a
surface need to be rinsed off. A 1 lbs. D.E. scoop will usually be orange. You will be able to tell
how many lbs. of D.E. a scoop can hold by reading the description on the bottom of the cup.

Hose coupler: a hose coupler is usually used to connect 2 vacuum hoses together. It is smooth,
not barbed and is meant for under water use. A hose coupler is a handy tool for use when
vacuuming a pool that has a skimmer with smaller than usually plumbing. Some skimmers have
suction side plumbing that is too small to accommodate a hose and a hose couple acts as a
reducer to help fit the hose into the skimmer. A hose coupler can be the difference between a
difficult and slow suction vacuum and a fast vacuum.

Tennis ball: Every now and again you will come across a pool that has two skimmers. When you
plug your vacuum hose into one skimmer, due to water following the path of least resistance the
suction is diverted over to the other skimmer causing you to lose most of your suction. You can
plug a tennis ball into the other skimmer suction side hole forcing the suction to your vacuum. You
never know when a tennis ball might be handy so it is good to always have one on hand. Never
put an item into a skimmer that could get stuck in the plumbing. A tennis ball is large enough to
plug the hole without risk of getting stuck inside the skimmer.



                                                  5
Spare bucket and rags: the swimming pool service business can often be messy with so many
chemicals to use and cleaning to do. Having an extra bucket to hold chemicals, D.E. powder or
other miscellaneous items that might be bouncing around in the bed of your truck can be very
useful. Having extra rags to clean your hands, equipment or spills can also be handy. It’s always
best to be prepared.

Flash light and first aid kit: Because you never know.
Miscellaneous tools: You’ll need a variety of tools for repairs and to take apart filters to clean
them. A garden hose is also handy to have to clean filters.




     2. Chemicals Found on a Typical Pool Service Vehicle


Chlorine: 3 to 6 cases of liquid chlorine, 25 to 50 lbs. of Dichlor granular chlorine and/or 25-50
lbs. of Trichlor granular chlorine, 25 to 50 lbs. of 3 inch Trichlor tablets can all be commonly found
on a service technician’s vehicle.

Acid: 3 to 5 cases of Muriatic Acid                                               Remember!
                                                                         Each chemical has its own
Conditioner: Also called stabilizer or Cyanuric Acid, 20 to             properties such as pH Balance.
100 lbs. of granular or powdered conditioner                            Get to know the chemical
                                                                        properties, proper handling,
Algaecides: While there are many types of algaecides and
such are covered in a later chapter, I personally carry 25 lbs.         proper storage, handling and
of Sodium Bromine (98%+ active ingredient) in a fine                    application of each of the
granular, quick dissolving form. YellowTrine is an excellent            chemicals in your arsenal.
brand. I also commonly carry 5 to10 lbs. of Potassium                   Each chemical will be covered
Peroxymonopersulphate as an oxidizing assistant and water               in this manual.
clarifier. As a phosphate removal agent I carry 3 to 6 liters of
Phos-Free, however there are many different brands of phosphate removers that can be used.
Metal based algaecides can also provide a good sanitizer provided they are well chelated. There
are many forms of metal based algaecides. The PoolRX and Nature2 cartridges are examples of
slow release metals while a bottle of Swimtrine or Silvertrine are both examples of liquid metal
based algaecides.

Diatomaceous Earth: D.E., or Diatomaceous Earth, also called filter powder is used for D.E. style
filters to coat the filter grids. It is the filter media that actually holds the dirt and debris. 25 to 50 lbs.
of D.E. are commonly carried.

Soda Ash: Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) is used to increase the water’s pH Balance. 5 to 10 lbs.
of Soda Ash is good to have on hand.

Sodium Bicarbonate: Also called Baking Soda, Sodium Bicarbonate is used to increase the
water’s Total Alkalinity. 5 to 10 lbs. of Sodium Bicarbonate is good to have on hand.

                                                     6
                    Things to Remember About Sections 1 and 2
    There is a tool for every job. The more of these tools you get to know and master, the
     easier and more efficient your job will be.
    There is a different chemical for every condition. The more of these chemicals you
     get to know and master, the more efficient and knowledgeable of a technician you
     will be.
    Always be prepared with the right equipment and chemicals for the job. You never
     know what conditions you will come across from one service account to the next.




          3. Three Keys to Clear, Clean and Healthy Water


There are 3 keys to maintaining clear, clean and healthy swimming pool and spa water. These 3
keys are Circulation, Filtration, and Chemical Balance. Whenever your water becomes cloudy,
unhealthy or algae begin to grow it can be due to a breakdown in one or more of these three key
conditions.

Circulation:

Circulation is the flow or current in the water. The                Circulation Note
pump running daily for 6 to 8 or more hours per          Algae can grow even in very turbulent water as
day for a pool, or 1 to 2 hours per day for a spa      we can see in any stream. Running the pool
provides the water with circulation. Water             pump for the appropriate amount of time each
circulation is important to keep the chemicals in      day will help to make it more difficult for the
the water evenly mixed, regulate the overall           algae spores to settle however, circulation alone
temperature of the water and make it more              will not stop algae growth so do not believe that
difficult for algae to settle and take root. When a    merely running the pump for a longer amount of
body of water is not circulating it becomes            time will resolve your algae problem. The algae
stagnant. Circulation also helps get any sanitized     starting in the grout in a pool skimmer is proof
and oxidized material in the water to the filter to    of this.
be collected, keeping the water clear.

Filtration:
                                               Filtration is when the water is pushed through the
            Filtration Note                    pools filter. The filter collects any dirt and debris that
 Filtration is the primary function of         the pump pushes into it or is vacuumed up, sending
filtration. Water becomes cloudy when          the clear and filtered water back into the pool. There
                                               are three standard types of filters that you will come
there is too much organic material in the      across in swimming pool and spa service. These
water. Proper filtering will keep the          three filters are Diatomaceous Earth filters which
water clear. Keeping your D.E. filters         have a series of grids inside them that hold a fine
backwashed regularly will help the filter
to operate more efficiently.
                                                  7
powder filter media, Cartridge filters which have a large cartridge or a variety
of smaller cartridges inside which collect the dirt and debris and Sand filters which are filled with a
fine sand in a sectioned compartment and force the water through the sand with the sand
collecting the dirt and debris. All of these types of filters should be cleaned and maintained
regularly. The entire body of water should be passed through the filter at least once per day which
is another reason to have the water circulate for 8 or more hours per day.




                                                                          Did you know?
                                                                   Chemical balance is the single
Chemical Balance:                                                 most common reason for algae
                                                                  growth. Think of algae like a
Chemical balance is the most important key to maintaining         blood disease. When you see a
clean, clear and healthy water. Bad water chemistry can not
only cause staining and damage to the pool’s surface and
                                                                  symptom on the surface, merely
equipment but can also cause swimmer discomfort and               brushing away the symptom
illness. Proper water chemistry must be checked for and           does not cure the disease. The
maintained each week. Unbalanced chemistry can allow for          water must be treated in order to
algae growth and algae harbors and protects germs and             kill the algae else it will quickly
bacteria, allowing it to thrive and putting your swimmers         return.
health at risk.

There are 5 main aspects of water chemistry to keep balances and to check for regularly. These 5
aspects are:

      Free and Available Chlorine (FAC) - maintained at 3 to 5 ppm (parts per million)
      pH Balance (Power of Hydrogen) - maintained at 7.4 to 7.6
      Total Alkalinity (T.A.) - maintained at 80 to 120 ppm (parts per million)
      Conditioner (Cyanuric Acid) - also called stabilizer, maintained at 70 to 90 ppm (parts per
       million)
      Calcium Hardness – maintained at 180 to 500 ppm (parts per million)

There are a few other conditions that can also be checked for:

      Salt, Salinity (Sodium Chloride) - Salt is used with Salt generated chlorination systems
       only and should be maintained at 3250 to 3500 ppm (parts per million) though different
       manufacturers will have some variance in their recommended salinity levels
      Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) – a measurement of all solids dissolved in a sample of
       water and a general indication of the waters age. Proper TDS levels and recommendations
       will be given on a TDS test kit.
      Phosphates – a measurement of microscopic dead plant material and food for algae.
       Measurements for recommended phosphate levels will be given on any phosphate test kit.




                                                  8
                             Things to Remember About Section 3
      All three keys, circulation, filtration and chemical balance are all important to
       maintain clear, clean and healthy water.
      Circulation is an important key as it helps to circulate the chemicals, it makes it more
       difficult for algae spores to settle and it helps sanitized and oxidized debris get into
       the filter.
      Filtration is the key keeping the water clear from oxidized organic material. Water
       becomes cloudy and loses its lustrous sparkle when too much organic material blocks
       the Sun’s rays from penetrating the water.
      Chemical balance is the main key to sanitizing and oxidizing the water and to
       preventing algae growth.




                4. About Chlorine, Sanitizers and Oxidizers


“Chlorine (IPA: /ˈklɔriːn/, from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' (khlôros, meaning 'pale green'), is the chemical
element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17
(formerly VII, VIIa, or VIIb). As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is
abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its common elemental form
(Cl2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, it is a pale green gas about 2.5 times as dense as air. It has a
disagreeable, suffocating odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 1 ppm, and is choking and
poisonous. Chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in
bleaching and disinfectants. As a common disinfectant,                      Did you know?
chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep
them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere,
                                                                 Should redness of the eyes occur from
chlorine-containing molecules have been implicated in           chloramines a little known remedy is to
the destruction of the ozone layer.” - Wikapedia                rinse your eyes out with milk, rather
                                                               than water. The reason for this is that
 Wow! That’s very fascinating information about                milk is safe for human use and will
chlorine from Wikapedia but what does that mean to             neutralize and absorb the discomfort
the average swimming pool technician? Chlorine is
a sanitizer that kills germs and bacteria and is also
                                                               more rapidly, while water will only
an oxidizer, much like a chemical fire, that burns up          rinse and dilute it. This is the same
organic material including germs, bacteria, human              principle as drinking milk, rather than
waste such as sweat, dead skins cells, tears,                  water after eating spicy foods, to
mucous, urine and feces as well as other harmful               neutralize the burning sensation.
organisms such as algae.

 When chlorine bonds with organic material it forms what is called a Chloramine. Chloramines are
what cause that foul smell often associated with chlorine in a pool. When a swimmer has organic
material such as dirt, dead skin cells, sweat, tears or mucous on them when they enter chlorinated
water the chlorine will immediate bond with this material directly on the swimmer causing the all
too familiar redness of the eyes and itchy or rashed skin. Simply rinsing off before entering the
                                                  9
pool or spa will remove most of this organic material making the water much more comfortable for
swimmers.

Chlorine is both an oxidizer and a sanitizer. A sanitizer is the chemical or device that kills or
inactivates microorganisms present in pool and spa water. Microorganisms are too small to be
seen with the naked eye and can only be observed through a microscope. This means that
chlorine both kills or inactivates microorganisms and also burns away organic material.


The Causes of Chlorine Demand:

                                                   “Microorganisms are living creatures too small to be
                                                   seen with the naked eye and are constantly introduced
             Did you know?                         into the pool by rain, wind, and the human bather. Algae,
 Just one adult swimming vigorously for            bacteria, fungi, protozoans, yeasts and viruses are the
one hour will excrete over one pint of             kinds of organisms of concern. Most organisms are
sweat? Gross, huh? That isn’t even                 harmless to the human body but others are disease and
mentioning the dead skin cells being               infection causing. If not killed, these “germs” are
rubbed off in the water from                       transmitted via water to other swimmers.
microfriction. Trust me on this. You
really want to make sure that you always          Non-living organic contaminants are also objectionalble.
have plenty of sanitizer and oxidizer in          A study at Harvard University concluded that one active
your water.                                       adult swimmer loses two pints of perspiration per hour.
Perspiration is loaded with compounds resembling the chemistry of urine. The body is also constantly
shedding microscopic skin particles sloughed off by the friction of water. These are all “involuntary
wastes.” Add in “voluntary wastes” such as expectorate, nasal discharge, fecal matter and urine and you
begin to appreciate the bather load created.

Organics cause pool water to become dull, listless and cloudy. Periodic addition of an oxidizing chemical
(called shocking, or superchlorinationg specifically when chlorine is used as the oxidizer) will rid the water
of these contaminants, leaving it sparkling and inviting.” – Taylor Test Kit Pool & Spa Water Chemistry
Guide

In this section I will go over only the most common types of chlorine used for pool and spa
chemical maintainance and their pros, cons and my opinions of them from field experience. These
types of chlorine are as follows: Liquid Chlorine, Dichlor Granular Chlorine, Trichlor Granular
Chlorine, 3 inch Trichlor Tablets, Calcium Hypochlorite and Salt. I will also go over Sodium
Bromine and Potasium Monopersulfate as oxidizers, even though they are not categorized as
chlorine.


 Liquid Chlorine: Liquid Chlorine is the most common and universally used form of chlorine in
the swimming pool service industry. Liquid chlorine has some pros and cons you should be aware
of before you decide to use it. It has a very high pH balance of about 13 so when you use it, for
each gallon used you’ll have to add about 1 quart of Muriatic Acid to neutralize the high pH effects
of the chlorine. Liquid chlorine is also heavy and consumes a large amount of space on your
vehicle costing you fuel mileage and gas money. The more liquid chlorine you use, the more

Muriatic Acid you will also have to keep on your vehicle to balance the chlorine’s high pH effects,
consuming more space and adding more weight and less gas mileage to your vehicle.
                                                     10
Liquid chlorine is only chlorine. There is no additional
conditioner or acid added to it as there are in other forms of              Liquid Chlorine Note
chlorine. Liquid chlorine can be added directly to the pool                Always remember to dunk
water. Liquid chlorine is usually kept in white plastic bottles,         the bottom of your chlorine
preventing sunlight from deteriorating the chlorine before its           bottle into the pool water
use. Liquid chlorine will lose its effectiveness over time if not
                                                                         before and after every use to
used, so it is recommended to not store it for long periods of
time. Liquid chlorine is effective for use in fiberglass, vinyl          rinse any unseen chlorine
lined, painted and tiled pools as they tend to be very sensitive         drips and prevent them from
to acid and will have a lower than normal pH balance. If the             leaving rings and possibly
pH balance in a pool should become too low liquid chlorine is            stains on the customer’s deck.
handy to use to help raise the pH balance.

                                                           One gallon of liquid chlorine will raise the free
                Did you know?                              and available chlorine (FAC) of an average
 The term “shock” as a marketing term is used to           sized 20,000 gallon pool about 2 to 2.5 ppm
describe numerous different chemicals including            (parts per million) depending upon the amount
Dichlor granular, Trichlor granular, Calcium               of organic
Hypochlorite and even Potassium Monpersulphate.
The chemical term for shock really means to “super
chlorinate” or to bring to “break point” chlorination      material in the water, however this is only a
which is to raise the chlorine level to 10 ppm of free     rough estimation and many other factors will
and available chlorine. “Shocking” the water is            affect this outcome.
usually reserved for only the most extreme cases,
however as a marketing term it is used quite liberally.    Dichlor Granular Chlorine: Dichlor
As a technician it is good to know the difference       granular chlorine is an excellent form of
between “shock” and to “super chlorinate”.              chlorine, possibly the best to use as a service
                                                        technician. The “Di” in Dichlor means two,
meaning it has two things in it, both chlorine and conditioner, or stabilizer. The amount of
conditioner in Dichlor granular is quite minimal but it does help maintain the conditioner level over
long term use. 1 lbs. of Dichlor granular is about equivalent to 1 gallon of liquid chlorine making it
far lighter and more compact and possible to carry large quantities of it on your service vehicle
safely and in the case of an accident it will not spill and mix as liquid chlorine would. Dichlor
granular chlorine is also in a fine granular form, quick dissolving and can be added directly to the
water on any pool surface. Dichlor granular chlorine is pH neutral so no additional acid is required
to neutralize it when added. Dichlor granular chlorine is sometimes referred to as “shock”,
however this is just a marketing term and has little true meaning.

Trichlor Granular Chlorine: Trichlor granular chlorine is a very good form of chlorine but
can be limited in its usage. The “Tri” in Trichlor granular means three, meaning it has chlorine,
conditioner and acid in it. The amount of conditioner in Trichlor granular is quite minimal but it
does help maintain the conditioner level over long term use. The acid in Trichlor granular can be
quite strong and is often used to remove algae from the surface of a white bottom pool as the acid
in the Trichlor granular will dissolve away the algae. While it is often sold as an “algaecide”, one
popular brand being called “Algae Ban” it is not formally an algaecide and is only a sanitizer and
oxidizer like Dichlor but with a low pH.

Trichlor granular is not as fine or quick dissolving as Dichlor granular and is intended to sit on the
surface of the pool for a longer period of time. How long Trichlor granular takes to dissolve
depends upon the water temperature and circulation of the water. If it is vacuumed up it will
                                                      11
dissolve very quickly, within a matter of minutes under the pressure of the filter. In colder
temperatures Trichlor granular can take a long time, hours to dissolve. As a means of regular
sanitation and oxidation, Trichlor granular can be added through the skimmer when the pump is
on. Trichlor granular must NEVER BE USED on a dark bottom surface such as gray plaster else
the acid in the Trichlor will cause staining to the surface, just as a dry granular form of acid would.

Be careful when using Trichlor granular in a fiberglass, vinyl lined or other pH sensitive pool as the
acid in the Trichlor may lower the pH balance of the pools water more than intended. If carefully
used, Trichlor granular can be a very effective sanitizer and oxidizer to use in your pool water. I do
not recommend it for use in above ground spas as it will stain and bleach the fiberglass surface
and will affect the pH balance too severely. 1 lbs. of Trichlor granular is about equivalent to 1 lbs.
of Dichlor granular or 1 gallon of liquid chlorine making it light weight and safe to transport
compared to liquid chlorine. Be sure to always keep your Trichlor granular dry as any moisture will
cause it to break down, releasing the chlorine and acid from the dry compound and cause mustard
gas which is VERY hazardous to breathe in. Should any moisture, rain water for example, get into


your container of Trichlor granular be sure and take a step back and allow the container to air out
before retrieving the granules.

3 Inch Trichlor Tablets: 3 inch Trichlor tablets are the exact same chemical as Trichlor
granular (See Trichlor granular on page 11) and should be handled with the same restraint and
caution. 3 inch Trichlor tablets are made to dissolve slowly within a chlorinating device such as a 3
inch tablet floater or a plumbed in 3 inch tablet dispenser. 3 inch Trichlor tablets dissolve at a
speed depending upon water temperature and circulation. In a floater in cold water 3 inch Trichlor
tablets could take 2 to 3 weeks to dissolve. During the summer months in warmer water 3 inch
Trichlor tablets could dissolve within a week. Trichlor tablets will dissolve much more quickly in a
plumbed in tablet dispenser, also depending upon the water temperature but usually twice as fast
as in a floater due to the pressure and circulation within the dispenser.

3 inch Trichlor tablets are not generally used as a
primary form of chlorine but are more of a
supplementary form of chlorine, helping to slow release
                                                               3 Inch Trichlor Tablet Note
more chlorine over the week between service visits and        NEVER leave 3 inch Trichlor
usually at times when the swimming pool is in heavier        tablets in the skimmer basket. When
use.                                                         the pump is not running the acid in
                                                             the Trichlor tablets will dissolve and
3 inch Trichlor tablets must always be in a dispenser        concentrate, flowing down the
and are never allowed to sit on the pool’s surface as
                                                             plumbing and into sensitive heater
the acid within the Trichlor tablet will be very corrosive
to the bottom of the pool, causing etching and other         parts, pump parts and other places
damage.                                                      that a concentrated acid can do a lot
                                                             of damage.
Three 3 inch Trichlor tablets are roughly equivalent to 1 gallon of liquid chlorine, 1 lbs. of Dichlor
granular or 1 lbs. of Trichlor granular however with it being so slow to dissolve it is best used as a
supplementary form of chlorine.

Always tie your floating 3 inch Trichlor tablet dispenser to a ring, hook or anything else you can
find as to not let the floater float around active swimmers or to sit over the top step allowing the
acid to slowly deteriorate the surface of the step.


                                                   12
Calcium Hypochlorite: Calcium Hypochlorite is often sold in 1 lbs. bags as a “shock”
treatment. Commercially it can be bought in much larger quantities and is in a powdery granular
                                       form. Calcium Hypochlorite contains both calcium, which you do
       Did you know?                   not want to increase in your water and also concentrated
                                       chlorine. While Calcium Hypochlorite can produce pound for
  Calcium Hypochlorite is              pound more oxidizing power than Dichlor granular or Trichlor
 also known as “dirty                  granular the amount of calcium in it is substantial and will raise
 chlorine” in the swimming             the calcium hardness of your water fairly quickly if used with any
 pool industry due to its very regularity. Prematurely raising your calcium hardness will cause
 high calcium content and for many other water chemistry problems (see the chapter on
 the cloudy water effect it has calcium hardness) and age your water more quickly. Calcium
                                       Hypochlorite is in a quick dissolve granular form that can be
 for about 10 to 15 minutes            added directly to the water on any surface of pool. DO NOT
 after adding it to the                allow Calcium Hypochlorite to get wet while in its container or
 swimming pool water.                  when not in use. It is a powerful oxidizer and there is a
substantial risk, if wet that it can increase in temperature and catch fire. Diluted and dissolved in
the pools water, Calcium Hypochlorite is perfectly safe.

1 lbs. of Calcium Hypochlorite is about the equivalent of 1 ¼ gallons of liquid chlorine, 1 ¼ lbs. of
Dichlor granular chlorine or 1 ¼ lbs. of Trichlor granular chlorine. This makes it very light weight to
transport large quantities of in your vehicle. Calcium Hypochlorite has a pH Balance of 11 and
may raise the waters pH Balance slightly, depending on how much is used. Calcium Hypochlorite
does not contain any conditioner.

While pound for pound Calcium Hypochlorite is the most powerful form of granular chlorine, due to
its hazardous nature and negative side effects I recommend only using it sparingly or for extreme
cases of algae as a super chlorination treatment.


Salt (Sodium Chloride): Chlorine in its natural form is a gas and one of its most abundant
sources is in salt, or Sodium Chloride. The chlorine gas is suspended within the salt crystal and
when the Sodium Chloride is broken down it releases the chlorine gas from the crystal. Based on
this premise salt is used to provide chlorine in salt generated chlorination systems. These salt
chlorination systems have become increasingly popular as they have some very good sales points
for the consumer. The salt water in the swimming pool, which is
usually maintained at about 3250 to 3500 ppm (parts per million)
is very soft water and comfortable for the swimmer. The chlorine
                                                                             Did you know?
produced by these systems is blended into the heavier salt                Salt (Sodium Chloride)
solution in the water making it much less likely to detect any           is not only used to create
chlorine smell or harsh chlorine side effects. The salt in the pool      chlorine with salt
water is long lasting and once a level of 3250 to 3500 ppm is            chlorination systems but
reached only perhaps one 50 lbs. bag of salt per month,                  that chlorine, mainly
depending on the size of the pool is all that is required, if even that
to maintain the salt level, but always be sure to test the salinity
                                                                         from salt is also an
before adding salt to get an accurate reading and to know exactly        important part of the
how much salt to add.                                                    human body’s chemistry.

What the salesmen wont tell the customer is that salt generated chlorination systems produce a
VERY high pH chlorine, about a pH of 13 actually and with this ever increasing pH condition much
more Muriatic Acid must be added weekly. The system operates and produces chlorine for as long
as the pool pump is operating, 8+ hours per day creating a continuously raising pH condition. To
                                                  13
balance and keep the water maintained at a pH balance of 7.4 to 7.6 and keep the chlorine
effectively in its killing form almost double the regular amount of acid is required adding
substantial additional costs for chemical maintenance as well as a constant pH bounce and a
much more unstable Total Alkalinity.

Another drawback of the salt generated chlorination system is that it has sensitive and expensive
computer controls and a salt cell which is outside by the swimming pool equipment, exposed to
temperature and the elements. The salt cell has to be inspected and cleaned once each 90 days.
(See more information in the Salt Chlorination Systems chapter)

An average sized 20,000 gallon pool would need about 400 lbs. of salt to start up (See the salt to
water conversion chart the system and that is a lot of additional TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) to
add to the water which will shorten the length of time until the pool should be drained and refilled
and gives an extra risk of staining to the surface. While salt itself is very inexpensive the additional
acid needed to balance the pH and the maintenance and repairs of the system itself can be very
costly. Salt is also corrosive to some metals and should ONLY be used with a fiberglass or other
plastic type of filter.

Other Commonly Used Sanitizers and Oxidizers:


Sodium Bromine: Sodium Bromine as a sanitizer and oxidizer works very similarly to chlorine,
however it is not protected by conditioner as chlorine is and will therefore not last long in direct
sunlight. Sodium Bromine is most commonly used in indoor pools, covered spas and as an
algaecide.

                                              One very unique characteristic of Sodium Bromine is
            Did you know?                     that a small amount of it will convert much of the
  How Sodium Bromide works is that as         chlorine currently in the water into Sodium Bromine. In
the Sodium Bromide (being a gas just like     an average sized 20,000 gallon pool with 3 to 5 ppm
chlorine) is burned off, the chlorine in the  (parts per million) of free and available chlorine (FAC) it
water will sacrifice itself to “recharge” the only takes about 12 ounces of Sodium Bromine (98%
Sodium Bromide. This is why when you          active ingredient) to convert all of the chlorine in the
test for chlorine after adding Sodium         pool into Sodium Bromine. Once the chlorine is
Bromide or a Sodium Bromide based             converted into Sodium Bromine it is consumed and
algaecide the chlorine will be depleted.      gone. When you test for chlorine the following week
                                              there will be none. Sometimes, in the case of algae
growth it is necessary to change your oxidizers as algae may build up a tolerance to one but will
have never experienced another. (See the chapter about algae for more information about algae
growth, tolerance and immunities) The following week when you service the pool be sure to add
more sanitizer and oxidizer as the Sodium Bromine will not last unless the pool or spa is covered
or protected from sunlight.

Sodium Bromine is usually sold in a fine granular form but can also be found in a liquid form. The
important thing to know when purchasing Sodium Bromine is to know the % of active ingredient.
You want the Sodium Bromine to be at least 98% active ingredient when buying it in the granular
form. Some products will want you to add their algaecide Sodium Bromine product weekly, which
if done properly can be an effect and proactive way of preventing algae growth. Sodium Bromine
can also be found in a slow dissolving 1 inch tablet form for use in covered spas and should only

                                                   14
be dispersed from within a 1 inch tablet floater. A good granular quick dissolve brand of Sodium
Bromine is called “Yellow Trine” though there are many varieties of Sodium Bromine based
algaecides available.

Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate: Potassium is a non-chlorine based oxidizer often
used as a “shock” treatment and water clarifier. Potassium comes in a very fine granular form and
is often sold as a “shock” treatment in 1 lbs. bags or larger buckets. Potassium can be added
directly to the water and can be used on any pool surface. While Potassium will oxidize, burning
away any non-microbial organic contaminants and destroying any existing chloramines, it is not a
sanitizer as chlorine or bromine are. Its primary function is to burn away contaminants and free up
the chlorine to sanitize the water. The initial amount of Potassium to use for a pool is 2 lbs. per
10,000 gallons of water. After the initial use of Potassium to help keep the water clear and free up
the chlorine from regular swimming pool use, use 1 lbs. per 10,000 gallons of water.

Potassium contains no chlorine and won’t produce chloramines or chlorine related odors. It is safe
to use on any surface and dissolves quickly. Potassium Monopersulfate should be used sparingly
and is recommended to clarify heavily used pools and to free up and assist chlorine to sanitize the
water.


Additional Notes About Chlorine, Sanitizers and Oxidizers:

      pH Balance determines how much of the chlorine is in its “killing” form. The lower the pH
       Balance the more aggressive and effective the chlorine will be. It is recommended to keep
       the waters pH Balance at 7.4 to 7.6 ppm (parts per million). The higher your pH Balance is
       maintained the more likely it is that algae will build up a tolerance and be allowed to bloom
       and colonize as the chlorine is not effective enough to oxidize it before it builds up a
       tolerance and immunity.

      Swimmers should rinse off, at least their face with water
       before entering the chemically treated pool or spa water.            Did you know?
       Rinsing off will remove most surface organic material            Potassium
       such as sweat, dead skin cells, dirt, tears and other          Peroxymonopersulfate was first
       swimmer waste which is what chlorine will combine with,        developed by the DuPont
       creating chloramines and swimmer discomfort such as            Company in the mid-1950’s as
       redness of the eyes, dry itchy skin and that foul smell        an oxidizer for use in
       associated with chlorine.                                      commercial products and
                                                                      processes. It is sold as a raw
      Chlorine is protected, or stabilized by Conditioner            material to formulators under the
       (Cyanuric Acid). The Sun’s ultra violet rays break down        trade name Oxone.
       chlorine and without protection chlorine will only last 24
       to 48 hours in sunlight. For maximum protection it is best to keep the Conditioner level at
       70 to 90 ppm (parts per million) but never above that as anything higher increases the risk
       of Conditioner staining. When Conditioner falls out of circulation and stains it causes a light
       purple staining of varying degrees. At 110 to 120 ppm the staining looks like a light dust
       coat of purple and can, depending on how severe be brushed off




                                                 15
   and vacuumed. At 130+ the staining can no longer be brushed, deepens in color and also
    will be present purple vertical lines down the walls that looks like as though they were
    drawn in with a purple crayon. The
    Conditioner staining will cover both the
    surface and plastic parts of the pool such                        Scam Alert!
    as floor cleaners, chlorine tablet floaters      Many large chain stores, department stores,
    and skimmer baskets. It is my opinion from      discount stores and even grocery stores sell
    field experience that cold temperatures,        swimming pool chemicals. They will usually
    such as a cold winter night is one of many      sell them at a “discount” price making them an
    conditions that can most likely drop            appealing option for home owners, however do
    Conditioner out of circulation. With a          not fall for this scam. The active ingredients of
    Conditioner level of 70 to 90 chlorine will     these chemicals are often only half of what they
    last 2 to 3 weeks in the winter time when       should be. Always purchase at a swimming pool
    there is less direct sunlight and little to no  wholesale supplier or an actual swimming pool
    swimmer use.                                    supply store to insure that you aren’t paying
                                                    10% less to get 50% less.
   Chlorine levels should be maintained at 3 to 5 ppm (parts per million) of Free and Available
    Chlorine (FAC)




                                               16
                 Things to Remember About Section 4
 Chlorine is both a sanitizer (meaning it kills germs and bacteria) and an oxidizer
  (meaning it burns up organic material).
 Chloramines are created when chlorine bonds with and starts the process of
  sanitizing and oxidizing germs, bacteria and organic material and is also the most
  common cause of swimmer discomforts such as red irritable eyes and dry itchy
  skin.
 Rinsing off with water before swimming can remove much of the dead skin cells,
  dirt and human waste debris that can cause chloramines and make for a more
  enjoyable swimming experience.
 Liquid Chlorine has a high pH balance of about 13 and 1 quart of Muriatic Acid
  should be added for each gallon of Liquid Chlorine added to compensate for the
  high pH. Remember that adding additional Muriatic Acid on a regular basis will
  also affect the water’s Total Alkalinity.
 Dichlor granular is a pH neutral product, is quick dissolve and is safe to use in any
  type of pool. It is commonly referred to as “shock” however it is only made up of
  chlorine and conditioner and unless the Free and Available chlorine level is brought
  up to “break point” chlorination levels of 10 ppm than there is no actually
  “shocking” going on as shock is, for the most part just a marketing term to sell more
  product to uneducated home owners.
 Trichlor, whether in the granular of 3 inch tablet form is made up of chlorine,
  conditioner and acid and should be kept dry at all times while in its container. If
  Trichlor gets wet within an enclosed container than the chlorine and acid will break
  down, mix and form “mustard gas” which can be VERY hazardous.
 Never put 3 inch Trichlor tablets in the skimmer basket as the concentrated acid
  will accumulate when the pump is off and the acid can cause damage to the
  equipment.
 Never apply Trichlor granular to the surface of a dark or otherwise colored surface
  pool as the acid in the Trichlor can cause staining.
 Calcium Hypochlorite, also called “dirty chlorine” in the industry, is often referred
  to as “shock” and contains a substantial amount of calcium. It should be used
  sparing, if at all, and only in extreme cases of algae. Any use on a regular basis of
  Calcium Hypochlorite will cause the Calcium Hardness to raise and cause
  numerous other problems.
 Salt is naturally corrosive to metals and a salt chlorination system should never be
  used with a metal filter.
 The chlorine produced from salt has a very high pH Balance of about 13 as it is
  merely gas chlorine trapped within a sodium crystal. Using salt with a salt
  chlorination system to produce your chlorine also creates a high acid demand to
  keep the pH Balance maintained.



                                      17
 Sodium Bromide is also a sanitizer and oxidizer, just like chlorine, however it is not
  protected by Conditioner and is susceptible to being burned off by the Sun’s harmful
  U.V. rays.
 Sodium Bromide is also not affected by pH Balance and is ideal for use in above
  ground covered spas and for indoor pools and spas.
 Chlorine will sacrifice itself to replenish sodium Bromide. This is why after using
  Sodium Bromide in a chlorine pool or spa the chlorine level is often depleted,
  depending on how much sodium Bromide was used.
 Potassium Monopersulfate is a super oxidizer, however it does not sanitize. It is also
  often referred to as “shock”. Potassium Monopersulphate will immediately oxidize
  and break apart any chloramines in the water and therefore free up some otherwise
  combined chlorine, allowing that chlorine to focus more on sanitizing. Potassium
  Monopersulfate is also commonly used as a clarifier.
 Potassium Monopersulfate is quick dissolve and safe to use in any pool or spa.
 pH Balance determines chlorines ability to sanitize or kill germs and bacteria as well
  as how well it can oxidize organic material.
 The higher water’s pH Balance is the less effective and less in its killing form the
  chlorine is.
 Water’s pH Balance should be maintained at 7.4 to 7.6 to keep chlorine in its optimal
  killing form without risking low pH conditions which could result in corrosive water.
 The water’s Free and Available Chlorine (FAC) level should be maintained at 3 to 5
  ppm (parts per million) to insure an ample and ready supply of sanitizer and oxidizer
  to keep the water pure and healthy.
 Conditioner (Cyanuric Acid), also called stabilizer gives the chlorine in the water a
  protective coating, shielding it from the Sun’s harmful U.V. rays, similar to the way
  that sunscreen protects us from a Sun burn. Without Conditioner chlorine, being it is
  after all only a gas, is quickly burned off from the Sun’s U.V. rays. On a sunny day
  the chlorine can be burned off within 24 hours, leaving the pool water unprotected
  from germs, bacteria, organic material build up and algae growth. Maintain the
  water’s conditioner level at 70 to 90 ppm.
 Chemicals distributed from department stores, discount stores, grocery stores, home
  improvement stores and others, while often offering price discounts usually only
  have about half of the active ingredients compared to the same chemicals found at a
  swimming pool store or a swimming pool wholesale distributor.




                                        18
                        5. pH Balance (Power of Hydrogen)



 “pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It is formally a measure of the activity of
dissolved hydrogen ions (H+), but for very dilute solutions, the molarity (molar concentration) of H+ may be
used as a substitute with little loss of accuracy. In solution, hydrogen ions occur as a number of cations
including hydronium ions (H3O+).
                                                                              A Note About pH
In pure water at 25 °C, the concentration of H+ equals the
concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-). This is defined as                The concept of pH was first
“neutral” and corresponds to a pH level of 7.0. Solutions in            introduced by Danish chemist Søren
which the concentration of H+ exceeds that of OH- have a pH             Peder Lauritz Sørensen at the
value lower than 7.0 and are known as acids. Solutions in which         Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909.
OH- exceeds H+ have a pH value greater than 7.0 and are known           Sørensen suggested the notation
as bases (or alkalis). Because pH is dependent on ionic activity, a     “PH” for convenience, standing
property which cannot be measured easily or fully predicted
theoretically, it is difficult to determine an accurate value for the   for “power of hydrogen”, using
pH of a solution. The pH reading of a solution is usually               the negative logarithm of the
obtained by comparing unknown solutions to those of known               concentration of hydrogen ions
pH, and there are several ways to do so.” – Wikapedia                   in solution.
That’s quite the defenition for pH Balance from Wikapedia and if you can understand it than you
are a more knowlegable pool technician than I. So what does all this mean to us technicians in the
field?

pH stands for, depending on what language you go by:

       Potens Hydrogen (Latin for Hydrogen Power)
       Power of Hydrogen
       Potential of Hydrogen
       Pondus Hydrogenii (also Latin)
                                        Pouvoir Hydrogène (French)

        Did you know?                   Let’s simplify pH Balance into something a little more user
 Human blood has a pH Balance           friendly. To put it simply pH Balance is a scale to measure if a
of 7.34 to 7.45. This is why            liquid is acidic or basic (Alkaline). It is a number from 0,
keeping a pH Balance of about 7.4       representing the strongest acid to 14, representing the
to 7.5 is ideal as it is the same as    strongest basic. 7 on the pH Balance scale is a perfect neutral
that of the human body and the          being neither acidic nor basic. Every liquid has a pH Balance
swimmer will not notice a pH            measurement. Coffee and beer for example have a pH of 5
difference when in the water,           making them mildly acidic. Vinegar is a stronger acidic on the
making the water more                   pH scale with a balance of 3.
comfortable. Chlorine is also more
in its killing form in lower pH         Ocean water has a pH balance of 8 making it mildly alkaline or
conditions.                             basic. Ammonia is very alkaline or basic with a pH

                                                       19
measurement of 12.

What does all this pH stuff mean in the swimming pool business? There are a few reasons why
maintaining swimming pool water at a pH Balance of 7.4 to 7.6 is important.

    1. Being that human blood has a pH Balance of 7.34 to 7.45, keeping the swimming pool
       water at a pH Balance of 7.4 to 7.6 will make it very close to that of humans and the water
       more comfortable for swimmer use.
    2. Chlorine is a more aggressive sanitizer and oxidizer, in its killing form in lower pH balanced
       water. At a pH Balance of 7.4 to 7.6 most of the chlorine will be in its killing form. At a pH
       balance of 7.8 to 8.0 very little of the chlorine in the water is in its killing form. This will allow
       for organic material, germs and bacteria to remain in the water and algae to grow, colonize
       and build a stronger resistance to chlorine.

Low pH Balance, below 7.0, will cause the water to become
acidic and corrosive, causing pitting of the surface, metals               Muriatic Acid Note
to dissolve and fall out of concentration, staining of the walls   Muriatic Acid is used to reduce
and swimmer irritation and discomfort.                            water’s pH Balance and Total
                                                                  Alkalinity. When using Muriatic
High pH Balance will cause scaling water, plugged filters,        Acid be VERY careful not to spill it
reduced circulation, cloudy water, chlorine inefficiency and      on the deck. Always dunk the bottom
swimmer irritation and discomfort.                                of your acid bottle in the water before
                                                                  and after use to rinse away any
pH Balance is lowered by adding Muriatic Acid to the water, unseen acid drips that can otherwise
as well as the addition of other low pH chemicals. pH             cause severe staining to the
Balance is raised by adding Soda Ash (Sodium                      customer’s deck.
Carbonate)to the water, as well as the addition of higher pH chemicals. Water will naturally rise to
                                             a pH Balance of 8.0 on its own at a speed governed
                                             by the Total Alkalinity.
        Muriatic Acid Myth
  There is a myth about Muriatic Acid that
                                                   ph Balance and Total Alkalinity (See chapter on Total
states that if you pour it around the pool than
                                                  Alkalinity) are related in that when you add Muriatic
it will affect the pH Balance more than the
                                                  Acid to the water it lowers both of them. Total Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity and if you pour it in one
                                                  can also increase or decrease the effectiveness of
spot in the deep end than it affects the Total
                                                  Muriatic Acids ability to lower the pH balance. If there
Alkalinity more than the pH Balance. This is
                                                  is too much Alkaline material in the water it will absorb
a long standing and insubstantial myth that is
                                                  the acid too quickly, not allowing it to lower the pH
completely false.
                                                  Balance as much as intended.




                            Things to Remember About Section 5
    pH (Power of Hydrogen) is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
    pH Balance should be kept at 7.4 to 7.6 at all times.
    pH Balance determines chlorine’s ability to effectively sanitize and oxidize.
    Muriatic Acid is used to lower pH Balance.
    Soda Ash is used to raise pH Balance.
    pH balance below 7.0 is acidic and can cause pitting to the pool’s surface, metals to
     dissolve and fall out of circulation, staining on the surface and swimmer discomfort.
    A high pH Balance can cause scaling, 20   plugged filters, cloudy water, chlorine
     inefficiency and swimmer irritation.
                                 6. Total Alkalinity (T.A.)


“Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of
carbonate or bicarbonate. Alkalinity is closely related to the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a solution
and ANC is often incorrectly used to refer to alkalinity. The alkalinity is equal to the stoichiometric sum of
the bases in solution. In the natural environment carbonate alkalinity tends to make up most of the total
alkalinity due to the common occurrence and dissolution of carbonate rocks and presence of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere. Other common natural components that can contribute to alkalinity include borate,
hydroxide, phosphate, silicate, nitrate, dissolved ammonia, the conjugate bases of some organic acids and
sulfide. Solutions produced in a laboratory may contain a virtually limitless number of bases that contribute
to alkalinity. Alkalinity is usually given in the unit mEq/L (milliequivalent per liter). Commercially, as in
the pool industry, alkalinity might also be given in the unit ppm or parts per million.

Alkalinity is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with basicity. For example, the pH of a solution
can be lowered by the addition of CO2. This will reduce the basicity; however, the alkalinity will remain
unchanged.” – Wikapedia


Wow! There is another mouthful from Wikapedia.
Let’s break that down into something we can apply                         Did you know?
to swimming pool water chemistry.                             pH Balance and Total Alkalinity are
                                                             related in that Muriatic Acid effects
Total Alkalinity is a measurement of alkaline
particles in the water. These alkaline particles
                                                             them both simultaneously. They are also
determine the ability of water to resist changes in          related in that Total Alkalinity
the pH. Alkaline particles can neutralize acid acting        determines the speed in which pH
as a “buffer”, protecting water from wide pH                 Balance rises and falls. Always be
increase or decrease. Essentially, Sodium                    mindful of both the pH Balance and the
Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) dissolved in pool water,           total alkalinity when checking the
or what we call Total Alkalinity (T.A.) is the “buffer”
that absorbs acid, therefore governing the pH and            water’s chemistry as they are quite close
protects the pool’s surface and equipment from the           relatives.
effects of acid.

Without alkaline particles in the water, the water will suffer from a drastic pH bounce meaning a
rapid fluctuation of pH levels with the addition of small amounts of acid, base (alkali), or other pH-
altering agents. The result is a highly unbalanced water condition resulting in damage to copper
heat exchangers, light rings, stainless steel ladders, and concrete pool surfaces.




                                                     21
       A Thing or Two (or Three) About                             Problems from a low Total Alkalinity
                                                                   include corrosive water, pitting of the
                 Carbonates                                        surface, metals dissolve, staining of
 There are three dry chemicals that effectively raise pH           the walls and pH bounce.
Balance, Total Alkalinity and both at the same time.
                                                                   Problems from a high Total Alkalinity
Sodium Carbonate, or commonly called Soda Ash is                   include scaling water, plugged filters,
effective in raising just the pH Balance. This is handy to have    reduced circulation, cloudy water and
around when you have added too much acid, particularly in a        an increased rise in pH balance.
fiberglass pool.

Sodium Bicarbonate, or commonly called Baking Soda is              Total Alkalinity is lowered by adding
effective in raising just the Total Alkalinity. This is handy to   Muriatic Acid or other low pH product
have when you forgot to keep track of the Total Alkalinity         to the swimming pool water.
and your pH balance is getting out of control.
                                                                   Total Alkalinity is raised by adding
Sodium Sesqui-bicarbonate is an even mix of both Sodium            Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) to
Carbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate and is effective in raising       the swimming pool water.
both the pH Balance and the Total Alkalinity.
                                                                   The ideal range to maintain Total
All three dry powdery chemicals are safe to use in any pool        Alkalinity is from 80 to 120 ppm (parts
and will cloud the water temporarily after use.                    per million).

Remember, when you add Muriatic Acid to the water it will lower both the Total Alkalinity and the
pH Balance.

While pH Balance will change rapidly, changing from one day to the next, Total Alkalinity rises and
falls slowly, over weeks rather than days. As water is added to the swimming pool each week
alkaline material is also added which will gradually raise the Total Alkalinity.




                                                      22
                         Things to Remember About Section 6
    Total Alkalinity is a measurement of alkaline particles in the water. These alkaline
     particles determine the ability of water to resist changes in the pH.
    Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) dissolved in pool water, or what we call Total
     Alkalinity (T.A.) is the “buffer” that absorbs acid, therefore governing the pH and
     protects the pool’s surface and equipment from the effects of acid.
    The ideal range to maintain Total Alkalinity is from 80 to 120 ppm.
    Muriatic Acid is used to lower the water’s Total Alkalinity
    Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) is used to raise the water’s Total Alkalinity.
    Problems from a low Total Alkalinity include corrosive water, pitting of the surface,
     metals dissolve, staining of the walls and pH bounce.
    Problems from a high Total Alkalinity include scaling water, plugged filters, reduced
     circulation, cloudy water and an increased rise in pH balance.
    Muriatic Acid lowers both pH Balance and Total Alkalinity.



                7. Conditioner, Stabilizer (Cyanuric Acid)


Conditioner (Cyanuric Acid), also called Stabilizer protects chlorine from the Sun’s harmful Ultra
Violet rays. The term “Stabilized Chlorine” means that there is also Conditioner in the chlorine
such as Dichlor and Trichlor. Liquid Chlorine and Calcium Hypochlorite do not have any
Conditioner added to them. Without Conditioner in the water chlorine will only last a short while,
about 24 to 48 hours in direct sunlight. With the proper amount of Conditioner in the water chlorine
can last about 1 to 3 weeks in the water, depending upon bather load and temperature and
considering that chlorine is a very large expence in the swimming pool service business it is best
to keep the chlorine in the water for as long as possible. Also, you want to have a very stable and
continuous level of chlorine in the water to prevent chlorine bounce or a weakness in your
sanitation and oxidation system that will allow germs and bacteria to thrive and algae to grow and
colonize.

Conditioner should always be maintained at 70 to 90 ppm (parts per million) but never above that
due to the increased risk and severity of Conditioner staining on the pools surface.

When Conditioner falls out of circulation and stains the pools surface it is clearly identified as a
light purple staining of varying degrees. It will stain any surface as well as plastics and emtals in
the water such as skimmer baskets, floor cleaners and light fixture rings.

      At 110 ppm Conditioner staining will look like a light dust coat of purple that can be brushed
       away and vacuumed up

      At 120 ppm Conditioner staining will look like a moderate dust coat of purple that can not
       be brushed up or vacuumed


                                                  23
      At 130 or higher Conditioner staining will look like a deep dust coat or purple staining as
       well as purple verticle lines, as if drawn in with a crayon along the walls

                                          Conditioner is removed from the water by draining,
         Conditioner Note                 backwashing, splash, bather carry out or overfill. Expect
  Conditioner is acidic and if            to lose from 10 to 30 ppm of Conditioner during the hot
                                          summer months from heavy usage.
 allowed to sit on the deck or if it
 sits at the bottom of the pool it can   Conditioner levels below 70 ppm (parts per million) tend
 cause etching and staining.             to be less effective and the chlorine in the water is
 Always add it through the               burned off by the Sun’s harmful Ultra Violet rays more
 skimmer slowly and allow the            rapidly. This condition allows your chlorine level to
 pump to run for at least 4 hours to     bounce more drastically between visits causing a
                                         weakness in your oxidation and sanitation system and
 break it down properly.                 giving algae the opportunity to grow and colonize. While
most other water chemistry instruction manuals recommend maintaining Conditioner levels from
30 to 70 I recommend keeping a level of 70 to 90, but not above.



Conditioner is sold to the swimming pool industry in 3 different forms. The most commonly used
form of Conditioner is in the slow dissolving granular form. Conditioner is also sold in a fine
powdered form. The third and far less common form of Conditioner is sold in a liquid solution. The
liquid solution is a fairly new product on the market and is drastically more expencive compared to
its granular and powdered counterparts. The powdered form of Conditioner, pound for pound to
my experience tends to be more concentrated by about 10% or more so be careful when applying
it to the pool water to not add too much and to check the Conditioner level frequently.

Conditioner is added through the skimmer slowly while the pump is running and the pump should
be allowed to run for about 4 hours to allow the Conditioner to break down in the filter and be
distributed into the pool water. Here are some notes to remember when adding Conditioner to the
pool:

      Always add Conditioner through the skimmer while the pump is running.
      Allow the pump to run for about 4 hours after Conditioner is added to allow it to break down
       in the filter and be distributed into the water.
      Add the Conditioner slowly to the skimmer, only a cup or two at a time over a few minutes
       at a time to prevent the pump basket from getting clogged up with the Conditioner and
       stopping the pumps suction.
      Increase the Conditioner level slowly, not all at once to prevent over conditioning. Take a
       few weeks if need be.
      NEVER add Conditioner directly to the pool as Conditioner is an acid and if allowed to sit
       on the surface it will cause pitting, etching and staining to the surface.

If you need to lower the Conditioner level of the water the pool can be drained with a submersible
pump. Partially drain the pool by placing the pump on the top or second step if only a small
amount of Conditioner needs to be removed.




                                                 24
                           Things to Remember About Section 7
    Conditioner (Cyanuric Acid), also called Stabilizer protects chlorine from the Sun’s
     harmful Ultra Violet rays.
    The term “Stabilized Chlorine” means that there is also Conditioner in the chlorine
     such as Dichlor and Trichlor.
    Conditioner should always be maintained at 70 to 90 ppm (parts per million) but
     never above that due to the increased risk and severity of Conditioner staining on the
     pools surface.
    Always add Conditioner slowly through the skimmer while the pump is running.
    Allow the pump to run for about 4 hours after Conditioner is added to allow it to
     break down in the filter and be distributed into the water.
    Increase the Conditioner level slowly, not all at once to prevent over conditioning.
     Take a few weeks if need be.
    NEVER add Conditioner directly to the pool as Conditioner is an acid and if allowed
     to sit on the surface it will cause pitting, etching and staining to the surface.




                                    8. Calcium Hardness


“Hard water is the type of water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard water
minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other
dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium
carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), in the form of other
mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally
not harmful.

The simplest way to determine the hardness of water is the lather/froth test: soap or toothpaste, when
agitated, lathers easily in soft water but not in hard water. More exact measurements of hardness can be
obtained through a wet titration. The total water 'hardness' (including both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is read as
parts per million or weight/volume (mg/L) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. Although water
hardness usually only measures the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent,
divalent metal ions), iron, aluminium, and manganese may also be present at elevated levels in some
geographical locations.

Hardness in water is defined as the presence of multivalent cations. Hardness in water can cause water to
form scales and a resistance to soap. It can also be defined as water that doesn’t produce lather with soap
solutions, but produces white precipitate (scum).


Effects on skin


                                                     25
Some confusion may arise after a first experience with soft water. Hard water does not lather well with soap
and leaves a "less than clean" feeling. Soft water lathers better than hard water but leaves a "slippery
feeling" on the skin after use with soap. For example, a certain water softener manufacturer contests that the
"slippery feeling" after showering in soft water is due to "cleaner skin" and the absence of "friction-causing"
soap scum.

However, the chemical explanation is that softened water, due to its sodium content, has a much reduced
ability to combine with the soap film on your body and therefore, it is much more difficult to rinse off.
Solutions are to use less soap or a synthetic liquid body wash.


Hard water in the US
According to the United States Geological Survey, 89.3% of US homes have hard water. The softest waters
occur in parts of the New England, South Atlantic-Gulf, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaii regions. Moderately
hard waters are common in many of the rivers of the Tennessee, Great Lakes, Pacific Northwest, and Alaska
regions. Hard and very hard waters are found in some of the streams in most of the regions throughout the
country. Hardest waters (greater than 1,000 mg/L) are in streams in Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Arizona,
and southern California. “ – Wikapedia



That was a gross overkill of information about hard water from Wikapedia, but still quite
educational. So here we are again, wondering just what that means to us in the backyard by the
swimming pool. Here is a breakdown of what Calcium Hardness means to us.

                                         Water that contains little or no Calcium or Magnesium is
        Did you know?                    called soft. Water that contains high levels of Calcium and
                                         Magnesium salts is called hard.
  The term “hard” in relation to
hard water comes from the                Magnesium does not form scale, so interest here is focused
laundry detergent industry and           on Calcium. Pools having too much Calcium may scale, but
means that it is “hard” to form          pool water entirely deprived of Calcium becomes aggressive
suds. In wash water the                  and seeks to dissolve Calcium into the water from contact
minerals combine with soap to            surfaces, such as grouting, concrete and plaster.
form a grey insoluable curd-
                                         High Calcium Hardness can be reduced by partially or
like scum, making cleaning less          completely draining the pool and refilling with fresh water of
effective more expencive.                lower hardness.

Low Calciuim Hardness can result in corrosive water, etching of the plaster, pitting of concrete,
dissolving of grout and pitting of pool decks and can be raised by adding a Calcium Elevator.

High Calcium Harndess can result in scaling water, plugged filters, reduced circulation, cloudy
water, heater inefficiency and additional calcium deposits on the tile and spill ways.

Calcium Hadness should be maintained at 180 to 500 ppm (parts per million). The pool should be
drained and refilled past 500 ppm.




                                                     26
                           Things to Remember About Section 8
     Water that contains little or no Calcium or Magnesium is called soft. Water that
      contains high levels of Calcium and Magnesium salts is called hard.
     High Calcium Hardness can be reduced by partially or completely draining the pool
      and refilling with fresh water of lower hardness.
     Low Calciuim Hardness can result in corrosive water, etching of the plaster, pitting
      of concrete, dissolving of grout and pitting of pool decks and can be raised by
      adding a Calcium Elevator.
     High Calcium Harndess can result in scaling water, plugged filters, reduced
      circulation, cloudy water, heater inefficiency and additional calcium deposits on the
      tile and spill ways.
     Calcium Hadness should be maintained at 180 to 500 ppm (parts per million). The
      pool should be drained and refilled past 500 ppm.




                             9. Algae! Know Your Enemy


“Algae are single-cell plants containing chlorophyll. They are some of the hardiest and most widespread
organisms living on the planet, existing in over 30,000 different varieties. Algae require warm water,
sunlight, and carbon dioxide to grow – and pool water has the potential of providing just such an
enviornment.” – Taylor Test Kit Pool & Spa Water Chemistry Guide

Algae are not only unsightly in the swimming pool but also harbor and protect germs and bacteria
that can be harmful to swimmers. Algae is one of the top two reasons a customer will fire a
swimming pool technician. The other reason is not showing up regularly to service the swimming
pool. There are three main categories of algae found in pool water, Mustard (yellow) Algae, Green
Algae and Black (blue-green) Algae. Each will be described in detail here.


Mustard (yellow) Algae:
“Yellow-green algae or xanthophytes are an important group of heterokont algae. Most live in freshwater,
but some are found in marine and soil habitats. They vary from single-celled flagellates to simple colonial
and filamentous forms. Unlike other heterokonts, their chloroplasts do not contain fucoxanthin, which
accounts for their lighter colour. They appear to be the closest relatives of the brown algae.” – Wikapedia



                                                    27
Mustard (yellow) Algae appears as a yellow powdery deposit on the pool, usually on the shady
side. Once established, it is resistant to chlorine and can exist in the presence of 3.0 to 5.0 ppm
(parts per million) or Free and Available Chlorine (FAC). Mustard (yellow) Algae, if untreated can
become very strong and will take additional time to remove from the walls and surface of the pool.

Green Algae:
                                                                               Did you know?
 “The green algae (singular: green alga) are the large               The first places that algae will usually start
group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher                 to grow are on the grout inside the skimmer,
plants) emerged. As such, they form a paraphyletic group,          along the ring of the light or on the string
although the group including both green algae and                  that may tie down a 3 inch chlorine tablet
embryophytes is monophyletic (and often just known as              floater. You can usually see the algae using
kingdom Plantae). The green algae include unicellular and          polarized and U.V. protected Sun glasses
colonial flagellates, usually but not always with two              before you can see it with the naked eye.
flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid, and       So now you know that those Sun glasses
filamentous forms. In the Charales, the closest relatives of       aren’t just for looking cool…but they help.
higher plants, full differentiation of tissues occurs. There are about 6000 species of green algae. Many
species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form colonies or long filaments.
A few other organisms rely on green algae to conduct photosynthesis for them. The chloroplasts in
euglenids and chlorarachniophytes were acquired from ingested green algae, and in the latter retain a
vestigial nucleus (nucleomorph). Some species of green algae, particularly of genera Trebouxia or
Pseudotrebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae), can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. In
general the fungal species that partner in lichens cannot live on their own, while the algal species is often
found living in nature without the fungus.” – Wikapedia

Green Algae is usually a floating algae, but sometimes clings to walls. Pool water becomes turbid
with a green growth that renders the pool uninviting and dangerous to use by making it slippery
and difficult to see the bottom of the pool. Before the green color appears, the walls of the pool
surface feel slick, water becomes hazy and it exhibits a high chlorine demand. If untreated, Green
Algae can grow and colonize rapidly, spreading over the entire pool and water surface.


Black (blue-green) Algae:
 “Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae,
blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of                      Black Algae Warning!
bacteria that obtain their energy through                     If one of your accounts develops Black
photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes               Algae than you, my friend have quite a
from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós)       problem on your hands. Black Algae is
= blue). They are a significant component of the             the plague of all pools. It is the most
marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary
producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also
                                                             difficult to treat form of algae that can
found on land.                                               grow in a swimming pool or spa. Let’s
Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing                 face it, Black Algae has been around for
cyanobacteria have been found from 2.8 billion years         over 2.8 billion years. Black algae has a
ago. The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic        VERY tough protective outer shell that
photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early        even a steel wire brush usually can’t
reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which
dramatically changed the composition of life forms on
                                                             scrape off and roots that grow so deep
Earth by provoking an explosion of biodiversity and          they reach into the gunite of the pool,
leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant          causing the algae to return, usually in the
                                                        28
                                                             same spots over and over again over the
                                                             years, even after a drain and acid wash.
organisms. Chloroplasts in plants and eukaryotic algae have evolved from cyanobacteria via
endosymbiosis.”
 – Wikapedia


                                                 Black (blue-green) Algae is evident by the formation
   More Black Algae Warnings!                    of small dime (or smaller) to quarter sized black (or
                                                 blue-green) spots, tenaciously adhering to the
  Really, no kidding around here, Black          pool’s surfaces. These spots have a very slippery
Algae really is that bad. If you use a wall      coating and are like thick nodules to the touch.
brush of any kind, steel or otherwise on         Black (blue-green) Algae forms a layered structure
Black Algae be sure and rinse it off             where the first layers, which may be killed by
afterward with Liquid Chlorine, else             chlorine, protect underlayers from further
there is a very real chance that you can         destruction. Black (blue-green) Algae, like Mustard
                                                 (yellow) Algae, is also chlorine resistant. Black
transfer the Black Algae into other pools        (blue-green) Algae can penetrate deep into the
that you use those same brushes on.              pool’s surface once established, making it very
Scrubbing Black Algae with a steel wire          difficult to destroy and also likely to return in the
brush really only scores or cuts the             presence of unbalanced water. Black (blue-green)
surface of it to allow the chemicals a           Algae is the rarest form of algae you will encounter
chance to get past the Black Algae’s             however is, by far the most tenacious and difficult to
                                                 destroy.
tough outer shell.



Algae Formation:
When the sanitizer level is allowed to deplete (your chlorine level gets low), if your pH Balance
becomes too high making the chlorine ineffective and unable to sanitize and oxidize or when the
                                    phosphate level (microscopic dead plant material and food for
            Algae Note              algae) is too high algae spores (seeds) will germinate. These
  The entire pool should be treated algae spores are found in the air, the fill water and all around
for algae immediately when algae    the swimming pool area and are constantly present in the
is first seen Brushing it away will water, waiting for the opportunity to bloom. Within 12 hours, a
only redistribure the algae that is pool can be completely overrun with Green Algae. This
seen but will not cure the problem  condition is called Algae Bloom. Green Algae and Mustard
and the following service visit the (yellow) Algae blooms can be totally destroyed by
algae problem will be much worse    superchlorination to 30 ppm (parts per million) of Free and
and the customer will not likely be Available Chlorine (FAC). Even after superchlorinating, once
happy about it.                     the chlorine levels have returned to 3.0 to 5.0, if the water
                                    becomes chemically unbalanced algae can return. There are
other means of destroying algae and Algae Blooms without superchlorination (see the chapter on
Algaecides and Treatments for Algae).




                                                   29
                            Things to Remember About Section 9
     Algae are not only unsightly in the swimming pool but also harbor and protect germs
      and bacteria that can be harmful to swimmers.
     Algae is one of the top two reasons a customer will fire a swimming pool technician.
     Mustard (yellow) Algae appears as a yellow powdery deposit on the pool and once
      established, it is resistant to chlorine.
     Green Algae is usually a floating algae, but sometimes clings to walls. Pool water
      becomes turbid with a green growth that renders the pool uninviting and dangerous to
      use by making it slippery and difficult to see the bottom of the pool.
     “The green algae (often just known as kingdom Plantae) are the large group of algae
      from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged.
     There are about 6000 species of green algae. Many species live most of their lives as
      single cells, while other species form colonies or long filaments.
     Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been
      found from 2.8 billion years ago.
     Black (blue-green) Algae is evident by the formation of small dime (or smaller) to
      quarter sized black (or blue-green) spots, tenaciously adhering to the pool’s surfaces.
     Black (blue-green) Algae, like Mustard (yellow) Algae, is also chlorine resistant.
     Black (blue-green) Algae can penetrate deep into the pool’s surface once established,
      making it very difficult to destroy and also likely to return in the presence of
      unbalanced water.
     When the sanitizer level is allowed to deplete (your chlorine level gets low), if your
      pH Balance becomes too high making the chlorine ineffective and unable to sanitize
      and oxidize or when the phosphate level (microscopic dead plant material and food
      for algae) is too high algae spores (seeds) will germinate.



                  10. Algaecides and Phosphate Removers


“Algaecides are chemicals added to pool water to control algae. While algaecides at high dosage can kill
algae, most are utilized as algaestats, preventing algae fromation when chlorine is allowed to become
depleted. Consider them insurance policies against sloppy chlorination. There are three main groups of
algaecides:

   1. Quats: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (commonly referred to as “quats” and abbreviated to
      (QAC) are organic nitrogen substances that kill algae by disrupting the function of their cell
      membranes. Quats work best on Green Algae. They’re the least expensive and best-selling
      algaecides but tend to foam, especially in spas, when added in excess.

   2. Polyquats: are non-foaming algaecides sold in concentrations of 30% to 60%, as compared to
      quats, which are usually between 5% to 10% active. While more costly than quats, polyquat

                                                    30
       algaecides are very effective not only on Green Algae, but also with the chlorine-resistant Mustard
       and Black Algae.

   3. Copper Salts: Copper Ion is a very effective algaecide and is used in ponds and lagoons as well
      as pools to kill and prevent algae formations. The downside to copper usage is stain formation. Over
      time, soluble copper salts will precipitate from pool water and deposit on pool walls, creating a
      bluing effect. Then, in the presence of chlorine, these salts will turn to copric oxide that causes grey-
      to-black staining of the pool walls.” – Taylor Test Kit Pool & Spa Water Chemistry Guide


                                              This explanation of algaecides from the Taylor Test Kit
 Metal Based Algaecide Note                   Water Chemistry Guide is rather complex and not
  Always add your liquid metal based          entirely helpful in the field when, as a technician you
 algaecides through the skimmer while the have a very large variety of algaecides to choose from.
 pump is running. If you add it directly to   Simply asking the person at the counter of your local
 the pool you risk staining along the tile,   swimming pool supply store to show you a selection of
 artificial rock or other surface material at Quat, Polyquat and Copper Salt algaecides will likely just
 the water line. Always read the              get both him and you even more confused. Lets break
 instructions on the algaecide carefully      down the mistique of algaecides into something we can
 before adding it to the water.               use in the field. There are three kinds of algaecides I will
go over here, even though there are others available in the market. To
my experience, these three are the primary algaecides used in the
field; Metal based algaecides, Sodium Bromine and Phosphate                         Did you know?
removers:                                                                          In the early days of
                                                                                   swimming pool
                                                                                   service they used to
Metal Based Algaecides:                                                            use colloidal gold as
                                                                                   an algaecide. That
There are many metal based algaecides in the market today. They are
                                                                                   must have cost more
all very popular and commonly used. The three main metals used in
these algaecides are Zinc, Copper and Silver. You can find these                   than a pretty penny.
metals in brands such as SwimTrine (copper), SilverTrine (silver), Zinc Ball (zinc), (yes, its
actually a large metal ball made of zinc that is placed in the skimmer or pump basket and breaks
down over time) and Nature2 cartridges (cartridges plumbed directly into the pools plumbing


that contain a combination of small metal granules that break down and distribute their metals into
the water. The cartridges run out of metal over time and need to be replaced, usually

over about 4 to 6 months depending on the size of the cartridge). There is also a product called
the PoolRX that works the same as a Nature2 cartridge, however instead of small metal pellets or
granuals the PoolRX uses a metal cyliner made up of Zinc, Copper and Silver and breaks down
from the water’s circulation by placing it in the pump basket. The PoolRX cylinder also has to be
recharged or replaced every 4 to 6 months.

Metals are natures own sanitizers and can even increase the effective sanitation power of chlorine
when used together, however metals do not oxidize the water. When a metal based algaecide or
water purifier is used it is always best to also supplement with Potassium Monopersulfate or
another form of oxidizer such as chlorine or Sodium Bromine. Zinc is the weakest of these
oxidation increasers, copper is the most common and silver is the strongest currently sold in the
market. The risk of using a metal based algaecide or water purifier is that abundant amounts of
                                                     31
metals in the water can fall out of circulation and cause staining over the pool’s surface. You want
to be very careful to use a metal based algaecide or purifier that has a chelating (stain protection)
agent in it as well.

Liquid metal based algaecides are usually added through the skimmer while the pump is running.
This prevents any film or residual from floating on the surface of the water and staining the tile or
waterline and also gives a more even distribution into the water through the return lines. Always
follow the application procedures on the label of such a product.


Sodium Bromine Based Algaecides:
Sodium Bromine is discussed at length in the “About Chlorine, Sanitizers and Oxidizers”
chapter on page 14. Here we will discuss Sodium Bromine when used as an algaecide. There are
a number of algaecide products in both granular and liquid form that use Sodium Bromine as their
active ingredient. The liquid products tend to have far less active ingredientand more unlisted inert
ingredients as to be easier to simply squirt across the surface of the water once or twice per week
as a regular maintainance product. The granular forms of Sodium Bromide are often more
concentrated at 88% to 98% however still suggest a regular weekly use of 1 to 2 ounces per
week. Some of these Sodium Bromine based algaecides are YellowTreat (88%), YellowTrine
(98%) and No-Mor Problems.

Sodium Bromine, once broken down does not remain in the pool as metal based algaecides do
and does not cause any staining to the pool surface. It is an sanitizer and oxidizer just as chlorine
is but has a different chemical make-up. Should algae begin to grow and colonize despite
balanced chemistry than that algae, having been born and bloomed with chlorine present will be
very resistant. Algae is a living organism, just as humans are and has an immune system to
protect it, just as humans do. Just as humans can get a flu shot, which a small dosage of the most
common strain of flu viruse at the time to help the human immune system build up a resistance
against it before a larger outbreak occurs, algae blooming when chlorine is present makes it quite


resistant in a very similar way. When this tolerance to chlorine is created, simply changing your
sanitizer and oxidizer to something chemically different that algae has not yet experienced can
often be the most effective way to kill it.

Sodium Bromine will naturally break down over time
in the water, usually over the span of a week, and will         Sodium Bromine Myth
also be further broken down by direct contact with the     The myth about Sodium Bromide is that it
Sun’s harmful Ultra Violet rays. Chlorine in the water    will consume all the chlorine in the water.
will sacrifice itself to recharge Sodium Bromine and      This is a myth and is incorrect. Sodium
often, after adding a Sodium Bromine based                Bromide is not protected from the Sun’s
algaecide to the pool water you will find that the        U.V. rays. When exposed to direct sunlight
following week all of your                                Sodium Bromine begins to break down.
                                                          Chlorine sacrifices itself to “recharge” the
Free and Available Chlorine (FAC) is gone or at a         Sodium Bromine. As long as there is
zero reading. It is adviced to buffer your chlorine,      chlorine in the water it will continuously
adding a bit more than usual before adding a Sodium       sacrifice itself to keep the Sodium Bromine
Bromine based algaecide to help keep the Sodium           in the water. This also depends on how
Bromine fully charged and effective for as long as        much Sodium Bromine is in the water. To
possible.                                                 get rid of the Sodium Bromine simply stop
                                                          adding chlorine and let it burn off.
                                                 32
pH Balance does not alter the effectiveness of Sodium Bromine as a sanitizer and oxidizer as it
does for chlorine, however if you have both chlorine and Sodium Bromine in the water it is best to
keep your pH Balance at the recommended level of 7.4 to 7.6. Sodium Bromine may turn yellow
for a couple of minutes when introduced into water with chlorine present and a low pH Balance.
This effect is harmless and will dissapate after a short while. Always be sure to resupply your
sanitizer and oxidizer, mainly the chlorine, the week after Sodium Bromine is added as most of the
Sodium Bromine will have broken down and the chlorine will have been depleted. In most cases,
after this Sodium Bromine algeacide treatment you can return to your normal chlorine sanitation
and oxidation system and maintain proper water chemistry levels to prevent future algae growth.


Phosphate Removers as an Algaestat:

What are Phosphates?

Phosphates are microscopic dead plant material and provide algae with a ready food source.
Chlorine is poisonous to algae, and Phosphates are algae's food. Just like a human with bad
nutrition is more sensitive to disease and poison, so is algae. The combination of starvation and
poisoning keep algae from ever getting started.

Green algae are the worst threat to your pool water. While Mustard (yellow) Algae and Black
(blue-green) Algae can make your pool surface unattractive, it's Green Algae that can consume
your entire pool making it unsuitable for swimming. If Green Algae thrives long enough, little algae
eating bugs will invade the pool. Soon after the bugs comes the bug eating frogs. If you let it go
long enough, your pool water will return to its natural ecosystem form, primarily a pond. Swampy
pools also become a breeding ground for disease carrying mosquitoes and you definitely do not
want that.

The essentials of algae life are food and shelter. For food algae needs water with phosphates.
Without phosphates, even if Green Algae blooms, it won't really thrive, and it won't be healthy
enough to survive chlorination. Shelter for algae is consistently wet surfaces with a decent
chemical composition. Although Green Algae prefers surfaces such as your pool's walls and
bottom, in a true Green Algae infestation it can inhabit even the water itself. In a typical situation,
chlorinated water makes for lousy algae shelter. An extremely phosphate-rich pool generates
healthy and hearty algae. These algae can sometimes survive extreme chlorine shocking,
                                especially if the shocking comes in a series of less than totally
                                destructive waves. Over time the algae can become chlorine
    Did you know?               resistant. So it's clear that Phosphates have a major impact on
 Once algae has bloomed         Green Algae or lack thereof. The next question is…
it has consumed all the
Phosphates it needs to live
out its entire life. Using a     Where do Phosphates come from?
Phosphate remover will
not kill existing algae,         Phosphates are everywhere. Your tap water has significant
                                 amounts of Phosphates, so draining and refilling would not
however it will help to          necessarily get rid of Phosphates. Phosphates wash off of the
prevent future algae             swimmers in your pool. Detergents and fertilizer contain huge
growth. It is what is called     amounts of Phosphates. Try to be very careful that ground water
an Algaestat, and not a
true Algaecide.                                   33
doesn't run into your pool. There are even Phosphates in Liquid Chlorine.

Organic decomposition is one of the largest sources of
Phosphates. When a leaf falls into your pool and
decomposes, guess what's produced? Phosphates. Every
                                                                       Cannibalistic Algae?
leaf, pine needle, pollen, every lizard, every mouse, every           Decomposing algae is also
stick, berry or nut….every piece of plant or animal life           organic matter that produces
remaining in the pool long enough to begin decomposing             Phosphates. That’s right! You
produces Phosphates. It's bad enough that such                     shock the pool to kill all the
decomposition produces particulate matter to clog up your          algae, and the dying algae create
filter, but throw in the algae feeding Phosphates produced,
and you can see that keeping your pool regularly cleaned is
                                                                   Phosphates to feed future algae
a must. The average pool will see an increase of                   blooms.
Phosphate levels of about 50 ppm per week.


How do Phosphate Removers Work?
Phosphate removers lock up the Phosphates into a suspended solid that is filtered out by your
filter. As the filter clogs with the suspended solid, backwashing and sanitizing the filter will remove
them from your pool’s system. Each brand of Phosphate remover gives recommendations for how
much remover to use based on the Phosphate reading of your water and the gallon capacity of
your pool. Keep in mind that if you've been heavily shocking your pool, high chlorine levels can
make it impossible to get an accurate reading on your Phosphate level. Also, if your pool is
currently green, any measurement will show lower than what it would be after shocking the algae
to death. In other words, it's very hard to get an accurate assessment of Phosphate levels in a
problem pool.



                                                 In cases of very high amounts of Phosphates, after
 Phosphate Remover Marketing                     using a Phosphate remover the Phosphates will
 Before cleaning a filter it is strongly         clump up and fall out of circulation, causing a wide
recommended to offer the customer a              spread slimy coating all over the bottom of the pool.
Phosphate removal treatment. The filter will     Vacuuming up this Phosphate fall-out will clog your
have to be cleaned anyhow after a Phosphate      filter, increasing the filter pressure very quickly and
removal, so since it is already due to be        backwashing will be required to clear it out of your
cleaned you might as well offer the additional   filter to be able to resume vacuuming. If your pool
service to improve the water’s chemistry and     has a multi-port backwash valve that allows you to
to also offer a profitable service.              vacuum directly to waste, bypassing the filter, this
                                                 would be strongly recommended.

There are a large number of Phosphate removers available on the retail market. Phos-Free and
Starvers are only a couple in a large line up to be mentioned here. Always be sure to read the
label carefully and follow the directions on the label for best results. Most Phosphate removers are
added through the skimmer after the filter has been back washed, however each has its own
directions and recommendations.




                                                   34
                         Things to Remember About Section 10
     An “algaecide” kills algae while an “algaestat” prevents algae.
     There are three primary categories of algaecides: Quats, Polyquats and Copper Salts.
     There are three types of metals used as algaecides in the current market. They are
      zinc, copper and silver.
     A chelating agent is an agent that prevents metals from falling out of circulation in the
      water and staining the surface. Most metal based algaecides claim to have some form
      of chelating agent although staining, when improperly applied and used does still
      occur.
     Sodium Bromine is a sanitizer and oxidizer just like chlorine is.
     Sodium Bromine is not dependent upon a particular pH Balance in order to sanitize
      and oxidize the way that chlorine is.
     Sodium Bromine is not protected by Conditioner the way that chlorine is so as a
      regular sanitizer and oxidizer it should only be used in indoor pools or covered spas,
      however it does make for an effective algaecide in outdoor chlorine pools and spas.
     Phosphates are microscopic dead plant material and provide algae with a ready food
      source.
     Phosphates are everywhere. Organic decomposition is one of the largest sources of
      Phosphates.
     The average pool will see an increase of Phosphate levels of about 50 ppm per week.
     Phosphate removers lock up the Phosphates into a suspended solid that is filtered out
      by your filter. As the filter clogs with the suspended solid, backwashing and sanitizing
      the filter will remove them from your pool’s system.




                              11. Treatments for Algae


What do you do when algae begins to grow?
That is a complex question, actually. Algae can have many different degrees of severity, there are
many types of algae and many different conditions can cause it. It could be a little bit of Mustard
(yellow) Algae in its infancy just starting to grow in the grout inside the skimmer or along the light
fixture ring. It could be a pool completely overrun with Green Algae so thick that you can’t even
see the top step and mosquitoes are swarming across the surface. It could even be the dreaded
Black Algae, the black plague and scourge of swimming pool technicians and pool owners
everywhere.

There is a saying in the industry that goes “Ask ten different pool guys and you’ll get eleven
different answers”. Written here are a few methods and techniques on how to get rid of algae in
the field, though each swimming pool technician is different, will have different views and opinions
and may agree or disagree with some or all of these methods and techniques.
                                                 35
Step 1:
The first thing you want to do when algae begins to grow is find the breakdown in the three keys of
healthy water (see section 3 Three Keys to Clear, Clean and Healthy Water). Is the algae caused
by a lack of circulation, a lack of filtration, unbalanced chemistry or several of these keys? Is the
pool pump operating for 8 hours each day? The pool should be circulating and filtering for 8 hours
each day. Is the filter clean and has it been backwashed or sanitized recently? Make sure your
filter is clean. Is the water’s chemistry balanced? The Free and Available Chlorine (FAC) should
be at 3.0 to 5.0 ppm (parts per million). The water’s pH Balance should be at 7.4 to 7.6. The
water’s Total Alkalinity (T.A.) should be between 80 and 120 ppm (parts per million). Is there
enough Conditioner in the water?

The Conditioner level, in order to protect the chlorine should be between 70 and 90 ppm (parts
per million). How old is the water? The Calcium Hardness should be between 180 and 500 ppm
(parts per million). Find the weakness or break in these three keys to healthy water. Perhaps the
pH Balance got too high and the chlorine became ineffective, allowing the algae to grow. Perhaps
there was not enough Conditioner in the water to effectively protect the chlorine. If the chlorine
level drastically bounces during the week, being strong the day it is added and weak after a
couple of days due to lack of protection, the algae can grow during these weak points and build up
a resistance to the chlorine while it is weak.

Step 2:
Brush the walls and floor down with a wall brush, a steel wire wall brush in the case of Black Algae
or very strong Mustard (yellow) Algae or Green Algae. Brushing the walls and floor will break up
the algae, knocking off the blooms or flowers and expose them to the chemicals. Remember to
NEVER use a steel wire wall brush on a fiberglass, painted or vinyl lined pool. In the case of Black
Algae, scrubbing it with a steel wire brush will score (scratch) the surface of it, much like a cut or

scrape on a human being, exposing it to infection or in the case of water chemistry exposing it to
the sanitizers, oxidizers and algaecides.

Step 3:
Adding the chemicals can be complex as different amounts are added depending on the severity
and type of algae you are trying to kill. Here I will be general when describing applications of
chemicals, however know that you should add more chemicals with larger sized pools and more
severe algae conditions.

   1. As safely as possible, lower the pH Balance using Muriatic Acid. If you can do so safely,
      bring the pH Balance to 7.3 to 7.4.
      Why? This will keep the chlorine in its strongest possible killing form without making the
      water acidic and corrosive.

   2. Bring the chlorine up to at least 5.0 ppm (parts per million) or higher.
      Why? Even though by this time the algae is likely very resistant to the chlorine it will make
      sure that the pool has plenty of sanitizer and oxidizer available to keep the Sodium Bromide
      charged when it is later added.

   3. Add 2 lbs. of Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate per 10,000 gallons of water.
                                                 36
      Why? The Potassium will oxidize any organic material in the water, leaving your chlorine
      free to sanitize, making the chlorine more effective.

   4. Add 6 to 8 ounces of Sodium Bromide per 10,000 gallons of water. Be sure the Sodium
      Bromide is at least 98% active ingredient.
      Why? The Sodium Bromide is also a sanitizer and oxidizer but it is one that the algae has
      not yet experienced so it will not have built up any resistance to it. The high level of chlorine
      in the water will keep the Sodium Bromide charged and working very effectively.

The combination of chlorine in low pH conditions, Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate and Sodium
Bromide used as an algaecide will be enough to burn out just about any form of algae. Black
Algae may take repeated applications as well as brushing the walls and floor with a steel wire
brush as often as possible to keep the algae scored (scratched) and exposed to the chemicals. In
the case of a pool completely overrun with Green Algae, super chlorination may be required as
well which could require double, even triple the normal amounts of chlorine. NEVER use a steel
wire wall brush on a fiberglass, painted. tiled or vinyl lined surface.

Step 4:
The following week, when the algae has cleared up make sure your filter is backwashed and
cleaned and your pump is running for 8 hours per day. Be sure to replenish the sanitizer and
oxidizer to the water (chlorine) as the chlorine and Sodium Bromide will likely have been depleted.

Step 5:
It is a good idea to test for Phosphates in the water and add a Phosphate remover accordingly, as
an abundant source of Phosphates can be a catalyst for algae to quickly return and dead algae
also becomes Phosphates for future algae spores to eat.


When dealing with Black Algae be sure to rinse any wall brushes or steel wire brushes off with
liquid chlorine after use as Black Algae can be transferred from one pool to another if you are not
careful.

Maintain the three keys to healthy water…circulation, filtration and chemical balance to help
prevent algae from returning. It may return now and again but a good technician will see it and
treat it quickly before the home owner can see it with the naked eye.



      Here are some charts to be used as guide lines when removing algae:

                               Notes Regarding these Charts
    Chlorine on these charts refers to either granular chlorine such as Dichlor or Liquid
     Chlorine. Chlorine is represented by lbs/gals meaning pounds or gallons, whichever
     you are using
    Other forms of granular chlorine may effect the pH Balance such as Trichlor (Algae
     Ban) having a very low pH or Calcium Hypochlorite having a fairly high pH
    Conditioner on these charts refers to granular Conditioner
                                                 37
                 How to Treat Mustard (Yellow) Algae, (Mild Cases)
For mild cases of mustard (yellow) algae just beginning, such as a little bit forming in the grout
within the skimmer, the corners and around the light fixture or very light amounts beginning to
form on the wall, treat as follows:

               10,000 Gallons                                             15,000 Gallons
Add: 2 lbs/gals chlorine                                  Add: 3 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 2-3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or      Add: 2-3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                               chlorinator
Add: 8 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                   Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                    the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                   amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs Conditioner will raise the    conditioner reading). 1 lbs conditioner will raise
conditioner 10 ppm                                        the conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae      Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,              Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                 consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine      Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4         chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4


                20,000 Gallons                                            25,000 Gallons
Add: 4 lbs/gals chlorine                                  Add: 5 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or      Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                               chlorinator
Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                  Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                    the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                   amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs granular Conditioner      conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
will raise the conditioner 10 ppm                         Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae      Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,              Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                 consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine      Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.        chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4.
                                                     38
                30,000 Gallons                                                35,000 Gallons
Add: 6 lbs/gals chlorine                                      Add: 7 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                        the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
conditioner 10 ppm                                            conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                    algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                              at 7.3 – 7.4.




                 How to Treat Mustard (Yellow) Algae, (Bad Cases)
For bad cases of mustard (yellow) algae, such as algae coverage over an entire wall or floor, treat
as follows:

               10,000 Gallons                                                 15,000 Gallons
Add: 4 lbs/gals chlorine                                      Add: 5 lbs /gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or            Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                        the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the conditioner        conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the
10 ppm                                                        conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                    algae with a regular wall brush.

                                                         39
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lb/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                            at 7.3 – 7.4.

                20,000 Gallons                                              25,000 Gallons
Add: 6 lbs /gals chlorine                                   Add: 7 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 ½ lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 1 ¾ lbs will raise the
conditioner 10 ppm                                          conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                            at 7.3 – 7.4.




              30,000 Gallons                                               35,000 Gallons
Add: 9 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 10 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals of              Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains

                                                       40
7.3 – 7.4.                                                   at 7.3 – 7.4.



               How to Treat Mustard (Yellow) Algae, (Severe Cases)
 For severe cases of mustard (yellow) algae, such as algae wide spread coverage over walls,
floors and deep, dark, almost orange algae that doesn’t brush off, treat as follows:

                10,000 Gallons                                                15,000 Gallons
Add: 8 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 10 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 1 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate                         Add: 1 1/2 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate
Add: 4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or           Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                  chlorinator
Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                     Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,           algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                          98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance            Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                 balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the           the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                       the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm             Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The            (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                      amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner       conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the
10 ppm                                                       Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae         Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a steel wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl        algae with a steel wall brush (except for
lined or complete tile surfaces)                             fiberglass, vinyl lined or complete tile surfaces)
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                 Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                    consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine         Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.           chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                             at 7.3 – 7.4.

                 20,000 Gallons                                               25,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 14 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 2 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate                         Add: 2 1/2 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate
Add: 5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or           Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                  chlorinator
Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                     Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,           algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                          98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance            Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                 balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the           the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                       the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm             Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The            (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                      amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the               conditioner reading). 1¾ lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                           Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae         Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a steel wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl        algae with a steel wall brush (except for
lined or complete tile surfaces)                             fiberglass, vinyl lined or complete tile surfaces)
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                 Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                    consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
                                                        41
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine      Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.        chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4.


               30,000 Gallons                                             35,000 Gallons
Add: 16 lbs/gals chlorine                                 Add: 18 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate                      Add: 3 1/2 lbs Potassium Monopersulphate
Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or      Add: 8-10 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser
chlorinator                                               or chlorinator
Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                  Add: 22 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                    the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                   amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the            conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                        Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae      Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a steel wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl     algae with a steel wall brush (except for
lined or complete tile surfaces)                          fiberglass, vinyl lined or complete tile surfaces)
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,              Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                 consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine      Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.        chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4.




                         How to Treat Green Algae, (Mild Cases)
For mild cases of green algae just beginning, such as a little bit forming in the grout within the
skimmer, the corners and around the light fixture or very light amounts beginning to form on the
wall, treat as follows:

                  10,000 Gallons                                         15,000 Gallons
Add: 2 lbs/gals chlorine                                  Add: 3 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 2-3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or      Add: 2-3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                               chlorinator
Add: 8 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                   Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                    the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                   amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner    conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the
10 ppm                                                    Conditioner 10 ppm

                                                     42
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                            at 7.3 – 7.4.


               20,000 Gallons                                                25,000 Gallons
Add: 4 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 5 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                            at 7.3 – 7.4.


               30,000 Gallons                                               35,000 Gallons
Add: 6 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 7 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals and

                                                       43
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.


                         How to Treat Green Algae, (Bad Cases)
For bad cases of green algae, such as algae coverage over an entire wall or floor, treat as follows:

               10,000 Gallons                                               15,000 Gallons
Add: 4 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 6 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner      conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the
10 ppm                                                      Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                            at 7.3 – 7.4.




                 20,000 Gallons                                                25,000 Gallons
Add: 7 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 10 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                      the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                  algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
                                                       44
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.        chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4.


                 30,000 Gallons                                           35,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                 Add: 14 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or      Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                               chlorinator
Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                  Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       98%, such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              balance to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        the current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of
water)                                                    the water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                   amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the            conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                        Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae      Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is
with a regular wall brush.                                algae with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,              Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                 consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine      Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.        chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains
                                                          at 7.3 – 7.4.




                       How to Treat Green Algae, (Severe Cases)
For severe cases of green algae, such as strong total algae coverage over entire walls, floors and
green water treat as follows:

                10,000 Gallons                                             15,000 Gallons
Add: 6 lbs/gals chlorine                                  Add: 9 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                               chlorinator
Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                  Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,        algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                       such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance         Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the              to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the current
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the        pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the water)
water)                                                    Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm          (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The         amount added will depend on the current
amount added will depend on the current                   conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the Conditioner
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner    10 ppm
10 ppm                                                    Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae

                                                     45
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        with a regular wall brush.
with a regular wall brush.                                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine        and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.


               20,000 Gallons                                               25,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                   Add: 15 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
with a regular wall brush.                                  with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                            7.3 – 7.4.




               30,000 Gallons                                               35,000 Gallons
Add: 18 lbs/gals chlorine                                   Add: 20 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
with a regular wall brush.                                  with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals

                                                       46
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                            7.3 – 7.4.



                            How to Treat Green Algae, (Swamp)
For water that has become a complete swamp, such as can no longer see the top step,
mosquitoes in the water, completely green from top to bottom treat as follows:

                 10,000 Gallons                                              15,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                   Add: 15 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner      conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the Conditioner
10 ppm                                                      10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
with a regular wall brush.                                  with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                            7.3 – 7.4.




                20,000 Gallons                                               25,000 Gallons
Add: 18 lbs/gals chlorine                                   Add: 21 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
with a regular wall brush.                                  with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.

                                                       47
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine        Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.          chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                            7.3 – 7.4.


                30,000 Gallons                                               35,000 Gallons
Add: 24 lbs/gals chlorine                                   Add: 27 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or        Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 22 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the              conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                          Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae        Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
with a regular wall brush.                                  with a regular wall brush.
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                   consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals and             Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.              chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                            7.3 – 7.4.




            How to Treat Black (Blue-Green) Algae, (Regular Cases)
For regular cases of black (blue-green) algae, such as small dime or smaller sized, rounded,
spotted, dark slimy growths in a few areas such as the corners and walls treat as follows:

               10,000 Gallons                                                  15,000 Gallons
Add: 8 lbs/gals chlorine                                    Add: 10 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                 chlorinator
Add: 10 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                    Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,          algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                         such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance           Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the          current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                      water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm            Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The           (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                     amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner      conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the Conditioner
10 ppm                                                      10 ppm

                                                       48
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                              7.3 – 7.4.

                20,000 Gallons                                                25,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 15 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                        water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                            Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                              7.3 – 7.4.

                30,000 Gallons                                                35,000 Gallons
Add: 18 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 20 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                        water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                            Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all

                                                         49
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                              7.3 – 7.4.

              How to Treat Black (Blue-Green) Algae, (Severe Cases)
 For severe cases of black (blue-green) algae such as nickel or smaller sized, rounded, spotted,
dark slimy growths in many patchy areas throughout the surface treat as follows:

                10,000 Gallons                                                  15,000 Gallons
Add: 12 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 15 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 3 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or            Add: 3-4 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 12 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 14 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                        water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). ¾ lbs will raise the Conditioner        conditioner reading). 1 lbs will raise the Conditioner
10 ppm                                                        10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 2 lbs/gals and
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.

                  20,000 Gallons                                              25,000 Gallons
Add: 18 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 21 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 4-5 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 16 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 18 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                        water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 1 1/2 lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 1 3/4 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                            Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all
                                                         50
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 3 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                              7.3 – 7.4.

                 30,000 Gallons                                                35,000 Gallons
Add: 24 lbs/gals chlorine                                     Add: 27 lbs/gals chlorine
Add: 5-6 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or          Add: 6-8 3” Trichlor tablets to a float dispenser or
chlorinator                                                   chlorinator
Add: 20 oz Sodium Bromine based granular                      Add: 22 oz Sodium Bromine based granular
algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,            algaecide (preferably as pure as possible, 88-98%,
such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)                           such as YellowTreat or YellowTrine)
Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance             Add: Muriatic acid enough to lower the pH balance
to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the                  to 7.3 (The amount to add will depend on the
current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the            current pH balance and the Total Alkalinity of the
water)                                                        water)
Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm              Add: Conditioner to raise the level to 70-90 ppm
(parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The             (parts per million) to protect the chlorine. (The
amount added will depend on the current                       amount added will depend on the current
conditioner reading). 2 1/4 lbs will raise the                conditioner reading). 2 1/2 lbs will raise the
Conditioner 10 ppm                                            Conditioner 10 ppm
Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae          Brush: the walls, floor and any place there is algae
rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire            rigorously and daily if possible with a steel wire
wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile    wall brush (except for fiberglass, vinyl lined or all
surfaces).                                                    tile surfaces).
Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,                  Next week: The chlorine will likely be gone,
consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.                     consumed by the Sodium Bromine algaecide.
Replenish the chlorine by adding 4 lbs/gals chlorine          Replenish the chlorine by adding 5 lbs/gals
and make sure the pH balance remains at 7.3 – 7.4.            chlorine and make sure the pH balance remains at
                                                              7.3 – 7.4.




                                        You Might Have Noticed
On these charts the amounts of chemicals used, particularly for the more severe cases of algae in larger pools
can be staggering. You need a proportionate amount of chemicals to combat an equally proportionate amount
of algae. Think of the chemicals like a paper towel to clean up a spill. The algae and size of the pool are like
the size of the spill and over how much area the spill covers, however keep in mind that the paper towel only
holds so much. A sigle paper towel used to clean up a gallon of liquid is not even close to enough. With this
in mind, if you do not use enough chemicals to completely remove the problem than after your chemicals are
depleted you will not only still have unsightly algae filled water remaining but the algae will now also be
resistant to the chemicals that you used as it has survived your first treatment. Also, in cases where large
amounts of chlorine are called for, you may want to consider using a less expensive form of dry chlorine
such as Calcium Hypochlorite. It isn’t the healthiest form of chlorine, however it gets the job done, is lighter
and easier to carry than 20 or more gallons of liquid chlorine and is far less expensive, pound for pound than
using Dichlor. Remember from section 2…the right tool for the right job.


This is an effective maintanance program to help prevent algae formation:

                                                         51
      The “Four Pillars” Algaestat/Algaecide Regular Maintanance Program


                   First Pillar                                              Second Pillar
Three Keys to Clean, Clear and Healthy Water.              Using a slow dissolve metal based and chelated
Always maintain your cilrculation, filtration and          algaecide such as Nature2 or the PoolRX, particularly
proper chemical balance. Chlorine maintained at 3 to       in the Spring and Summer months will add an
5 ppm using an immeditate for of chlorine as well as       additional and more powerful form of sanitation to
a back up slow dissolve chlorine such as 3” Trichlor       the water which will aid in more efficiently and
tablets within a pH Balance of 7.4 to 7.6 will provide     effectively killing germs and bacteria and will also
your water with ample sanitation and oxidation             free up the chlorine for oxidizing organic material.
power. Keeping the Conditioner level at 70 to 90           *This special service should be charged extra to the
ppm at all times will keep the chlorine properly           customer.
protected. Plenty of circulation and filtration will
keep the water clean and clear from organic and
oxidized debris.

                  Third Pillar                                               Fourth Pillar
Using Sodium Bromine in small amounts (2 ounces            Using a Phosphate removal treatment as well as a
of granular or 2 squirts from liquid) on a weekly          small amount of Phosphate remover on a weekly
basis, particularly in the Spring and Summer months        basis, particularly in the Spring and Summer months
will consume a small amount of the existing                will greatly reduce the amounts of Phosphates in the
chlorine, however it will provide the water with a         water. Without Phosphates, algae will be under
secondary sanitizer and oxidizer that is not               nourished and starve being very frail if it is able to
dependent on the pH Balance. Chlorine, Sodium              grow at all. *Phosphate removal treatment should be
Bromine and metals in the water at the same time           done before a filter clean and charged extra to the
will offer algae little to no chance of ever               customer. Customers should also be sold additional
developing. *Algaecides should be charged extra to         Phosphate remover to be used on a weekly basis.
the customer.




                                                      52
                    Things to Remember About Section 11
 Algae can have many different degrees of severity, there are many types of algae and
  many different conditions can cause it.
 The first thing you want to do when algae begins to grow is find the breakdown in the
  three keys of healthy water (see section 3 Three Keys to Clear, Clean and Healthy
  Water).
 Brush the walls and floor down with a wall brush, a steel wire wall brush in the case of
  Black Algae or very strong Mustard (yellow) Algae or Green Algae. Brushing the
  walls and floor will break up the algae, knocking off the blooms or flowers and expose
  them to the chemicals.
 Adding the chemicals can be complex as different amounts are added depending on the
  severity and type of algae you are trying to kill.
 NEVER use a steel wire wall brush on a fiberglass, painted, tiled or vinyl lined surface.
 The following week, when the algae has cleared up make sure your filter is
  backwashed and cleaned and your pump is running for 8 hours per day. Be sure to
  replenish the sanitizer and oxidizer to the water (chlorine) as the chlorine and Sodium
  Bromide will likely have been depleted.
 It is a good idea to test for Phosphates in the water and add a Phosphate remover
  accordingly, as an abundant source of Phosphates can be a catalyst for algae to quickly
  return and dead algae also becomes Phosphates for future algae spores to eat.
 When dealing with Black Algae be sure to rinse any wall brushes or steel wire brushes
  off with liquid chlorine after use as Black Algae can be transferred from one pool to
  another if you are not careful.
 There are many products available and many techniques to treating algae.
 Don’t forget that algae growth will usually first be seen on the grout inside the
  skimmer, along the light ring and on any string that may tie a 3 inch Trichlor tablet
  floater in place. You will be able to see this algae with U.V. protected polarized Sun
  glasses before you can see it with the naked eye.
 NEVER just brush the algae away when you see it. Brushing the algae just relocates it
  and doesn’t solve the problem. You must treat the problem, not just hide a symptom
  else the algae will be more visible and likely chemical resistant the following week.



                                          53
                           12. Salt Chlorination Systems


 A salt chlorination system is an electronic system that is plumbed into the swimming pool’s
 plumbing. While there are many different brands and styles of salt chlorination systems each
                                                 follows the same basic principles. Each is made up of
             Did you know?                       the same basic components and operates primarily the
  Chlorine is a gas. Sodium Chloride, or         same way. The idea is for this electronic system to
commonly known as salt has the chlorine          pass salt, which is added to the pool water through a
gas trapped within a Sodium crystal. Even        series of metal panels that are contained within a salt
when dissolved in water and unseen by the        cell that is added onto the swimming pool’s plumbing.
naked eye it is still a crystal. Chlorine in its As this salt water is passed through these panels a
gas form has a very high pH Balance of           faint and safe electric charge is passed through the
about 13 which means that once a salt            cell’s panels. This electronic charge frees the chloride
chlorination system frees that gas chlorine      from the Sodium Chloride (salt) and the chloride alone,
from the sodium crystal it has released a        now chlorine disperses into the swimming pool water.
very high pH chlorine into the water. This is
why salt chlorination systems always seem        The system is controlled as to how much or how little
to raise the pH Balance in swimming pool         chlorine is produced by a computer board. Most of
and spa water.                                   these salt chlorination systems are self cleaning,
                                                 although only to a certain degree and still require
 regular maintenance and inspection. Most of these salt chlorination systems will also have other
 functions such as telling you the amount of salt in the water, if the salt cell is dirty and needs
 cleaning as well as a multitude of other self diagnostic readings.

Salt chlorination systems have become increasingly popular as swimmers feel a much “softer”
feeling saline solution of water and do not notice the chemical feel or smell of the chlorine, even
though it is still chlorine being produced. There are many pros and cons to using a salt
chlorination system which we will cover here.


The Pros of Using a Salt Chlorination System:
    1. The water feels “softer” and more comfortable, like a mild saline solution to swimmers

    2. Salt is much less expensive than chlorine, at about $ 4.00 to $ 4.50 per 50 lbs. bag

    3. Swimmers do not notice the smell or effects of chlorine in the water as they might with a
       non-salt system pool

    4. The chlorine produced can be regulated, keeping a much more stable amount of chlorine in
       the water




                                                   54
The Cons of Using a Salt Chlorination System:
  1. The chlorine produced by a salt chlorination system is a very high pH product, having a
     pH Balance of about 13 and is produced while the pump is operating, about 8 hours per
     day. This means that the water requires much more acid than a regular pool to keep the
     pH Balanced, or otherwise known as a high acid demand

  2. The high acid demand to balance the pH of the water can drastically increase the speed
     of which the Total Alkalinity is lowered because of the larger quantities and regularity of
     acid added

  3. For a salt chlorination system to operate normally the average amount of salt needed in
     the water is 3250 to 3500 ppm (parts per million). This is a lot of additional Total
     Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the water, shortening the time needed to drain and refill the
     pool to keep the water healthy

  4. Because of the increased Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and the larger amounts of acid
     added there is a greater risk of staining to the surface from minerals and metals falling
     out of circulation. This additional staining will be particularly evident on white plaster
     surfaces

  5. Salt is naturally corrosive to metals such as welds, stainless steel filters and copper
     plumbing. Only Fiberglass or other plastic filters should be used with a salt chlorination
     system and only when the pool has pvc plumbing. While there are many pools with
     copper plumbing that have been remodeled and a salt chlorination system has been
     added this practice is not recommended

  6. While the salt cell is often self cleaning it will over time become coated with calcium.
     Keeping the pH balanced, the Total Alkalinity in balance and the Calcium Hardness
     fairly low will help reduce this calcium coating. The salt cell must still be inspected
     every 90 days and cleaned as needed

  7. Each salt cell tends to have a varying life expectancy of 1 to 3 years on average
     depending upon brands and care of the water chemistry; however most of them have a
     warrantee and can be prorated as far as replacement costs and installation. Always
     check with the manufacturer and have the cell number and serial number handy. The
     salt cells cost upwards of $ 550.00 or more each

  8. The salt chlorination systems is dependant upon its computer which is usually kept
     outside by the swimming pool equipment, exposed to the outdoor elements of rain, heat
     and cold temperatures. Even though they are often well insulated and protected they
     are susceptible to damage and are expensive to repair and replace

  9. The salt chlorination system computer’s diagnostics, such as salt level, water flow and
     when the salt cell should be cleaned are dependent upon electronic readings. When a
     problem or discrepancy develops in the system it can often give false readings. Always
     test your salt levels independently using a salinity test strip or electronic salt meter to
     determine the amount of salt in the water




                                            55
So, as you can see there are many more cons than
pros of using a salt system, however swimming pool            Salt Chlorination System Note
owners often love having them and clearly the salt            NEVER trust a salt chlorination system
chlorination system salesmen rarely, if ever tell them       board for the salt content. These systems are
all of the cons of the system. Regardless of whether         VERY often out of calibration and give
they are the best way to oxidize and sanitize a pool or      incorrect readings. If you add salt to the
not, these systems are out there and are growing in          water based on an incorrect reading you
popularity so, as a technician we must be prepared to        could be adding way too much salt and
properly maintain them.                                      causing damage to the salt chlorination cell
                                                             and can cause mineral and metal fall out and
Remember these few important notes about salt                surface staining. ALWAYS have a
chlorination systems:                                        secondary source of testing the salinity level
                                                             whether it be test strips or an electronic
      On average each system will want you to               meter.
       maintain the salt level at 3250 to 3500 ppm
       (parts per million). Too much salt can increase the risk of burning out the salt cell.

      Be sure to do your own independent test of the salt level with a salt test strip or other
       testing device. The computer may not always be accurate and adding too much salt due to
       a false computer diagnostic reading can result in burning out the salt cell and you’ll have to
       partially drain the pool to get rid of the excess salt.

      Regularly inspect and clean the salt cell as needed every 90 days or as the manufacturer of
       the salt cell recommends

      Anticipate the pH Balance to increase much more so than a regular pool because of the
       high pH chlorine being produced when the salt chlorination system is running. Salt
       chlorination systems have a high acid demand and adding enough acid to keep the pH
       balanced will also lower the Total Alkalinity more rapidly than in a normal pool

Adding Salt to the Pool:
                                         A 50 lbs. bag of salt will raise the salt level in an average
        Did you know?                    sized 20,000 gallon pool about 300 ppm (parts per million),
 When the salt cell self cleans it       however always consult with a “salt per gallon” chart usually
removes much, but not all of the         found on the back of a bag of salt. Always be sure to add
calcium build up which collects on       less salt than required and slowly reach the desired level as
the metal panels inside the salt cell.   to not accidentally add too much salt. I have found that the
This calcium is sent back into the       salt crystals are much more effective and disperse much
pool through the return lines and can    more rapidly than the salt pellets.
become very visible in the spa. The
calcium will look like little slimy      When adding the salt, some technicians recommend
snow drifts. If you have an              premixing the salt in a bucket of water and adding it after it
automated control system you can         dissolves, however to my own personal experience I have
program the spa only to cycle for        found no negative side effects in adding the salt directly to
about 30 minutes per day to help         the pool water and brushing it evenly over the pool to help
remove this calcium build up.            with more rapid dissolution. When adding salt to the pool be
                                         sure that the pool pump is operating and the water is
circulating.


                                                   56
Inspecting and Cleaning the Salt Cell:
Every 90 days you should unscrew and inspect the salt cell. First, make sure the pump is turned
off and it is a good idea to place the filter in its “backwash” setting (For D.E. style filters). The
reason for this is that since we will be opening up the plumbing by unscrewing the salt cell we do
not want the filter to drain down back into the pool, just in case it does not have a check valve to
stop such an occurrence. You can use a large set of channel locks to open the unions on the cell
to unscrew it. There are rubber o-rings in place where the unions are threaded in, so be sure that
these o-rings do not fall out of place. The rubber o-rings keep the salt cell sealed and from leaking
water.

Once the salt cell is open look inside of it. If the metal panels inside are clean and free from any
white calcium build up, than screw the unions back into place, remembering to hand tighten only,
although I always give it just a little extra tightening with my channel locks just to make sure they
                                     are on there securely but very carefully so to not over tighten
                                     them or risk breaking the plastic unions. Put your pool filter back
       Salt Cell Note                into its regular circulation mode, out of “backwash” and turn the
   The average salt                  pump on to make sure there are no leaks at the unions. Inspect
  chlorination cell has a life the salt cell again after another 90 days.
 span of about 2 years.
 Some Salt Chlorination            If you inspect the salt cell and find that the metal panels within
                                   are caked in calcium, which will be a white slimy material almost
 System brands will have a         like wet chalk, than you’ll need to clean the salt cell. There are a
 warrantee period and will         few ways of cleaning a salt cell and often different technicians
 prorate the cost of a new         and even warrantee technicians for these salt chlorination
 cell to the customer.             systems recommend different ways.

   1. Use a long stick, brush or similar tool to flick the larger chunks of calcium off the panels.
      Most of this calcium will scrape right off, however be careful as to not damage the panels
      themselves.

   2. There are fittings made with unions just for cleaning a salt cell. These fittings can be found
      at most any swimming pool supply store or also try contacting the factory representative for
      that particular brand of salt chlorination system. They will often be happy to send you the
      fittings for cleaning these cells and some will even meet you there at the account to instruct
      you in how to clean it. These fittings screw onto the salt cell in the same way in which it
      screws onto the pool plumbing, however the ends of these fittings are enclosed in pvc and
      act as reservoirs to hold the cleaning solution that you will use to clean the cell.

   3. If these fittings are not available you can use a bucket, holding the salt cell down vertically
      in the bucket, enclosing the bottom of the cell as to not allow the cleaning solution to
      escape.

   4. The cleaning solution is composed of 3 parts water and 1 part Muriatic Acid. For a stronger
      cleaning some technicians may recommend an even 50/50 mix of water to acid, however
      when using such chemicals it is always important to consider safety. You can also add a
      half of a cap full of “Plaster White and Brite”, a form of Flouridic Acid used to keep the
      fumes down during an acid wash.



                                                   57
  5. Using this cleaning solution, pour the solution into the salt cell, only on the inside if it is
     possible to keep it there with the salt cell cleaning fittings or by using a bucket. Be sure to
     have a garden hose handy in case of any spills or accidents and also for rinsing out the salt
     cell from the cleaning solution once all of the calcium has been dissolved away. The
     solution should bubble and fizz a bit as it dissolves away the calcium. The process should
     take only a couple of minutes.

                                       6. Rinse off the salt cell with water and around your work
           Caution!                       area to make sure there is no spilled or left over acid
  Always be careful when you are          anywhere, then screw the salt cell back onto the plastic
 cleaning out a salt cell. In case of     unions on the pool’s plumbing
 a spill or over flow you want to
 be in a location that is easy to      7. Hand tighten the unions to make sure the salt cell is
 clean such as over dirt or gravel.       tightened and secure, place the “backwash valve” back
 A spill over the customer’s deck         into its normal circulation setting and turn the pump on
 can be a costly mistake should it        to make sure there are no leaks. Allow the pump to
 corrode and stain the deck. Have         operate for a few minutes before checking the salt cell
 a bucket of water handy just in          diagnostic readings to make sure the salt chlorination
 case of a spill.                         system is functioning normally. Your cell is now clean
      and you should inspect it again in 90 days.


Additional notes about Salt Chlorination Systems:

     When the salt cell needs cleaning, the pH balance is too high, the Total Alkalinity is too
      high or the Calcium Hardness is too high you will start to see residual amounts of calcium
      on the pool and spa surface. You will primarily see this calcium in the spa and it will look
      like small snow drifts made from this softened calcium from the salt cell. Cleaning the salt
      cell and checking and balancing your water chemistry will fix this.

     The salt cell is usually self cleaning. It will have two cycles, though each is made and may
      function differently. The cell, in most cases will have a production cycle and a cleaning
      cycle. During this cleaning cycle it will often clean off this residual calcium build up on the
      panels which will end up back in the water on the surface. This is also where these snow
      drifts of soft, slimy calcium in the spa come from.

     Even though the water seems very soft and user friendly to swimmers, the product being
      created in the water is still chlorine. It is advised that swimmers, just as with a regular
      chlorine pool rinse off, at least their face before entering the water to remove any excessive
      organic material such as sweat, dead skin cells and other human waste, else the chlorine
      will bond with that organic material and form uncomfortable and foul smelling chloramines.

     A pool with a salt chlorination system should be drained and refilled once every 3 years,
      rather than once every 3 to 5 years (Depending on the Calcium Hardness and Total
      Dissolved Solids levels) to help reduce the risk of staining.




                                                 58
Salt chlorination systems can be a great source of chlorine, however they require more
maintenance and constant chemical balance to operate. The water seems more comfortable for
swimmers as the chemicals are well camouflaged in 3500 ppm (parts per million) of salt in the
water. Ideally I would recommend a salt chlorination system for a “Pebble Tech” surfaced pool as
the resulting staining will not be seen, however for other pool surfaces the added risk of staining is
substantially increased over time. There are many pros and cons to having a salt chlorination
system and they are often debated among technicians and manufacturers. In the end, swimming
pools owners seem to prefer these systems and are often sold on the pros of these systems while
being unaware of many of the cons.



                          Things to Remember About Section 12
     The idea of a salt chlorination system is to pass salt, which is added to the pool water
      through a series of metal panels that are contained within a salt cell that is added onto
      the swimming pool’s plumbing. As this salt water is passed through these panels a
      faint and safe electric charge is passed through the cell’s panels. This electronic charge
      frees the chloride from the Sodium Chloride (salt) and the chloride alone, now chlorine
      disperses into the swimming pool water.
     Salt chlorination systems have become increasingly popular as swimmers feel a much
      “softer” feeling saline solution of water and do not notice the chemical feel or smell of
      the chlorine, even though it is still chlorine being produced.
     For a salt chlorination system to operate normally the average amount of salt needed in
      the water is 3250 to 3500 ppm (parts per million).
     The salt cell must still be inspected every 90 days and cleaned as needed.
     Always test your salt levels independently using a salinity test strip or electronic salt
      meter to determine the amount of salt in the water
     Anticipate the pH Balance to increase much more so than a regular pool because of the
      high pH chlorine being produced when the salt chlorination system is running. Salt
      chlorination systems have a high acid demand and adding enough acid to keep the pH
      balanced will also lower the Total Alkalinity more rapidly than in a normal pool
     A 50 lbs. bag of salt will raise the salt level in an average sized 20,000 gallon pool
      about 300 ppm (parts per million), however always consult with a “salt per gallon”
      chart usually found on the back of a bag of salt.
     The cleaning solution is composed of 3 parts water and 1 part Muriatic Acid. For a
      stronger cleaning some technicians may recommend an even 50/50 mix of water to
      acid, however when using such chemicals it is always important to consider safety.
     Even though the water seems very soft and user friendly to swimmers, the product
      being created in the water is still chlorine. It is advised that swimmers, just as with a
      regular chlorine pool rinse off, at least their face before entering the water to remove
      any excessive organic material such as sweat, dead skin cells and other human waste,
      else the chlorine will bond with that organic material and form uncomfortable and foul
      smelling chloramines.


                                                 59
                          13. About Swimming Pool Filters

There are three different styles of filters commonly used for swimming pool filtration. The
regulations for what filters can be used for a residential or commercial swimming pool change
from city to city and state to state, however you will find all three types just about everywhere you
service swimming pools.The three types of filters we will discuss here are Diatomaceous Earth
Filters, Cartridge Filters and Sand Filters. We will also discuss the principles of how they work
and their maintenance.

Diatomaceous Earth Filters:
                                                                                           Caution!
Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.) Filters can be metal, fiberglass or                      Diatomaceous Earth
plastic just as all other filters. Water is pushed through a D.E. filter,         (D.E.) is a known
just as any other filter. The pump pushes the water into the filter               carcinogen and known to
past a series of 8 D.E. filter grids. These grids have a plastic
skeleton and are coated in a fine screen-like mesh material. This
                                                                                  cause cancer. If it is
material is made to hold a filter media called Diatomaceous Earth                 breathed in, D.E.’s
(D.E.) which is also commonly called filter powder. It is a very fine             particles are so fine that
powder, much like baby powder. The filter grids job is to hold the                they can become trapped
powder, while water is pushed through and inside the filter grids                 inside the lungs. Always
and then returned to the pool. Any dirt and debris is held by the                 use caution when
D.E. powder while the clean and filtered water is returned to the
swimming pool.
                                                                                  handling D.E..

What is Diatomaceous Earth?

 “Diatomaceous earth (pronounced /ˌdaɪətəˈmeɪʃəs ˈɝθ/), also known as DE, TSS, diatomite, diahydro,
kieselguhr, kieselgur or celite) is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily
crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. This powder has an abrasive feel, similar to pumice powder,
and is very light, due to its high porosity. The typical chemical composition of diatomaceous earth is 86%
silica, 5% sodium, 3% magnesium and 2% iron.
Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is used as a
filtration aid, as a mild abrasive, as a mechanical insecticide, as an absorbent for liquids, as cat litter, as an
activator in blood clotting studies, and as a component of dynamite. As it is also heat-resistant, it can be
used as a thermal insulator.

Filtration
The most common use (68%) of diatomaceous earth is as a filter medium, especially for swimming pools. It
has a high porosity, because it is composed of microscopically-small, coffin-like, hollow particles. It is used
in chemistry under the name Celite as a filtration aid, to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass
through or clog filter paper.

It is also used to filter water, particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks, and other
liquids, such as beer and wine. It can also filter syrups and sugar. Other industries such as paper, paints,
ceramics, soap and detergents use it as a fulling material.” - Wikapedia
                                                       60
      When a D.E. filter grid’s mesh material is damaged it allows the D.E. powder and any other
       dirt and debris to travel through the tear in the mesh and return back into the pool.

      Diatomaceous Earth is added to the filter through the skimmer while the pump is operating.
       It mixes with the water inside the skimmer and within the plumbing from the skimmer to the
       filter where, once inside the filter it coats the filter grids.

      Add 1 lbs. of D.E. (1 filled orange D.E. scoop) per
       each 10 square feet of filtration area of the filter.           The 1 lbs. D.E. Scoop
       For example a 60 sq. ft. D.E. filter would require 6    The 1 lbs. D.E. Scoop is usually a bright
       lbs. of D.E. in order to function and filter properly.  orange color when brand new and useful
                                                               for all sorts of things such as carrying
As the filter collects dirt and debris the pressure within the other dry chemicals to the pool, carrying
filter gets higher. Every month or two depending on how        water to prime a pump or to rinse off
much debris the filter is holding and its filter pressure, the after a salt cell cleaning and even to put
filter should be backwashed. When a filter is                  at the bottom of a skimmer to stop the
backwashed it changes the direction of water flow and          suction in cases where there are 2
instead of the water flowing through the grids and back        skimmers plumbed into the same
into the pool it is redirected to flow from within the grids   suction line. This is a handy trick to
blowing outward and returns to the backwash line, usually gaining full suction at the other skimmer
to the sewer line or P-trap. Flowing out the filter grids      when there is no valve present to divert
instead flowing into them blows the dirt and debris filled     suction.
D.E. powder off of the grids. Backwashing the filter will get most of the old D.E. and dirt out of the
filter but not all of it.

                                                   Every 6 months a D.E. filter should be taken apart
             Did you know?                         and cleaned manually by removing and hosing off
                                                   all the grids individually, making sure each is
 “In 1866, Alfred Nobel discovered that
                                                   thoroughly inspected for tears or damage and
nitroglycerin could be made much more              cleaned, rinsing it off with a garden hose. This is
stable if absorbed in diatomite. This allows       generally called a “filter sanitation”. Once the
much safer transport and handling than             filter has been inspected and sanitized,
nitroglycerin in its raw form. He patented         reassemble it. Make sure the filter tank rubber o-
this mixture as dynamite in 1867, and the          ring has been lubricated with a Teflon based
                                                   lubricant. “Magic Lube” is an excellent brand of
mixture is also referred to as guhr
                                                   Teflon based lubricant used for rubber o-rings.
dynamite.”                                         Once the filter is back in its normal operating
– Wikapedia                                        mode, replace the D.E. powder with fresh D.E.
                                                   adding it through the skimmer. To backwash a
 That’s right! Diatomites are not just             D.E. filter there will be either a push/pull style of
useful for the filtration or your D.E. filter      handle, a multi-port type of handle or a metal bar
                                                   at the bottom of the filter that needs to be moved
but are also used to make dynamite.
                                                   into the opposite direction.

It is recommended to get some instruction from a professional if you have never sanitized a filter,
before attempting to do it yourself. Hands on experience can be an excellent teacher and this
guide is here only to teach the basic principles of a D.E. filter.




                                                   61
Further Notes Regarding Diatomaceous Earth Filters:

      To backwash a D.E. filter first make sure the pump is off. Next find out where the backwash
       line goes to. It should go to a sewer line which will likely be alongside the house
       somewhere, near the pool equipment or even in the front yard. If there is a P-trap (a
       question mark shaped plumbing line that directs water down into a larger line which then
       travels to the sewer) than be sure to check for and remove the “rodent screen” before
       backwashing, else the water will overflow past the P-trap and could spill into the yard. Next
       move the backwash valve into the backwash position. This valve could be a push/pull
       valve, a multi-port valve or a metal bar protruding out horizontally from the bottom or the
       filter. Turn the pump back on and the filter will be in its backwash cycle. Allow it to
       backwash for about 60 seconds.

      Once the filter is backwashed or sanitized put the backwash valve back into the pool
       circulation or filter setting. Turn the pump back on. When adding Diatomaceous Earth
       through the skimmer to recoat the filter grids be careful to not breathe in the powder as it
       can be hazardous to your health. Add 1 lbs. of D.E. powder per each 10 sq. ft. of the
       filtration area.

      Once you add the D.E. powder through the skimmer, carefully, one scoop at a time, check
       the return lines in the pool and spa. If you see any D.E. returning to the pool than you have
       a problem inside the filter. This problem could be a tear in one of the filter grids or a missing
       o-ring. This problem could also occur if the filter was reassembled incorrectly. If you do not
       see any D.E. powder returning through the return lines than your filter is working properly.

      When doing a filter sanitation it is good to replace the filter tank o-ring about once per year.
       When you replace the filter tank o-ring be sure to have the correct replacement o-ring or
       else it may not fit properly or seal the tank. You do not want to have any leaks on the tank
       as that would cause the swimming pool to lose water and the filter to drain down and empty
       when the pump turns off. Always have the brand, style and size of your filters documented
       so when you purchase a new filter tank o-ring or other filter parts you are sure to purchase
       the correct parts.

      When sanitizing a filter be sure to clean up any mess and do not hose off the filter grids in a
       place that would make a mess of the customer’s yard. This would be seen as
       unprofessional and careless.

      Check the P-trap regularly when the filter is in its normal operating mode to make sure that
       the backwash valve is not leaking water into the sewer line.



Cartridge Filters:

Cartridge filters are very similar in function, shape and size to D.E. filters. Often a manufacturer
will use the same body of a D.E. filter and only change the insides to hold a cartridge or several
cartridges rather than D.E. filter grids. Cartridge filters operate in a similar manner as D.E. filters in


                                                   62
that the pump pushes water through them, however the difference is in that rather than having
grids to hold D.E. powder, within the filter is a large cartridge or a series of smaller cartridges that

hold dirt and debris. These cartridges require no additional media to filter, as a D.E. filter does,
and cleaning them is quite simple. Cartridge filters do not backwash as a D.E. filter does. To clean
a cartridge filter when it gets filled with dirt and debris and the filter pressure rises you merely have
to remove the cartridges from inside the filter and hose them off with a garden hose. This cleans
the dirt and debris from the cartridge making it clean and ready for use again.

                                   A cartridge filter will have a rubber tank o-ring, just as a D.E. filter
 Cartridge Filter Note             does and such should be lubricated just as with a D.E. filter. The
 Cartridge filters do not          disassembly and reassembly of a cartridge filter will be similar to
                                   that of a D.E. filter with the exception of having a large or several
filter as well as D.E. filters     smaller cartridges inside instead of filter grids.
do. This will be most
evident at night time when         Cartridge filters do not filter as thoroughly as D.E filters do, being
the pool light is on you will      that Diatomaceous Earth is a much finer filter media; however
often see more fine                they are a commonly found and work well. After cleaning and
filaments of debris floating       reassembling a cartridge filter turn the pump on and make sure
                                   there are no leaks.
in the light.
When cleaning the cartridges of a cartridge filter be sure to hose them off in a place that will not
make a mess of the customer’s yard. They generally do not appreciate the mess and making a
mess of the customer’s yard would be seen as unprofessional and careless.


Sand Filters:
Sand filters are rarely used for swimming pools in southern California and are more commonly
seen in other states. Sand filters, in function work similarly to D.E. filters in that they can be
backwashed, have backwash valves and should be backwashed about once per month. Sand
filters are mostly if not always plastic or fiberglass.

When you are backwashing a sand filter, allow it to                        Sand Filter Note
backwash for a couple of minutes, more so than you would            Sand Filters are commonly used
with a D.E. filter. There is no powder or other filter media to    for ponds or in areas where
add to a sand filter.                                              Diatomaceous Earth back
Inside a sand filter is a large compartment that holds fine
                                                                   washing is not allowed. Sand
sand. The water is pushed through this sand and the clean          filters tend to filter better than
water is returned to the pool. The sand in this inner              Cartridge Filters but not quite as
compartment collects the dirt and debris and serves as the         well as D.E. filters.
filter media. Backwashing a sand filter once a month will
blow much of this dirt and debris out of the sand and send it to the sewer line, just as it would with
a D.E. filter.

Once every few years the sand inside a sand filter should be removed and replaced with new
sand. Check the manufacturer’s information regarding what sort of sand and what quantity of sand
to add.



                                                   63
                    Things to Remember About Section 13
 There are three types of filters commonly in use for swimming pools and spas. They
  are Diatomaceous Earth Filters, Cartridge Filters and Sand Filters.
 Diatomaceous Earth filters are made up of a series of fine mesh grids with a plastic
  structure that are contained within a plastic, fiberglass or metal tank. These fine mesh
  grids hold on to the Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.) or also called filter powder which
  coats the grids. The D.E. powder is what actually does the filtering while the grid’s job
  is to hold the powder in place.
 A D.E. filter can be back washed which flushes out most of (but not all) of the current
  D.E. powder, dirt and debris inside the filter so that you can replenish it with fresh new
  Diatomaceous Earth. This process reduces the filter pressure, cleans out much of the
  dirt and debris and allows for strong suction and return of the water.
 Diatomaceous Earth is a carcinogen and can cause cancer. It is so fine that if breathed
  in it will remain in your lungs.
 Cartridge Filters are similar in shape and size to a D.E. filter and contain a simple fine
  mesh material or cloth like material cartridge inside the filter tank which collects the
  dirt and debris.
 Cartridge filters do not require any special powder as the cartridge itself does the
  filtering.
 Cartridge filters do not filter out debris quite as well as a D.E. filter but work well and
  will still be commonly found in the field.
 When cleaning the cartridges of a cartridge filter, or any filter for that matter, be sure
  to hose them off in a place that will not make a mess of the customer’s yard. They
  generally do not appreciate the mess and making a mess of the customer’s yard would
  be seen as unprofessional and careless.
 Sand filters are rarely used for swimming pools in southern California and are more
  commonly seen in other states. Sand filters, in function work similarly to D.E. filters in
  that they can be backwashed, have backwash valves and should be backwashed about
  once per month. Sand filters are mostly if not always plastic or fiberglass.
 When you are backwashing a sand filter, allow it to backwash for a couple of minutes,
  more so than you would with a D.E. filter. There is no powder or other filter media to
  add to a sand filter.
 Once every few years the sand inside a sand filter should be removed and replaced
  with new sand. Check the manufacturer’s information regarding what sort of sand and
                                            64
  what quantity of sand to add.
             14. Different Types of Pool and Spa Surfaces

There are many different types of swimming pool and spa surfaces. Some of these surfaces are
durable and resistant to wear and staining, while others are more sensitive to adverse conditions
and heavy use. Here we will discuss the various types of surfaces used for swimming pools,
difference in their care and chemistry and also the many types of staining you may see on these
surfaces and their causes. We will go over Plaster, Pebble Tech, 3M Color Quartz, Fiberglass,
Acrylic, Vinyl Liners and Painted pool surfaces.

Plaster:
Plaster is the most common and widely used surface among swimming pools. Plaster can come in
white, grey and black though other custom colors can also be formulated. Plaster is very delicate
at start-up when a pool is first surfaced. You must NEVER vacuum a plaster pool for at least the
first 5 weeks with brand new plaster as the rollers on the vacuum will leave permanent marks on
the soft new plaster. The surface of the plaster takes about one month to cure, making it durable
enough to vacuum without leaving marks. When doing a start-up service on a new plaster pool
use a “Brush-Vac” type of vacuum head to vacuum the pool. A brush-vac has bristles, much like
a wall brush, instead of rollers so it will not leave roller marks on the delicate plaster. The
chemicals on a chemical start-up for new plaster must be added very slowly; spread out over a
month else any harsh changes in the chemistry may cause staining, discoloration and mottling to
the new plaster. It is best to have a professional do a chemical start-up on brand new plaster until
you have been trained properly in doing so. Usually, each plasterer will have different specific
ways in which they want the chemicals started up on their plaster.

White Plaster: White plaster is the most common swimming pool surface in the world and is also
the easiest surface to see staining. Being that calcium is the most abundant mineral in the water it
is good to have white plaster, as when the calcium falls out of circulation, which it does frequently,
you can not see it as it is as white as the plaster. Calcium will provide an anchor for other minerals
and metals to stick to when they fall out of circulation. Often, other stains that you see on a white
plaster surface are actually stained on top of the calcium fallout. An acid wash will remove a fine
layer off the top of the plaster and much of the surface staining along with it but not always all of it.
A plaster surface can only be acid washed a few times before becoming too thin and porous
revealing the gunite structure below the plaster.

                               Grey and Black Plaster: Grey and black plaster are the same as
       Caution!                white plaster with the exception of staining. On grey and black
Never use Trichlor             plaster surfaces you will see calcium staining much more than on a
Granular (Algae Ban) on        white plaster surface. This calcium staining will create a white and
a dark plaster surface as      grey mottling effect over the surface and can not be acid washed off.
the acid in the Trichlor       This calcium staining occurs fairly quickly, starting over the first few
will cause severe burning      months and grows substantially worse over time. Often a plasterer
                               will not tell a customer about this mottling effect and most customers
and staining to the            are disappointed from the effects of this staining. Draining and
surface.                       refilling grey and black plaster pools more frequently will help to keep
                                                  65
the Calcium Hardness levels down and reduce the risks of staining, however to my experience it is
always just a matter of time before the surface becomes mottled with calcium stains.


Pebble Tech:
A Pebble Tech surface is a series of tiny pebbles of a variety of colors all blended to make for a
single shade of color. Pebble Tech surfaces come in a wide variety of colors and make for a very
natural, beach like appearance. A Pebble Tech surface is much more durable than plaster and
requires no brush-vacing at start-up. When adding
chemicals at the start-up of a new Pebble Tech pool it
is still a good idea to take it slow and spend a month                Did you know?
getting all of the chemical levels up to their desired       Pebble Tech is composed of very
levels as adding too many chemicals all at one time is      small, rounded pebbles of various
never a good idea.
                                                              colors mixed to form a particular
Pebble Tech should never be taken all the way up to           and even sheen of color and is then
the surface as the calcium staining usually seen along        mixed with plaster. Chemically
the water line and at the spa or other spill ways is very     Pebble Tech pools behave much the
difficult to clean off of Pebble Tech. At the water line      way a plaster pool would. Pebble
the surface should always be a cleanable surface such         Tech pools, usually due to their
as tile or artificial painted rock that can be repainted.
                                                              darker colors tend to absorb heat
Most surface staining is lost on a Pebble Tech surface,       better and stay warmer.
meaning it is so well camouflaged into the pebbles it is barely noticeable, if seen at all with the
naked eye. Severe staining can still be seen, however severe staining should not occur if the
water is well maintained and properly balanced. The surface of Pebble Tech can also be acid
washed, just like plaster should any noticeable staining occur.

Black or the darkest grey shades of Pebble Tech are not recommended as being that calcium
staining is white it will be noticeable on the surface and even after an acid wash will likely return
over a period of a few months.

Pebble Sheen is a Pebble Tech type of surface made with smaller, finer pebbles to produce a
smoother finish. This smoother surface is less dynamic in appearance compared to the more
vibrant and noticeable pebbles of Pebble Tech.

From personal experience I have found a Pebble Tech surface to be very forgiving to surface
staining, very esthetically pleasing, more difficult to notice dirt and debris as well as quite durable.
I highly recommend it.


3M Color Quartz:
3M Color Quartz, also called 3M Quartzite has the smooth, even finish of plaster with the durability
of Pebble Tech. To the touch it feels, not as clay-like or smooth as plaster but more of a smooth
concrete, lightly textured feel. 3M Color Quartz has very tiny crystals mixed into it giving it a very
vibrant and unique look and shines brilliantly at night from the pool light. It can be mixed into a
wide variety of colors, although white with blue crystals seems to be most common.
                                                  66
3M Color Quartz is not as delicate as plaster and does not have to be brush-vaced at start-up. It
can be vacuumed up immediately with a regular vacuum. Apply the start-up chemicals slowly as
with any other pool, taking several weeks to slowly achieve the desired balanced water chemistry.

3M Color Quartz is fairly stain resistant, though it can still be stained and the stains will be noticed
more or less depending upon the color chosen. For white 3M Color Quartz, just as with white
plaster, calcium fallout will not be noticed, however other staining will stand out more. For any
darker 3M Color Quartz surface calcium fallout, being white will be much more noticeable.


3M Color Quartz can be acid washed to clean off a fine layer off the top just as plaster and Pebble
Tech can. It is a very tough and durable surface, resistant to staining and easy to work with.


Fiberglass and Acrylic:
 Fiberglass pools and Acrylic spas have a very hard plastic, smooth and polished feel to the touch.
                                              While fiberglass is not as common as plaster surfaces
                                              they will be encountered now and again in the field.
                Caution!                      Above ground Acrylic spas are fairly common and are
  Be VERY careful when adding Muriatic        usually covered. A fiberglass coating over an existing
Acid or even 3 inch Trichlor tablets to a     plaster surface is often sold as a less expensive
Fiberglass pool. Fiberglass does not have     alternative to re-plastering a pool and such resurfaced
alkaline material to give off on a regular    pools will be more commonly found in lower income
basis the way that plaster does. Even a small areas, although they can be encountered just about
amount of Muriatic Acid or a few Trichlor     anywhere. Acrylic spas are mentioned here as Acrylic
tablets can lower the pH balance drastically. is a very similar surface and is treated similarly.
Be prepared to have extra Soda Ash and
sodium bicarbonate handy when you are         There are many pros and cons to having a fiberglass
servicing Fiberglass pools.                   surface for a swimming pool. Actually, there are only
 two advantages to having a fiberglass surface worth mentioning. Fiberglass surfaces are less
 expensive than re-plastering a pool and fiberglass is also very resistant to staining.

There are many more cons to a fiberglass surface. They are:

      A fiberglass surface is very polished, even reflective; much more so than plaster porous
       type surfaces. It is much like the difference between flat primer paint and gloss paint. This
       polished surface reflects the Sun’s harmful Ultra Violet rays allowing these rays to bounce
       off the surface and pass through the chlorine in the water more often. This means that a
       fiberglass surface creates a higher chlorine demand for the water as the chlorine is
       damaged and degraded more rapidly than in a plaster or other non-reflective surface.
       Expect to use more chlorine in these types of pools, even when the pool is not in use and
       especially in direct sunlight.

      The smooth, polished surface of fiberglass can be a bit more slippery for swimmers and
       also for dirt and debris at the bottom. Rather than clinging more easily to the surface, often
       dirt and debris will float around and scatter more, making it more difficult to vacuum
       effectively.

                                                  67
      A fiberglass pool is VERY sensitive to acid. The fiberglass surface is non-alkaline, meaning
       it does not give off any alkalinity as plaster, Pebble Tech or 3M Color Quartz surfaces do.
       When adding Muriatic Acid to lower the pH Balance or any chemical that is acidic, such as
       3 inch Trichlor Tablets always be VERY mindful of how much acid you are adding. A
       fiberglass surfaced pool can turn acidic very quickly. When adding Muriatic Acid to a
       fiberglass pool, as a general rule add only half the amount that you would in any other pool,
       just to be on the safe side, but always test for the Total Alkalinity to make sure there is
       plenty of alkaline buffer in the water. In a fiberglass surfaced pool it might even be a good
       idea to maintain the Total Alkalinity level a little higher than normal to make up for the
       water’s extreme sensitivity to acid. I personally advise using Liquid Chlorine as an oxidizer
       and sanitizer for a fiberglass surfaced pool as liquid chlorine has a high pH Balance and
       you will find yourself more often than not trying to raise the pH of a fiberglass pool.

      As a fiberglass surface deteriorates over time it will crack, chip and pieces of it, like old,
       brittle, dried out broken plastic will start to come free of the surface leaving behind the
       concrete or plaster under the surface.

      NEVER use a steel wire wall brush on a fiberglass surface as it will scratch and damage it.
       Even in the even of Black (blue-green) Algae a steel wire wall brush should never be used.

I do not recommend the use of fiberglass as a swimming pool surface, but there are many of them
in use. They are often sold as a cheap alternative to re-plastering for customers who are on a low
budget.


Vinyl Liners:
Vinyl liners are more commonly found on above ground pools. Many of us recall knowing
someone who had an above ground “Dough Boy” pool in their backyard, or perhaps they saw a
“blooper video” on television where an above ground vinyl lined pool was torn or broken and the
pool spilled out all over the yard all at once. Some vinyl liners are placed on an in-ground pool
over a concrete structure. Either way the principles of a vinyl lined pool remain the same. Vinyl is
a thick plastic like material that is held in place by a metal frame or perhaps it is lining a concrete
structure. A darker color of vinyl is also commonly used as the water-proof liner for fish ponds,
man-made streams and other natural backyard water features.

More than likely you will never come across a vinyl lined swimming pool for service, but on the off
chance that you do here is some information about them. When servicing a vinyl lined pool treat it
chemically as you would a fiberglass pool, being VERY careful when adding acid or any acidic
chemical. NEVER use a steel wire wall brush and when using a regular wall brush be very gentle.
The vinyl liner is obviously very susceptible to tears so always use caution with any sharp or
pointed tools around them. It is not the kind of surface that you accidentally want to gouge your
metal pole into. While I do believe they make patch kits for damaged vinyl liners, when damaged it
is likely best to replace the liner completely.

Personally, as a service technician I avoid these types of pools entirely as they are just not very
profitable swimming pools to service compared to the risk of damage. It only takes one tear in an
above ground vinyl lined pool to flood out a customer’s house and make quite the claim on your
insurance.
                                                  68
Painted Pools:
Painting a plaster surface is one of those things that “seemed like a good idea at the time” but
ends up causing more problems than it solves. Every now and again a pool owner will, instead of
re-plastering or re-surfacing their pool, decide to paint over the surface. Some do a very nice job
of it, cleaning the surface first, giving it a good primer coating and laying a couple good coats of
paint on to make sure it looks nice. Sometimes it doesn’t even appear to be all that bad if the pool
owner takes the time to do a good and thorough job of it, but don’t be fooled. Painting a pool is
never a good idea. You will come across painted surfaces more often in lower income areas as
paint is the lowest cost alternative to doing any other kind of re-surfacing to a swimming pool.

Water’s nature is to penetrate though any other material to reach its lowest point of gravity. It
penetrates through paint quite effectively. Paint will regularly break down, clouding up the water
and will show any defects or thin areas in the paint job rather quickly. This continuously breaking
down paint will clog the filter as it is vacuumed up or circulated through the system.

Depending on what kind of paint was used, whether it was a gloss or flat kind of paint for example,
the chlorine demand on a painted surface can vary. Never use a steel wire wall brush on a
painted surface as it will scrape away the paint. Painted surfaces can sometimes be sensitive to
acid, just as a fiberglass pool, depending on how well the plaster was sealed before it was
painted. Each painted pool’s chemical treatment, because of these many factors will vary on a
pool by pool basis. In general, even a good paint job does not remain appealing for long. Again,
painting a swimming pools surface is never a good idea.


Other Notes on Swimming Pool Surfaces:
There are some other surfaces that I have not covered here such as a surface made up mostly or
entirely of tile and there are always new surface materials entering into the industry. When you
encounter tile surfaces treat them as you would a fiberglass surface. Always be weary when
adding Muriatic Acid or any other acidic chemical and NEVER use a steel wire wall brush on
them. When in doubt, contact the manufacturer for recommended chemical levels and services on
these types of surfaces. Your local swimming pool equipment supplier will almost always have
access to phone numbers for manufacturers or other contractors with experience on such
surfaces. Keep in mind that the more reflective a surface is during times of direct sunlight, the
faster the chlorine in the water will degrade and burn off, creating a high chlorine demand even if
the pool is not in use.


                         Things to Remember About Section 14
       There are many different types of swimming pool and spa surfaces. Some of these surfaces are
       durable and resistant to wear and staining, while others are more sensitive to adverse conditions
       and heavy use.
      Plaster is the most common and widely used surface among swimming pools. Plaster can come in
       white, grey and black though other custom colors can also be formulated.
      Plaster is very delicate at start-up when a pool is first surfaced. You must NEVER vacuum a plaster
       pool for at least the first 5 weeks with brand new plaster as the rollers on the vacuum will leave
       permanent marks on the soft new plaster.

                                                    69
   When doing a start-up service on a new plaster pool use a “Brush-Vac” type of vacuum head to
    vacuum the pool.
   The chemicals on a chemical start-up for new plaster must be added very slowly; spaced out over a
    month to avoid staining, discoloration and mottling to the new plaster.
   Never use Trichlor Granular (Algae Ban) on a dark plaster surface as the acid in the Trichlor will
    cause severe burning and staining to the surface.
   A Pebble Tech surface is a series of tiny pebbles of a variety of colors all blended to make for a
    single shade of color and a very natural, beach like appearance.
   A Pebble Tech surface is much more durable than plaster and requires no brush-vacing at start-up.
   Pebble Tech should never be taken all the way up to the surface as the calcium staining usually seen
    along the water line and at the spa or other spill ways is very difficult to clean off of Pebble Tech.
   Black or the darkest grey shades of Pebble Tech are not recommended as being that calcium staining
    is white it will be noticeable on the surface and even after an acid wash will likely return over a
    period of a few months.
   3M Color Quartz, also called 3M Quartzite has the smooth, even finish of plaster with the durability
    of Pebble Tech. To the touch it feels, not as clay-like or smooth as plaster but more of a smooth
    concrete, lightly textured feel. 3M Color Quartz has very tiny crystals mixed into it giving it a very
    vibrant and unique look and shines brilliantly at night in the pool light.
   3M Color Quartz is not as delicate as plaster and does not have to be brush-vaced at start-up. It can
    be vacuumed up immediately with a regular vacuum. Apply the start-up chemicals slowly as with
    any other pool, taking several weeks to slowly achieve the desired balanced water chemistry.
   Fiberglass pools have a very hard plastic, smooth and polished feel to the touch.
   Be VERY careful when adding Muriatic Acid or even 3 inch Trichlor tablets to a Fiberglass pool.
    Fiberglass does not have alkaline material to give off on the way that plaster does. Even a small
    amount of Muriatic Acid or a few Trichlor tablets can lower the pH balance drastically.
   Fiberglass surfaces are less expensive than re-plastering a pool and fiberglass is also very resistant to
    staining.
   Fiberglass is more reflective to the Sun’s U.V. rays. This reflective property means that the chlorine
    in the water becomes bombarded more so and destroyed more quickly than in a regular plaster pool.
   NEVER use a steel wire wall brush on a fiberglass surface as it will scratch and damage it. Even in
    the even of Black (blue-green) Algae a steel wire wall brush should never be used.
   Vinyl liners are commonly found on above ground pools or or vinyl is placed over an inground
    concrete base.
   When servicing a vinyl lined pool treat it chemically as you would a fiberglass pool, being VERY
    careful when adding acid or any acidic chemical.
   NEVER use a steel wire wall brush and when using a regular wall brush be very gentle.
   The vinyl liner is obviously very susceptible to tears so always use caution with any sharp or pointed
    tools around them.
   Never use a steel wire wall brush on a painted surface as it will scrape away the paint.




                                                  70
                             15. Types of Surface Staining

“Surface stains are the result of algae, deposited heavy metals, leached tannin from tree debris or fungus
growing on the reverse side of the liner in a vinyl pool. This section deals with heavy metals. The main
culprits are copper and iron, and sometimes manganese; problems from cobalt, silver, and other metals are
much less common. Colored water caused by dissolved metals can be the first hint of trouble: translucent
green, blue/green, red, brown, or black/purple. Green color is produced by either copper or iron, blue/green
by copper, red and brown by iron, and black/purple by manganese. Colored water usually appears after a
pool is filled or after an oxidizer such as chlorine has been applied. Oxidation will cause metals to fall out of
solution and stain the shell surface.

Where do these metals come from?

   1. Water used to fill the vessel, particularly well water: copper is rarely found in well water, but iron
      and manganese are. Iron will precipitate as a brown deposit, manganese as a black-grey.
   2. Unbalanced water allowed to corrode metal equipment or piping: corrosive water will dissolve
      copper piping, heat exchangers, steel filters, and other metal fittings and equipment. Copper stains
      are blue-green but can turn grey-to-black as copper oxide forms in the presence of chlorine.
   3. Improperly maintained ionization systems
   4. Improperly dosed copper-based treatment products primarily algaecides: can result in a bluing
      effect on the pool walls that could lead to a grey-black stain.
   5. Foreign metal objects left in the water

Sequestering and chelating (“key-late-ing”) treatments bond with any dissolved metal in the water and keep
it from precipitating as a stain. These chemical compounds are also referred to as stain and scale
inhibitors/preventors, metal suspenders, and metal removers. Some are strong enough to pull metal deposits
off the surface and back into solution, thereby removing the stain.

Draining a badly discolored plaster pool and then acid washing the walls with diluted Muriatic acid will
remove a thin layer of the plaster, taking many of the stains with it.” – Taylor Test Kit Pool & Spa Water
Chemistry Guide

Conditioner (Cyanuric Acid) can also fall out of solution past 100 ppm (parts per million) causing
varying degrees of purple staining. This staining will appear to be anything from a light purple dust
coat over the surface to a dark dust coat and purple vertical lines in the walls.




                                                      71
                          Things to Remember About Section 15
        Iron staining is usually brown to a black-grey. Copper staining is turquoise to dark blue and can
        turn black when oxidized or otherwise then called copper oxide.
       Plants that contain iron from the soil can also cause iron staining from reddish brown to black.
       Conditioner over 100 ppm can fall out of circulation and can cause light purple staining.
       Sequestering and chelating (“key-late-ing”) treatments bond with any dissolved metal in the water
        and keep it from precipitating as a stain.




                              16. A Typical Service Stop

This is what a typical stop on a regular day could be like, just to give you a hypothetical example.
This stop should take about 20 to 25 minutes.

   1. I start by parking my truck, grab a door hanger from my glove compartment and slip it into
      the door jamb on my customer’s front door to let them know that I have been there that day
      for service.

   2. I don’t use an equipment cart, though it is common for other pool technicians to use them,
      so I grab my extendable pole, my tile brush with a little tile soap on it, and my wall brush
      and test kit all held inside my regular net, using my net to hold everything.

   3. Entering the backyard, I’ll make sure the gate is
      closed securely behind me and walk to the swimming                       Service Note
      pool area. I put all my equipment down by the                   During the swim season you
      skimmer. There might be a dog or two in the yard so            will likely find many pool toys
      I’ll give ‘em a quick pet, throw ‘em a tennis ball then
      it’s time to work.                                             in and around the pool. It is
                                                                     always a good service courtesy
   4. I notice that the pool’s water level is low so I be sure       to remove the toys from the
      to mark on the door hanger for the customer to add             pool so that they do not lure
      water.                                                         small children toward the water
                                                                     and to generally make for a
   5. Very quickly I’ll test the water’s Free and Available
                                                     Chlorine        more tidy pool area.
                                                     , pH Balance and Total Alkalinity. About once
                    Caution!                         a month I’ll test the water’s Conditioner level,
       Do not add water to the pool. Most
                                                     unless I am having problems keeping chlorine
     pool tech liability insurance claims come
                                                     in the water, in which case I will test for
     from the service tech forgetting to turn
                                                     Conditioner then and there. I test for the
     off the water. It is not your
                                                     water’s Calcium Hardness about once every 6
     responsibility to add water to the pool.
                                                     months, unless it is my first time there or a
     Alert the home owner that their water
                                                     brand new chemical start-up and keep track
     level is low and if the low water level
                                                     of when it is getting to 500 ppm (parts per
     poses a danger to the pool than turn the
                                                     million) to alert the customer that it is time to
     time clock off, however do not add
                                                     drain and refill the pool.
     water. If low water becomes a regular
     problem than report this issue to your      72
     service manager and suggest installing
     an automatic water timer such as a
     “sprinkler thinker” or other brand.
6. I go out to my truck and grab whatever chemicals I need to rebalance the water. This will
   typically be a pound or two of granular chlorine or a couple gallons of chlorine depending
   on my chemical regiment at the time which I’ll carry in an orange D.E. scoop, a half gallon
   or so of acid and maybe a few 3 inch chlorine tablets for the floater or chlorinator. If it is
   Spring or Summer I might also add a couple ounces of Sodium Bromine.



7. I return to the pool, again making sure the gates behind me are closed and secure and
   head back to the pool to add the chemicals.

8. I’ll dunk the gallon container of acid and chlorine if I am using liquid in the pool and then
   pour a half gallon of it in the pool, walking it around as I pour. I’ll then dunk the gallon
   container again to make sure there are no acid drips on it and set it down on the deck,
   usually on the skimmer lid just to be safe.

9. If I am using quick dissolving granular chlorine
   I’ll add it directly to the pool, knowing it will be
                                                                         Caution!
   dissolved by the time it hits the plaster. I’ll put      If a dog is aggressive and will not
   the 3 inch chlorine tablets in the floater, which       allow you access to the pool area
   should be tied off at the pool’s edge somewhere.        than do not attempt to service the
                                                           account. Leave a door hanger and a
10. Now that the chemicals have been added, I can          note on their door and contact the
    start on the manual labor. I grab the tile brush
    with a little tile soap and very quickly brush
                                                           customer to arrange a service day
    around the tile, walking and scrubbing very            and time that the dog can be put in
    briskly. I’ll give an extra scrub along the spillway   the house or locked away. Do not
    of the spa, being there will usually be extra          risk injury.
    calcium build up there.

11. I’ll open the skimmer and pour the leaves and debris in the skimmer basket into my net. I
    will also go over to the pump basket and inspect it for debris. If there is any debris inside
    the pump basket, anything substantial anyhow, I will quickly open it up and dump its
    contents into my net and close the pump up. While I am there by the equipment I will turn
    the pump on to regain prime to the pump, since I just opened it.

12. If my net is getting full from the debris from the skimmer and pump baskets than I will
    quickly empty it into a near by trash can.

13. I will net out any surface debris, leaves and such on the surface of the water and then
    quickly net the floor of the pool for any large leaves or debris.

14. After netting out the larger debris in the pool I will again empty my net into the trash can.

15. If while I was netting the floor of the pool there was dust than I’ll likely have to vacuum the
    pool. Usually, if there is no dust than I wont vacuum but realistically I would say that I have
    to vacuum about every other stop, unless it has a floor cleaner. Some technicians “claim” to
    vacuum every time but come‘on…let’s be realistic here. I’ve only got 20 minutes. Some
    days vacuuming just isn’t gonna happen.


                                                73
16. I bring my net, test kit, D.E. scoop that I held chlorine and tabs in, half gallon of acid and
    chlorine bottles and my tile brush all back to the truck. I leave only my wall brush and pole
    behind in the yard. While I am at the truck I grab my vacuum and head back to the pool,
    again making sure the gate is closed and secure so the dogs don’t get out and kids don’t
    get in.




17. I attach the pole to the vacuum and put the pole and vacuum in the water. I’ll proceed to
    feed my hose into the water, unwinding it with one hand and feeding it into the water with
    the other to fill my hose with water. I don’t want all the air in my vacuum hose to go to the
    pump as the pump will lose prime and I’ll have to wait a while to get all the air from my hose
    through the system.

18. Once my vacuum hose is full of water I will feed it into the skimmer and plug it into the
    suction line inside. I also want to make sure that the valves are set correctly to get the
    optimum suction.

19. Vacuuming is the slowest part of the job. It will usually consume about half of the time you
    spend in the backyard so be sure and do everything else quickly. I begin thoroughly
    vacuuming the surface of the pool; usually the bottom and a little up the walls, going back
    and forth covering the entire pool floor. Being a multi-tasker this is usually when I’ll get
    some daily phone calls out of the way as I have a little time to kill being that vacuuming can
    be a slow process. An “I-pod” or other music devise is handy at times like this as well.

20. Once I am done vacuuming the pool, and spa if they have one, than I’ll unplug my vacuum
    hose from the skimmer, pull the vacuum and pole out of the water, unattach the pole, laying
    it to the side (watch out for windows behind you, or anything else breakable for that matter),
    close up the skimmer and begin winding up my vacuum hose. I usually keep my vacuum
    hose contained using a bungee cord.

21. When I’m done wrapping up my vacuum hose, I’ll attach the wall brush to my pole and
    quickly brush down any dust from the pool walls.

22. Before I leave I turn the pool pump off and fill out the service log by the time clock writing in
    the date, time, chemical readings and such. I will also take a moment to inspect the
    equipment making sure there are no leaks or problems.

23. Give the dogs a farewell pet, toss ’em the tennis ball once more and it’s back to the truck,
    making sure the gate is securely closed. Service is done. Figure on 20 to 25 minutes
    depending on the size of the pool.




                                               74
                          Things to Remember About Section 16
       Always! Always! Always! Make sure the gates are securely closed, even if there are no dogs in the
        yard.
       Always communicate with the customer whether it be with a door hanger, sign-in log or otherwise.
        No-shows or “assumed” no-shows from poor service are one of the most common reasons for a
        customer to cancel service.
       Never leave a mess in the customer’s back yard. Do not leave diatomaceous Earth around the
        skimmer, mess from a filter clean or drips from liquid chlorine or Muriatic Acid.
       Always test for chemistry balance carefully and thoroughly. Never take shortcuts when it comes to
        chemistry.




           17. Common Problems Encountered in the Field

Many things can happen while servicing a swimming pool in the field. Usually only experience will
teach you what to do. Here are some commonly found problems and their solutions to help speed
up your learning curve and hopefully relieve some frustrations. There are also some suggestions
here to help make your swimming pool service experience a little easier. These problems,
solutions and suggestions are in no particular order.


Problem:
The suction is very weak when I try to vacuum the pool.

Solution:
   1. Is the filter dirty? Try backwashing the filter.
   2. Is the pump basket full? Try emptying the pump basket.
   3. Is air returning back into the pool through the return lines? There could be a suction side
      leak in the plumbing somewhere causing the pump to suck air through the leak rather than
      water, thus losing your suction.
   4. Is the suction side valve adjusted properly? It could be set to suck from the main drain or a
      floor cleaner.
   5. Is it a “one hole” skimmer with an adjustable “j-valve” diverter? You could have to turn the
      diverter inside the skimmer to get optimal suction.
   6. Are there 2 skimmers? Some systems are plumbed in with 2 skimmers and when
      resistance is created at one skimmer, water will follow the path of least resistance and go to
      the other skimmer. Plugging the other skimmer with a tennis ball, if it doesn’t otherwise
      have a valve, will force suction to the skimmer that you are vacuuming from.
   7. Is there an obstruction in your vacuum head? Sometimes a rock or stick will plug up the
      bottom of the vacuum head and stop suction.

Problem:
There is a white line of calcium along the tile at the water line and also at the spillway of the spa.

Solution:
                                                  75
   1. This calcium is left behind from evaporation. Only the H2O evaporates, leaving other
      minerals and metals in the water behind as deposits. Calcium is the most abundant mineral
      in the water. While you can clean off this calcium with a wide variety of scale removers, it
      will continuously return. Try running the pump at night time when there is less evaporation
      to reduce the scale and calcium deposits. Also check your pH Balance, Total Alkalinity and
      Calcium Hardness to make sure they are all balanced.

Problem:
There is plenty of water in the pool, but the pump seems to be sucking air and
cavitating.



Solution:
   1. Check the skimmer opening for an obstruction such as a pool toy. Also check the “weir
      blade” (plastic floating door inside the skimmer) to make sure it is not stuck.
   2. If there is a floor cleaner, check the hose to make sure there are no cracks in it where it
      could be sucking in air. Also check the floor cleaner suction valve to make sure it is not
      turned on too strong.
   3. Check the plumbing for a suction side leak such as where the plumbing is attached to the
      pump or the valves on the suction side of the plumbing. Inside the valves are usually small
      rubber o-rings and when they corrode they can crack and cause leaks.

Problem:
There is air in the pump basket and I can not get the pump to gain prime.

Solution:
   1. Open the pump basket and fill it with water, then close it up and turn the pump on. This
      water in the pump basket may be enough to help the pump gain prime.
   2. If the spa is raised above the pool, try turning the suction side valve over to spa suction.
      Water will try to get to its lowest point of gravity and may be easier to flow from the spa
      than from the pool. Once suction and prime are established, return the valve back over to
      pool suction as to not drain down the spa.
   3. Once prime is established, bleed the air out of the filter by opening up the air bleeder valve
      on top of the filter. If there is air inside the filter it will be compressed. If the pump is turned
      off than that compressed air will suddenly decompress, sending water rushing back to the
      pool backwards through the system and will empty the pump basket.
   4. Consider plumbing in a check valve on the suction side of the plumbing before the pump
      but after the suction side valves. This will help keep water in the pump and will also prevent
      water from draining out of the filter in the case of compressed air.

Problem:
Some large leaves and pods or berries from a tree have left a reddish-brown staining on the
surface of the pool. The stains do not brush off.

Solution:
   1. This staining is usually temporary, only lasting a week or two and is caused by the
      oxidation and decomposition of the leaves and berries. The staining is possibly caused by
      the color of the leaves and berries, much like a dye and maintaining proper water chemistry


                                                   76
       should clear up these stains over time. If the stain remains longer than a couple of weeks it
       could also be rust staining caused by iron absorbed by the leaves from the soil.

Problem:
The rocks or tile along the planter by the pool are turning white with calcium, but there are no
water features or water spilling there.

Solution:
   1. This water and calcium are not coming from the pool, but is coming from the planter. If the
      planter was not properly sealed from the back where the soil and moisture are than water
      from the planter will seep through the rocks and tile, collecting calcium along the way and
      depositing the calcium on the rock or tile surface where the water evaporates.


Suggestion:
   1. When adding water to the pool through the fill line or a garden hose ALWAYS leave your
      keys by the handle of the fill line or hose. This way you will always remember to turn off the
      water before you leave and not overfill the pool, as you can not leave the account without
      your keys.

Suggestion:
   1. Make sure there is a functioning “weir blade” inside each skimmer. This will help the
      skimmer to collect as much debris from the surface of the water as possible, making your
      job of cleaning the debris easier.
   2. When installing a “weir blade” to the skimmer always put in a size just slightly smaller than
      the size of the skimmer opening. For example if the skimmer opening measures 8 inches
      use a 7 13/16 inch “weir blade”. This will make sure the “weir blade” can swing freely
      without getting stuck on the sides of the skimmer from fitting too tight.
   3. When using an after market spring loaded “weir blade” you can make the spring bar that
      holds the “weir blade” in place fit a bit more tightly by placing a very small rock inside the
      tube. This will in effect lengthen the spring bar just slightly allowing for a tighter, more
      secure fit.

Problem:
The filter pressure is high but the filter is clean.

Solution:
   1. Some plumbing systems can cause additional filter pressure. A pop-up head floor cleaning
      system has very small jets and will cause additional back pressure on the filter. A solar
      heating system on the roof of the house will also cause additional filter pressure. If the spa
      is way above the pool’s plumbing it can cause additional filter pressure. The pump in trying
      to force the water either up hill or through very small return lines will create back pressure
      on the filter, meaning that the water has no other place to go and its additional pressure is
      built up in the filter.

Suggestion:
   1. For pools with large amounts of very fine or small debris floating on the surface you can
      squirt a stream of “Liquid Skimmer”, a mild bottled liquid soap type product down the center
      of the pool. This soap type product will cause the debris to move to the sides of the pool,
      clumping up to make it fast and much easier to net out, saving you time and energy.
                                                       77
Suggestion:
  1. Avoid walking on a tile surface whenever possible as the tile can be extremely slippery. If
     you do have to walk on a tile surface use extreme caution, walking very slowly and flat
     footed. A slip on the tile can cause very serious injuries.

Suggestion:
  1. When using liquid chemicals such as Muriatic Acid and Liquid Chlorine always be sure to
     dunk the bottle into the pool water both before pouring its contents into the pool water and
     also afterwards. This will help to rinse off any drips that may run along the side of the bottle
     and cause staining should you set the bottle down on the deck.




Suggestion:
  1. It is recommended to have extra pump baskets and skimmer baskets for your most
     common pumps and filters on hand in your vehicle. During the wind season you will find
     many of these baskets will split and break, being over filled with leaves and debris.
  2. It is recommended to have extra 3 inch chlorine tablet floaters in your vehicle. You never
     know when an old one in a pool will corrode and fall apart and it is always handy to have a
     few spares handy, particularly in the summer when 3 inch chlorine tablets are more in use.
  3. Keep a spool of string handy to tie off any 3 inch chlorine tablet floaters and prevent them
     from floating over the top step and causing damage to the surface.

Suggestion:
  1. Get in the habit of securely closing every door and gate you go through, especially the pool
     gates. This will help to avoid any unsupervised children accessing the swimming pool area
     and will also help to avoid losing any pets should they escape out the back gate. It doesn’t
     take much for that $50.00 mixed breed dog from the pound to suddenly, in court become a
     $5,000.00 family heirloom.

Suggestion:
  1. When you start service try to keep all of your equipment together in the same area. This will
     help to prevent forgetting any equipment in the backyard when you leave for your next
     service stop.

Suggestion:
  1. Particularly in the summer time when swimming pools are used more often, check for the
     water’s chemical balance and add chemicals first, that way the chemicals are well
     circulated by the time you finish service and awaiting swimmers can jump back into the
     pool.
  2. Don’t forget to have swimmers rinse their faces off with water before entering the pool. This
     will rinse off most of the organic material and swimmer waste such as sweat, dead skin
     cells and dirt and make the water more comfortable for the swimmer, avoiding any foul
     smelling and uncomfortable and irritating chloramines.

Suggestion:
  1. When servicing a swimming pool, regardless of what season or time of year, always be
     mindful of the time. A service stop should only take about 20 minutes. If you spend too
     much time at a service stop you will run out of time to finish everything by the end of the
                                                78
      day, particularly in the winter time when it is dark by 5pm and the pools are weather
      damaged.
   2. The regular monthly bill you charge to your customers only covers a basic, standard 20
      minute service each week. If a swimming pool has severe amounts of debris from wind
      conditions, rain or local fires or other unforeseen conditions than this “extra” service should
      be requested at an additional charge as it is not part of their regular monthly bill. Make sure
      your customers are aware of this.

Suggestion:
   1. If the landscapers or gardeners blow or knock large amounts of debris into the swimming
      pool, causing you extra work be sure to alert the customer of this condition and that to
      clean it requires additional time and a service charge if such applies. You have enough
      work to do without doing the landscapers job as well.




18. Examples of Chemicals Added at Typical Service Stops

Here I will give examples of various water conditions over several different types and sizes of
swimming pools at different times of year to give you a rough gauge on what to add and why or at
least how I add chemicals in the field. There will be examples, conditions, chemicals added or
service given and why.

Example #1

Conditions:
It is summer time, very hot and the pool is getting a lot of use. The pool is a larger than average,
25,000 gallon white plaster pool and spa. There was 0 Free and Available Chlorine reading, the
Ph Balance is 7.6 and the Total Alkalinity is 110 ppm (parts per million). The water is a little
cloudy and there is a small amount of Mustard (yellow) Algae.

Actions:
Hmmm….not good. This pool needs attention. Let’s handle it. First off, why is the algae growing,
why is the pool cloudy and where did the chlorine go? I checked the Conditioner level, to make
sure my chlorine was being well protected and got a reading of 70. 70 just isn’t good enough. The
heavy use from the kids must have splashed out a lot of Conditioner, so I’ll definitely be adding
that. I turned on the pump and checked the filter pressure. The pressure was high for that pool at
about 26 psi (pounds per square inch). I found the PoolRX I had in the pump basket tossed in the
bushes. Also not a good sign. If I had to guess, I would say they had a pool party recently, or
some extremely heavy use, which is why the water is cloudy. There is plenty of organic material
and swimmer waste in the water from all the usage and no sanitizer or oxidizer to clean it up.

I would backwash the filter to lower the filter pressure, giving the pool water better circulation and
filtration. The pH Balance is rather high so I would add a full gallon of Muriatic Acid, knowing that
the Total Alkalinity is high enough to absorb it easily, and it is a larger than average size pool. This
will lower the pH Balance so that when I add chlorine to the pool water it will be aggressive and
more so in its killing form. I would add about 5 lbs. of Dichlor granular (or 5 gallons of liquid)
chlorine. This might seem like a lot, but this will also buffer the Sodium Bromine that I will add
later. I will also add five 3 inch chlorine tablets to help replenish the chlorine during the rest of
                                                  79
the week. Next, I will add 3 lbs. of Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate. This will oxidize most of the
organic material in the water and act as a water clarifier. This will also free up the chlorine to
sanitize the impurities in the water. Finally, I would add 15 ounces of Sodium Bromine, usually a
brand called “YellowTrine”. This will act as my algaecide. Let’s not forget the Conditioner. I would
add 4 lbs. of Conditioner, through the skimmer while the pump is running, and allow the pump to
run for an additional 4 hours.

I would finish off by servicing the pool normally and brush the walls well to break up the algae and
allow the chemicals to work. Expect there to be no chlorine in the water next week, since it will be
used up recharging the Sodium Bromine.




Example #2
Conditions:
It is winter, the weather is cold but it has been sunny out. This is an average sized 20,000 gallon
fiberglass surfaced pool. There was 3.0 Free and Available Chlorine reading. The pH Balance is
at 7.3 and the Total Alkalinity is at 90 ppm (parts per million). The water is clear and there seems
to be no problems.

Actions:
This pool seems ok, but being it is a fiberglass surface I know that on sunny days it will experience
a more rapid degradation of chlorine than a regular pool. I would add 1 gallon of Liquid Chlorine.
This will help keep the pH Balance up a bit and add enough chlorine to the water to survive direct
sunlight conditions. I would not add any 3 inch tablets because in cold water the tablets will take
over 2 weeks to dissolve, which is too long for a pool that is not being used. Also there is acid in 3
inch tablets and I try to avoid adding acid to a fiberglass surfaced pool unless I absolutely have to.
Otherwise I would service the pool normally.


Example #3
Conditions:
It is late spring during the Spring bloom when there is plenty of pollen in the air. The pool is a large
30,000 gallon Pebble Tech surfaced pool with a salt chlorination system. The Free and
Available Chlorine is a 5.0. The salt level is at 3300 ppm (parts per million). The pH Balance is 7.8
and the Total Alkalinity is 90 ppm (parts per million).

Actions:
The salt chlorination system is notorious for raising the pH Balance. Adding more Muriatic Acid on
a regular basis to counter this continuously rising pH Balance has taken its toll on the Total
Alkalinity. The Total Alkalinity is still at a safe level being at 90, however as more and more
Muriatic Acid is added to keep the pH Balanced that acid will steadily lower the Total Alkalinity. I
would add 1 gallon of Muriatic Acid to balance this pool’s water chemistry. If the Total Alkalinity
were higher, perhaps 110 to 120, I would add more acid, perhaps a half gallon more, but since the
Total Alkalinity is only 90, I know that the 1 gallon of acid I am adding will be sufficient to
adequately lower the pH Balance and keep the chlorine in its killing form. I would service the pool
normally otherwise. I might throw in a few lbs. of Sodium Bicarbonate as well to buffer the Total
Alkalinity a bit if I have some extra on my truck.
                                                      80
Example #4
Conditions:
It is late autumn and the winds have started to blow. The weather is still very warm. The pool is an
old white plaster pool and spa, about 22,000 gallons and the plaster is pitted and stained. There
is patchy Mustard (yellow) Algae along the wall in the deep end and in a corner in the deep end
along the wall are also a few black spots, slimy nodules upon closer inspection and I realize it is
the dreaded Black (blue-green) Algae. Oh no! What to do?! After testing the water I got a Free
and Available Chlorine reading of 4.0. The pH Balance was at 7.5 and the Total Alkalinity is at 100
ppm (parts per million). That isn’t too bad for water chemistry, not bad at all really. Don’t feel bad.


Algae can become chlorine resistant and even perfect water chemistry sometimes can not
dissuade algae growth. So, what are we going to do about this?

Actions:
Even though this is only a slightly larger than average pool, I would start by adding 1 gallon of
Muriatic Acid. This will lower the pH Balance very low, but not below 7.0, as there is enough Total
Alkalinity to neutralize the acid. Even though the chlorine level was fine I would add another 3 lbs.
of Dichlor granular (or 3 gallons of liquid) chlorine. This will increase the sanitizer and oxidizer as
well as keep the Sodium Bromine charged when we add it. I’d add five 3 inch chlorine tablets to
the floater as well, to make sure that chlorine is constantly being distributed into the water. I would
then add 14 ounces of Sodium Bromine as an algaecide, changing the sanitizer and oxidizer to
something the Mustard and Black algae have not yet experienced or built up a resistance to. I
would also add 3 lbs. of Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate to aid as an oxidizer and to free up the
chlorine as a sanitizer. I would then backwash the filter and after adding fresh D.E. powder I would
add 1.5 liters of “Phos-Free” as a phosphate remover. When it comes to Black Algae, even if only
in its infant stages, hold nothing back and attack it aggressively. I would also check to see if I have
a Nature2 or PoolRX in place. If not, I would certainly consider adding one. In this case, due to the
black algae I might even use some SilverTrine as silver is the most powerful metal based sanitizer
we have at our disposal and is effective in killing off black algae.

  I would then scrub the walls, and especially the Black Algae vigorously with a steel wire wall
brush. I do this to score and scratch the surface of these very durable algae, making it more
susceptible to the chemicals. I would service the pool normally. Double check to make sure the
pump is running for 8 hours a day. The Black Algae may take a couple weeks to get rid of as it is
incredibly tough. Next week I would replenish the chlorine in the water, being that it will likely be
gone from recharging the Sodium Bromine. Keep scrubbing away with the steel wire wall brush,
keep the pH Balance a little lower than normal at 7.3 to 7.4 to keep your chlorine tenacious and
aggressive, and keep the chlorine strong. Even Black algae will succumb to your will.


Example #5
Conditions:
It is winter time, cold and cloudy. The pool is a smaller sized 15,000 gallon 3M Color Quartz
pool. The chemicals tested at a Free and Available Chlorine reading of 3.0. The pH Balance is at
7.4 and the Total Alkalinity is at 100 ppm (parts per million). I also checked the Conditioner level
and found it to be at 90 ppm (parts per million).
                                                 81
Actions:
Clean the pool normally. The chemicals are fine. Make sure the filter pressure is not too high and
check the baskets for debris and such. The chlorine is fine at 3.0 as no one is swimming, there is
not very much direct sunlight and the Conditioner level is fine. That chlorine isn’t going anywhere,
the pH Balance is low enough that the chlorine is well in its killing form and that chlorine will last
quite awhile in that cold water.




Example #6

Conditions:
It is late spring, the weather is warm and sunny and people are anxious to go swimming. This is a
fiberglass surfaced, average sized 20,000 gallon pool and spa. The Free and Available Chlorine
reading is at 2.0, the pH Balance is at 7.8 and the Total Alkalinity is at 60 ppm (parts per million).

Actions:
These are some unusual chemical conditions, but it can happen. First off, I would want to know
that my chlorine is protected, being that I am getting such a low chlorine reading. I test for the
Conditioner level and find it to be at 100 ppm (parts per million). The Conditioner is perfect so I
know the chlorine is protected. Now I have the dilemma of a high pH Balance and a low Total
Alkalinity. I would add 3 lbs. of Dichlor granular (or 3 gallons of liquid) chlorine. This may seem
like a lot but this is a fiberglass pool during sunny conditions when people could start swimming. I
would also add three 3 inch chlorine tablets to the floater. 3 inch tablets have acid in them,
however the pH Balance is high enough to handle the added acid. I would add 1 quart of Muriatic
Acid to lower the pH Balance, even though the Total Alkalinity is low. I would follow up by adding
about 5 lbs. of Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) to increase the Total Alkalinity and therefore
control the speed in which pH Balance changes. I would then service the pool as normally.




                                                 82
Playing Chess with Water Chemistry:
The difference between a good water chemistry service technician and a great one is his or her
ability to be a few steps ahead of water chemistry instead of behind it and constantly trying to
correct it. Keeping your water chemistry perfect is like playing a game of Chess. You always want
to be a step ahead of the game to win.

A good technician can correct the water chemistry at the swimming pool at that time. A great
technician can control what the water chemistry will be the next week by anticipating what the
water will be and what it needs. When you test the water, don’t be as concerned with what the
chemistry readings are today as much as to consider what you want the readings to be next week
when you return.

When you test the Free Available Chlorine and get a 3.0 reading, that is pretty good. While most
swimming pool technicians will figure there is plenty of chlorine in the water and walk away, a
great technician will consider what the chlorine reading will be next week. At this point, by adding
just an extra pound (or gallon) of chlorine or an extra 3” tab or two this will ensure, depending
upon swimmer usage, that next week the Free Available Chlorine reading will remain at 3 to 5
ppm and will still be good the following week. You don’t want any weakness in your chlorination
system. If your chlorine drops to 1.5 ppm during the week and your pH balance raises as it always
does than your chlorine won’t be able to sanitize, oxidize or keep algae from growing. Always plan
ahead and consider what you want your chemistry to be, not just today, but the following week.

When balancing the pH balance always remember that water’s natural pH is 8.0 to 8.2 and it will
always try to return to that point. Also when a salt system is in use the chlorine produced by these
systems has a very high pH of 11 to 13 and will be increasing the water’s pH all week long. Be
sure to add Muriatic Acid to compensate for this expected and constant rise in pH. If your pH
balance is 7.5 today that may seem fine, however don’t forget to consider what it will be the
following week if you do not add acid now. If left on its own, that nice pH balance of 7.5 will raise

to 7.7 by the following week, or more if a salt system is in use, which means that the pH is too
high and will only allow 50% or less of your chlorine to be in its killing form. This high pH and
weakened state of chlorine is a perfect opportunity for algae to grow, even though the water
chemistry seemed to be ok. Even at 7.5 pH balance be sure and add that ¼ to ½ gallon or so of
acid to keep the pH low.

                                                 83
 Remember, a great technician is always ahead of the water chemistry, not behind it.

                         Things to Remember About Section 18
      Chemistry is one of the most important aspects of swimming pool service. Knowing the chemicals
       you have available and their proper application will set you apart as a professional technician and
       not just some pool guy.
      When in doubt about chemistry, your service manager or other resources are usually just a phone
       call away.
      Bad or negligent, even lazy chemistry can not only result in the loss of a customer but can lead to
       costly damage to the swimming pool’s surface, equipment and even harm to the swimmer’s
       healthy.
      Always remember that each service account is different, just like people. The human body is made
       up of about 75% water and each person has a little different chemistry and personality. You will
       find that swimming pools and water chemistry are not so different.




             19. Desired Chemical Levels Reference Chart

This reference section is designed as a quick reference chart to help maintain the desired
balanced water chemistry in the swimming pool. This chart will go over Free and Available
Chlorine (FAC), pH Balance, Total Alkalinity, Conditioner, Calcium Hardness and Salinity
(Salt) as well as the chemicals required to increase or decrease these levels.


Free and Available Chlorine (FAC):
Free and Available Chlorine (FAC) should be maintained at 3.0 to 5.0 ppm (parts per million).
Why? Chlorine is a sanitizer (kills germs and bacteria) and an oxidizer (burns away organic material such
as swimmer waste). Warm temperatures, water turbulence and the Sun’s U.V. rays burn away chlorine,
while germs, bacteria and organic material consume chlorine.

      Liquid Chlorine, 1 gallon will raise the chlorine level of an average sized 20,000 gallon
       pool by roughly 2.0 to 2.5 ppm of chlorine. Liquid Chlorine has a high pH and 1 quart of
       Muriatic Acid will be required for each 1 gallon of Liquid Chlorine to balance out the high pH
       effects. Liquid Chlorine is poured directly into the water and is safe to use on any surface.

      Dichlor granular chlorine contains both chlorine and conditioner. Dichlor is very close to
       being pH neutral and requires no Muriatic Acid to balance its effects. Dichlor granular is a
       quick dissolve product and is safe to use on any surface. 1 lbs. of Dichlor is roughly
       equivalent to 1 gallon of Liquid Chlorine.

      Trichlor granular chlorine contains chlorine, conditioner and acid. Trichlor granular is a
       slower dissolving product that should never be used on a dark plaster or other dark
       surface. Trichlor granular is usually sold as an algaecide, allowing the product to sit over
       top algae and burn it away. Trichlor granular is made from the same chemicals as 3 inch
       Trichlor tablets. 1 lbs. of Trichlor granular is roughly the equivalent of 1 gallon of Liquid
       Chlorine.

                                                    84
      Trichlor 3 inch chlorine tablets are a slow dissolve form of Trichlor, made for chlorination
       systems such as a 3 inch tablet floater or a 3 inch tablet chlorinator. 3 inch tablets should
       always be kept inside the chlorinator and never placed in the skimmer. Three to four 3 inch
       tablets are about the equivalent of 1 gallon of Liquid Chlorine. 3 inch tablets will dissolve
       more slowly, over 2 to 3 weeks in cold water and in poor circulation.

      Calcium Hypochlorite granular chlorine is a more concentrated form of chlorine, however
       has a substantial calcium byproduct which will, with regular use, increase the Calcium
       Hardness of the water shortening its lifespan in the swimming pool. Calcium Hypochlorite is
       also nicknamed “dirty chlorine” because of its tendency to cloud the water and for its high
       concentration of calcium. Calcium Hypochlorite is added directly to the water and is safe to
       use on any surface. 1 lbs. of Calcium Hypochlorite is roughly equivalent to 1 ¼ gallons of
       Liquid Chlorine.

pH Balance:
The pH Balance of the water should always be maintained between 7.4 and 7.6.
Why? There are two reasons for this. One is because the lower the pH balance is the more
chlorine is in its killing form to sanitize, killing germs and bacteria and oxidize organic material.
Water’s natural pH is 8.0, however chlorine is only at 0% to 5% of its killing form at that pH. At 7.6
to 7.7 chlorine is at 40% to 60% of its killing ability. At 7.4 to 7.6 pH chlorine is at 70% to 80% of
its killing form. The second reason is that a human’s natural pH balance is 7.34 to 7.45. The closer
the water’s pH balance is to that of human beings the more comfortable the water will be to swim
in.

      To lower the pH Balance, add Muriatic Acid directly to the water.

      To raise the pH Balance, add Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) directly to the water.


Total Alkalinity (T.A.):
The Total Alkalinity of the swimming pool water should be maintained at 80 to 120 ppm (parts per
million).
Why? Total alkalinity is a measurement of alkaline particles in the water. These particles are what
absorb the acid when you add muriatic acid to the water to lower the pH balance. These alkaline
particles are the only thing between the acid and the pools surface and equipment. They
neutralize the acid so that the acid can be added safely to the water, without risking damage to the
pool’s surface, equipment or the swimmer. When the total alkalinity is too high, the acid is
absorbed and neutralized too quickly and the pH is not lowered effectively enough. If the total
alkalinity is too low than the acid is not absorbed and neutralized quickly enough causing the pH
balance to drastically lower and the water to become corrosive and damaging.

      To lower the Total Alkalinity, add Muriatic Acid directly to the water.

      To raise the Total Alkalinity, add Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) directly to the water.


Conditioner, Stabilizer (Cyanuric Acid):
                                                  85
The Conditioner level should be kept at 70 to 90 ppm (parts per million).
Why? Conditioner protects your chlorine from the Sun’s harmful U.V. rays. If your Conditioner
level is low than your chlorine will not be very well protected and you will get “chlorine bounce”
which is when your chlorine is strong the day you add it but is destroyed quickly and is weak or
gone by the time you return the following week. When the chlorine bounces in this manner algae
has the opportunity to grow while the chlorine is weakened and therefore becomes VERY
resistant to the chlorine, since it had bloomed with chlorine in the water. If chlorine resistant algae
blooms in the water than you must change the sanitizer to Sodium Bromine to kill it off.
Conditioner level will be lowered by 20 to 30 ppm by the end of the summer just from heavy usage
and splash so be sure and check it before, during and after the heavy swim season to make sure
your chlorine is always as protected as it can be. Too much Conditioner can cause staining while
not enough Conditioner will cause chlorine bounce and unstable chlorine.



      To increase the Conditioner level, add Conditioner slowly through the skimmer while the
       pool pump is operating and allow it to circulate, breaking down inside the filter for 4 hours.

      To decrease the Conditioner level, the pool water will have to be drained.


Calcium Hardness:
The Calcium Hardness should be kept from 180 to 500 ppm (parts per million).
Why? When the Calcium Hardness level is too low than the water will seek out a source of
Calcium, becoming corrosive and will pull it right out of the plaster, grout and concrete on the deck
when it splashes. When Calcium Hardness is too high it can cause scale on the surface and at the
water line, clogged filters, unbalanced chemistry, unhealthy water conditions and even damage to
the heater.

      To increase the Calcium Hardness of the water, add Calcium Elevator.

      To decrease the Calcium Hardness of the water, the pool water will have to be drained.


Salinity (Salt):
For salt chlorination systems only, the Salinity (Salt) level in the pool water should be kept from
3,000 to 3,500 ppm (parts per million), however always check with the manufactures
recommendations.

      To increase the Salinity (Salt) in the pool water, add salt directly to the water and brush it
       evenly around the surface with your wall brush for dissolution. 50 lbs. of salt will raise an
       average sized 20,000 gallon pool’s Salinity 300 ppm (parts per million).

      To decrease the Salinity (Salt) in the pool water, the pool water will have to be drained.


Phosphates:
                                                  86
Phosphates are microscopic dead plant material and provide a ready food source for algae. The
average pool will see an increase in its Phosphate level of about 50 ppm per week, however this
depends greatly on the amount of debris around the pool and how much is being introduced into
the water. Preferably the Phosphate level should be at 0 ppm at all times, however this is quite
unrealistic. Try to keep the Phosphate level below 200 ppm if at all possible.

      To decrease the Phosphate level in a pool you will have to use a Phosphate removing
       agent such as “Phos-Free” or “Starvers”. There are actually many different Phosphate
       removers in the market to choose from.




      When doing an initial Phosphate removal treatment you will want to backwash the filter (if a
       D.E. filter) first before adding the Phosphate treatment. Then, after 24 to 48 hours you will
       have to clean the filter completely. Phosphate removers cause all the Phosphates in the
       water to clump up into a slimy film and with circulation and vacuuming get trapped in the
       filter. These clumped up, slimy Phosphates can drastically increase the filter pressure so
       always be sure to clean the filter afterwards.

      For a regular weekly Phosphate removal treatment you will add small amounts (see
       directions on the product) to the water each week. This will help keep the Phosphate level
       down and will cause algae to starve.

The “Four Pillars” Algaestat/Algaecide Program:

For an excellent regular maintenance program see “Section 11, page 50” for the “Four Pillars”
Algaestat/Algaecide regular maintenance program. Remember to always stay ahead of your water
chemistry, not behind it.




                                                87
            20. What is Expected of a Service Technician

So, at last we have come down to it. After speaking about equipment, chemicals, algae and such
it is finally time to talk about what all this means to you and more so, what is expected of you as a
service technician.


Professional Behavior:
As a self employed service technician of you are
expected to exhibit courteous and professional                          Service Note
behavior to your customers. This means:                       A customer will often keep a
                                                            service technician around despite
      Always be attentive to your customers needs.
                                                            poor service simply because they
      Always be presentable during work hours.             like the technician. By being
                                                            personable, professional and hard
      Be mindful of your tone and language when in         working you are giving your
       the presence of the customer. Even if it is a long   customer many reasons to keep you
       time customer that is acceptable to the use of       on for service.
       bad language always try to remain professional.
       This also includes when you are on your cell phone.

      Always try to remain calm and professional when communicating with a customer, even if
       they are upset and complaining.

      Remember that you are the greatest asset to your company. Represent yourself and your
       company with dignity, courtesy and professionalism.


Communication:
                                                 88
It is said that communication is the foundation to any relationship, whether it be a friendship,
marriage or business. As a service technician you are expected to communicate in many different
ways.

       Always do your best to keep your scheduled appointments, whether it is with customers or
        with other sub-contractors. As a professional courtesy, call if you are going to be late.
        Sometimes things happen and not all appointments can be kept. Extend the professional
        courtesy to communicate so as to not inconvenience others time.

       When you are in the field it is a good idea to leave a door hanger with your name and the
        date on the customer’s door to show that you have been there. Be sure to write down any
        pertinent notes on the door hanger, such as to add water or if a leak was found. A door


        hanger is usually the first thing a customer will see when they return home and having that
        in place can prevent many calls of complaint.

       Always sign in to the service log at the time clock if the account has one and if you as a
        company use one. The service log is a handy communication tool and should have such
        details to sign in as the technicians name, date and chemical readings.

                                                          Always sign in to the service log in your
                  Service Note                             vehicle. Each service vehicle should have a
        As a service technician, you are the               service log to register the customer, date,
       eyes, ears and voice of your                        chemical readings and what chemicals
       company in the field. You are there                 were added that day. This document is
       with the customers and their pools                  important to you for the sake of liability.
                                                           Should you, as a company, need to know
       every day. Your ability to
                                                           the chemical conditions on a particular
       communicate anything from repairs                   service stop or the chemical conditions and
       needed, chemical readings,                          changes over a period of time than this
       customer’s requests and more are                    service log is your only form of
       vital to your company.                              accountability.

       Always communicate with your customers. If there is a leak in the equipment or plumbing, if
        the water level is low on a regular basis, if there seems to be some new discoloration or
        staining on a pools surface or if a pool could use an acid wash, if a gate is broken or for any
        other unusual service or safety related issues always be sure to contact your customer to
        address the issue. While service helps a company to survive it is repairs and extra
        maintenance that help it thrive.

       Always communicate with the customer regarding any regular maintenance items, such as
        pump baskets, skimmer baskets, weir gates, floor cleaner hoses or repairs that need to be
        repaired or replaced.

       Always be sure to offer your extra services to the customer. You are also the sales
        representative in the field. If a filter needs to be cleaned than offer a Phosphate treatment
        before hand since the filter is required to be cleaned anyhow. Offer to provide the customer
        with Phosphate remover for regular weekly maintenance. If their pole is old or their net has
        holes in it offer to replace them. During the swim season you may want to remind them that
                                                  89
       you might also sell pool toys. Always try to educate the customer on the hazards of old
       water to keep them draining the pool every 3 to 5 years. If they do not understand the
       hazards of poor quality water than they will be reluctant to want to drain and refill.



Service Technician Duties:
 As a service technician you are responsible for many duties. The duties we will be going over
here relate to service in the field as they pertain to the average full service account. There are
some specialty service accounts such as spa only service, chemical only service and chemical
plus or chemical premium service.



      Always keep the gate closed, whether there is a dog
       or not, in the back yard and the pool area. Get into                   Caution!
       the habit of always closing the gate. If the gate is       ALWAYS close the gates
       not working properly immediately report it to your        behind you! A negligent service
       customer. Keeping the gate closed at all times will       technician is an inexcusable
       reduce the chances of a child gaining access to the
       swimming pool area unattended or a pet escaping
                                                                 offense when faced with the
       the yard.                                                 potential of a child drowning.
                                                                 Also, when a pet is lost it is
      Always check both the skimmer and pump baskets            amazing how quickly a $50 mutt
       to keep them clear from debris. If those baskets          from the pound becomes a
       break it can send large amounts of debris through         $5,000 member of the family.
       the plumbing and can even damage the pump. Put
       the debris in a trash can. Do not dump it there by the equipment.

      Make sure any 3” Trichlor tablet floaters are tied down. Be in the habit of having string with
       you for just this reason. An unsecured floater poses a risk to swimmers who jump into the
       pool as well as when the floater sits over the top step of the pool, the acid that dissolves
       from the tablets can cause damage to the surface.

      It is usually a good idea to test for and add chemicals to the pool at the beginning of your
       service. This way the chemicals are well distributed in the water and the swimmers can
       return to the pool once you complete service.

      Don’t forget to brush the tile with a tile brush and tile soap. Brushing the tile will clean the
       scum line and free any debris along the tile to make it easier to net out. Brushing the tile will
       not remove calcium but it will help keep the tile clean from other debris.

      You should always net the top and bottom of the pool of debris, leaves, sticks and such. It
       is usually a good idea to remove any pool toys from the water before doing this. Put the
       toys someplace out of the way as to not trip over them while servicing the pool.




                                                  90
      Vacuuming the pool is often
       considered the most tedious and
       undesirable of the service
                                                         A Note About Vacuuming
                                                 Vacuuming the pool at every service? Sure, it is easy
       technician’s duties. A customer
                                                for some guy writing a book or a home owner to expect
       usually associates vacuuming with
                                                a service technician to vacuum the pool every week.
       getting full service and even if the
                                                All too often do customers complain about the service
       floor of the pool is spotless and dust
                                                technician only being in the backyard for 5 minutes and
       free a customer will still call the
                                                not vacuuming. Customers usually relate vacuuming
       office and complain that “the pool
                                                with getting full service. Realistically however,
       wasn’t vacuumed. I want better
                                                vacuuming every week simply isn’t going to happen.
       service!”. Vacuum the pool as
                                                Do your best to keep the pool free from dust and the
       needed and especially when the
                                                surface looking good. If the customer is home and
       customer is home watching. We
                                                watching than give it a good vacuuming, if nothing
       understand that it is simply not
                                                more than for performance sake. Do not, however give
       realistic to vacuum the pool with
                                                the customer a reason to complain due to not
       every service, however leave no
                                                vacuuming.
       reason for the customer to call
       regarding a dirty bottom pool.


      Brushing the walls should be done every time to discourage algae growth and to brush free
       any dirt that may be clinging to the walls to vacuum up the following week. Brushing the
       walls is fairly quick and vigorous making it easy for the customer to notice.

      It is a good idea to keep all of your equipment together when servicing a swimming pool as
       to not forget or lose any equipment when you leave.

      Always inspect the pool and equipment. Be sure to report any leaks, any plaster that could
       use an acid wash, any mastic in need of repair or other repair issues to the customer.
       Remember that while service is what helps a company to survive, it is repairs that help a
       company to thrive and grow.

      If you finish your service quickly, find extra things to do such as straightening up the
       outdoor furniture around the pool area or picking up any towels left lying around. Anything
       that makes the pool area more presentable will enhance the service experience for your
       customers and set you apart as a professional service company.

      If the filter pressure is high and you backwash the filter always be sure and clean up any
       remaining diatomaceous Earth left around the skimmer. Never leave a mess of any kind in
       the customer’s back yard.



Helpful Documents to have Prepared:
You will need to keep various documents with you as a service technician. Some of these
documents are fairly common while others will require additional classes and testing.

      Driver’s License. You are required to have a current and valid Driver’s License to drive in
       the state of California.

                                                91
   Proof of Vehicle Insurance. You are required to have Proof of Vehicle Insurance to drive in
    the state of California.

   Material Safety Data Sheets (M.S.D.S.). You are required to have the Material Safety Data
    Sheets for each chemical you carry on your vehicle due to the dangers of a hazardous
    materials spill or accident. This is for your safety and for the safety of those around you. As
    a service technician you carry in your vehicle some very dangerous chemicals. It is best to
    be responsible in the handling and transport. If you do not have the Material Safety Data
    Sheets on your vehicle than you can find many of them at your wholesale supplier or by
    visiting www.hasapool.com for a copy of the ones you need. I recommend keeping them
    together in a properly labeled folder.

   Certified Pool Operator (C.P.O.) certification. Being C.P.O. certified shows that a service
    technician is serious about his or her profession and is properly certified to be operating a
    customer’s swimming pool. If you do not currently have a C.P.O. certification than you
    might consider becoming certified by visiting the National Swimming Pool Foundation
    website at www.nspf.com. There are usually classes to be taken as well as some testing.
    This is an excellent certification to have that most service technicians in the swimming pool


    industry do not actually possess. Being certified sets you apart from the competition and
    distinguishes your company as being truly professional.

   Water Chemistry Certification. Being water chemistry certified requires far less time and
    testing than becoming C.P.O. certified. Its main focus is on chemistry. To become water
    chemistry certified you must first read and study from the “IPSSA’s Basic Training Manual:
    Part 1” which is offered by the Independent Pool and Spa Association. The book can
    usually be purchased at your local wholesale supplier or you can find it here
    http://www.ipssa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogsection&id=7&Itemid=37.
    The test itself is online. In actuality, most service technicians in the industry are not water
    chemistry certified. If you are not currently certified than it something you should give some
    serious consideration to achieving. Becoming water chemistry certified will set you apart
    from the average service technician and as a company it shows that you are proficient and
    certified in chemistry which will offer our customers peace of mind and confidence in your
    abilities.




                                              92
                        Things to Remember About Section 20
    The service technician is the backbone of any swimming pool service company.
     They are the representatives and the ambassadors of good, quality and competent
     service. They are the eyes, ears and voice of the company that keep operations
     running smoothly.
    A service technician has many duties and expectations. With some training, practice
     and experience you will be able to execute your duties quickly, efficiently and
     skillfully.




   21. Specialty Services (Chemical Only and Spa Service)

On occasion you will have an account that is only chemical service or just a spa. While the
principles of service remain the same there are some differences in these specialty forms of
service. This section covers those differences.


Chemical Only Service:

Some customers only want us as a company to take care of the chemicals while they handle the
rest. You will more often than not find these accounts to be far less maintained than if they were
full service as the customer tends to be unskilled and often lazy when it comes to the care of their
own swimming pool. You will also find algae growth more frequent at these types of service
accounts as the customer will often try to cut expenses by doing things such as turning the time
clock down or completely off offering the pool little or no circulation or filtration. When algae begins
to develop they are usually quick to blame the chemicals. Here are a few extra things you can do
to keep the pool safe and the customer happy.

      The chemistry at a chemical only service remains the same as a full service account.

      Always remember to leave a door hanger with your name and date on it as well as sign into
       the service log by the time clock if the account has one.

      If the furniture around the swimming pool is in disarray and you have extra time, as a
       courtesy it is always good to straighten it up a bit. This will make it more noticeable that you
       have been there and that you are willing to take the extra effort to provide quality service.


                                                  93
       Always inspect the customer’s pool equipment and leave them notes often. Should you
        notice that the skimmer or pump basket is full than go ahead and empty them to prevent
        any harm or damage to the equipment, however be sure to write the customer a note on
        the door hanger stating that you provided such service and that they should be mindful of
        maintaining their equipment to prevent costly repairs.

       Should you notice that their pool is neglected in service than be sure to remind them that
        you do offer full service as well.

       Sometimes an account will be considered “chemical service plus” or “chemical service
        premium” which usually means that you will also clean out the skimmer and pump baskets
        and may net out debris or brush the walls.




Spa Service:
There are as many different kinds of spas and spa surfaces as their all pools and pool surfaces.
Spas can be much easier to service or sometimes more difficult. There are many things to
remember when servicing a spa. This section will help you to navigate around any hazards when
conducting spa service. First, here are a few notes regarding plaster in-ground spas.


Plaster Spas:
Plaster, Pebble Tech and 3M product surfaces are quite
forgiving when it comes to chemical balance. Just as a plaster               Did you know?
or similar type of surfaced pool, in a spa the surface will give        Two adults can use up all of
off Alkaline material to help keep the Total Alkalinity fairly
                                                                       the sanitizer and oxidizer in a
balanced or at least, easier to balance. Most of these in-
ground spas are not covered and should be chemically                   spa in 15 minutes. It is
sanitized and oxidized with a few 1” Trichlor tablets or a single      always good to use a floater
3” Trichlor tablet about once every other week or as needed            or some form of chlorinator
after determined by proper chemical testing.                           in a spa to help maintain the
                                                                       sanitizer and oxidizer level.
                                            Muriatic Acid should
              Caution!                      still be added in VERY small amounts, no more than a cup
 Never use more than a handful of dry       at a time to reduce the pH balance as needed. Conditioner
chemicals or a cup of liquid chemicals at   should also be added in VERY small amounts. It only
a time in a spa. Too much chemicals can     takes just a little under ½ lbs. of Conditioner to chemically
have a drastic change on the chemistry,     start up the Conditioner in a newly filled spa.
can cause damage to the surface and
equipment and can be unhealthy for          Be very mindful of the pH Balance and Total Alkalinity in a
swimmers.                                   spa. It can change quickly.



                                                    94
Copper and Copper Oxide Staining in In-Ground Plaster Spas:
If an in-ground plaster, pebble tech or 3M product spa has old copper plumbing and/or an old
heater there is a SUBSTANTIAL risk of copper and copper oxide staining. All spas should be
drained and refilled regularly once every 6 months. In the case
of older spas with copper plumbing and old heaters the friction              Caution!
of the water as well as the wide range of chemical changes in      Do not use Trichlor granular
such a small body of water can strip copper from the plumbing     (Algae Ban), or Calcium
and, after enough accumulation deposit it onto the surface of     Hypochlorite in a spa where
the spa.                                                          copper staining is present. It will
                                                                     oxidize the copper stains turning
Copper will manifest itself with light to dark turquoise and blue    them grey to black.
stains. When copper is oxidized by chlorine it will turn gray to
black. Sometimes this chemical change will happen as you add chlorine right before your eyes. It
can be very sudden and drastic. If you have an older spa with copper plumbing be VERY careful
to not over chemically treat it, else the staining results can be most unfavorable and severe.



Fiberglass and Acrylic Spas:
Fiberglass and Acrylic spas, whether above ground or below can be VERY sensitive to chemical
changes. Like any spa, two adults can consume all the chlorine in a spa within 15 minutes so
keeping them chemically balanced with a once per week visit is near impossible if it gets used with
any regularity.

If the spa is covered than it is best to use Sodium Bromide 1” tablets as your primary sanitizer and
oxidizer as Sodium Bromide, unlike chlorine will sanitize and oxidize regardless of the pH
Balance. If the spa is covered than the Sodium Bromide will be protected from the Sun’s U.V.
rays.

If it becomes necessary to add acid to a fiberglass or acrylic do so only in the smallest amounts of
¼ cup at a time. The slightest amount too much of Muriatic Acid can turn a fiberglass or acrylic
spa’s water acidic easily as they are VERY sensitive to pH change. This should never be
necessary if you are using Sodium Bromine as your sanitizer and oxidizer.

Be sure to keep 1” Sodium Bromide tablets handy as well as Soda Ash and Sodium Bicarbonate
when servicing fiberglass or acrylic spas.


Here are some good guidelines to follow when servicing an above or below
ground fiberglass or acrylic covered spa:

      On average you will use 3 to 4 1 inch Sodium Bromine tablets per week, usually placed in a
       floater or in a dispenser located on the skimmer weir gate. You may use a couple more as
                                     needed in cases of heavy swimmer use.
   Spa Cover Note                   On average, to assist on oxidizing organic material you will use
 It is a good idea to use            3 to 4 1 inch quick dissolve Potassium Monopersulfate tablets.
a garden hose to clean               These can be put directly into the spa and will dissolve within a
off the spa cover about              few minutes. It is usually good to turn on the jets after doing
once or twice per                                 95
month, depending on
how dirty it gets.
       this to assist with dissolving and dispersal. The tablets will not harm the surface or cause
       staining.

      When you notice foam starting to build up it is good to add 3 to 4 ounces of liquid spa
       “Foam down” in order to remove the organic material build up that is causing the water to
       foam.

      About once a month or as needed you want to add a couple squirts across the surface of a
       spa algaecide. Leisure Time makes an excellent non-foaming liquid spa algaecide that
       uses the active ingredient: Poly [oxyethylene (dimethyliminio) ….. 6%

      About once a month or as needed you will also want to add a couple squirts across the
       surface of an enzyme based oil remover. This will help keep the oils and scum line build up
       down across the surface of the spa.

      Keep the water level just below the head rests, else the chemicals will deteriorate the head
       rests over time.

      The pH Balance and Total Alkalinity will fluctuate and change quickly in a fiberglass or
       acrylic spa. Always have enough Soda Ash and Sodium Bicarbonate to keep the pH
       Balance and Total Alkalinity maintained properly.

      Some fiberglass and acrylic spas are equipped with a Nature2 (spa size) water purifier and
       sanitizer. As we know this is a metal based sanitizer and the cartridges should be replaced
       every 4 to 6 months. If a Nature2 cartridge is not installed on a spa you can also use a spa
       sized PoolRX which works the same and can be placed in the skimmer. The PoolRX
       cartridge should also be replaced once every 4 to 6 months.

      When a Nature2 or PoolRX cartridge is in use on a fiberglass or acrylic spa it is good to
       keep in mind that these metal based sanitizers only sanitize. They do not oxidize the water.
       You will still need to use Sodium Bromine or Potassium Monopersulfate to oxidize the
       water.


Equipment to use for fiberglass and acrylic spas:

Being that spas are small and are often in smaller enclosed areas it can be useful to have
equipment especially suited for spa service. A spa can be in a corner, within a gazebo or
surrounded by other decorations, plants and such. Standard pool service equipment can be large
and cumbersome in these cases. Here is a list of some useful
equipment for the care of a fiberglass or acrylic spa account:
                                                                            Did you know?
      A shortened pole and spa net for skimming the surface of         A spa, whether it be
       debris                                                          fiberglass, acrylic, plaster
                                                                       or otherwise, indoor or out
      A hand held tile brush for cleaning the scum and oil off the    door, above ground or
       water line of the spa
                                                                       below ground it should be
      A hand held spa vac or spa wand. These are useful               drained and refilled every
       vacuums that rely on motion created suction or on water         6 months without fail. The
                                                                       chemistry changes far too
                                                 96                    often in a spa for the water
                                                                       to remain healthy for
                                                                       overly long.
        motion to create suction to clean up dust and debris off the surface. They do not require a
        vacuum hose or suction generated from the pump as they are quite self contained.

       “303” sealant and surface protector and a rag to apply it. 303 is a water sealant and surface
        protector that helps to protect a spa cover and the wood siding of a spa from moisture and
        also helps to keep it looking clean and vibrant. This should be applied using a rag and
        rubbed across the cover and wood siding as needed, usually about once per month. If you
        do not currently have this in your inventory than ask your local wholesale supplier what
        types of spa cover protection products they have in stock.

       A bucket or a small hand held equipment cart is useful for carrying your equipment and
        chemicals to the spa.

       A submersible pump, 50 to 100 feet of hose and an extension cord to drain a spa as
        needed.

Draining and refilling a fiberglass or acrylic spa:
A spa, no matter what kind should be drained, refilled and the chemicals replenished every 6
months. A service technician will usually be responsible for the draining, refilling and chemical
start-up of a fiberglass or acrylic spa. These are some guidelines to help you to properly drain,
refill and chemically start-up a fiberglass or acrylic spa:

                                                    When draining the spa always make sure that the
               Caution!                             extension cord is plugged into a plug with a G.F.I.
 Always use caution when draining a pool            to prevent any accidents. Try to keep the
or spa. There are many things that can go           connection part of the extension cord off the
wrong in this process such as the drain             ground to protect it from moisture or any near by
water overflowing, water getting to an              sprinklers. Always keep safety in mind when using
electrical connection, forgetting to turn the       electrical devices in water.
power off to the time clock and the pump
turning on when the pool or spa is empty          When you drain the spa be sure to drain the water
and other such hazards. Always take every          into a dedicated sewer line whenever possible. If
step available to drain a pool or spa as           there is no sewer line available to drain the water
safely as possible.                                into that attempt to drain the water into a deck
        drain to be sent out to the street. A spa should drain fairly quickly, depending on the size of
        the submersible pump.

       Always try to keep the hose and extension cords out of the way of walking traffic to prevent
        accidents.

       Once empty, should the customer request it as it is an extra charge, there are acrylic
        polishes that can be used to polish and protect the acrylic surface. Ask your customer if
        they want this done before charging them extra.

       If there is no submersible pump available to drain the spa you can use a garden hose to
        siphon out the water as well, although this will take longer.

       After the spa is refilled the chemical start-up should consist of: 3 to 4 1 inch Sodium
        Bromine tablets placed in a floater or in the compartment on the weir gate, 3 to 4 ounces of
        granular quick dissolve Sodium Bromine added directly to the water, 3 to 4 ounces of quick
                                                    97
      dissolve or 3 to 4 1 inch quick dissolve Potassium Monopersulphate tablets added directly
      to the water, 2 squirts across the surface of a liquid non-foaming spa algaecide, 1 16 ounce
      bottle of a stain Sequestering agent that will prevent the metals in the fill water from falling
      out of circulation and cause staining.


                       Things to Remember About Section 21
   Even though chemical service and spa service can be completely different than full
    service always remember to keep the customer in mind and offer the highest quality
    service you can to represent yourself and your company well.
   Safety and common sense play an important role when servicing a smaller body of
    water such as a spa. Always keep close watch on the ever changing chemical
    conditions.



          22. How to Calculate a Pool’s Volume (Gallons)

Knowing your swimming pool volume is important information to be able to balance your pool
water chemistry, sizing pumps and filters.

Steps:
1. Measure the swimming pool. You will need the overall length, width and the depth in both the
   shallow end and deep end. The formulas below assume you are measuring in feet, and want
   results in gallons.

2. Use the appropriate formula below for your pool's shape.

         Rectangle Pool:
          (Deep End + Shallow End) / 2 = Average Depth
          Average Depth x Length x Width x 7.48 = Volume in Gallons

         Round Pool:
          Depth x Diameter-squared x 5.9 = Volume in Gallons

         Free Form Pool:
          (Deep End + Shallow End) / 2 = Average Depth
          (Width A + Width B + Width C + ...) / (number of measurements) = Average Width
          Average Depth x Length x Average Width x 7.48 = Volume in Gallons


Warnings:
If your pool is of extremely irregular shape, it would be wise to take as many evenly-spaced width
measurements as you can stand, perhaps one width measurement for every foot of length.



                                                98
Things you’ll need:

             Measuring tape
             Calculator
             Pen and paper
             Someone to help with the measurements




                                  23. Safety Revisited


Safety is a large and substantial topic to discuss. There are so many various aspects to safety that
it can be a truly overwhelming topic. I will address each aspect of safety in chronological order
from the start to the end of your service day.

The start of your day:

      Before you leave for work make sure that you have all of the Material Safety Data Sheets
       required on your vehicle. These are kept in case of an accident so that a Hazardous
       Materials Response Team will have the information for each chemical that you have on
       your vehicle. With so many oxidizers, acid and other harmful chemicals an accident could
       be very dangerous to anyone around you. If you do not currently have these Material
       Safety Data Sheets than you can find them at your local wholesale supplier or online.

      Make sure the containers and equipment on your
       vehicle are tightly secured to avoid load shift or a loss             Caution!
       of equipment when you are driving.                           As a service technician, the
                                                                   Sun will bombard you from
                                              Make sure your      above as well as reflect the
                                               vehicle is
        Did you know?                          properly
                                                                   sunlight off the surface of the
  The “7 Eleven” convenience                   inspected and in    water while you are working.
store sells a plastic insulated                safe working        Always protect yourself by
drink container in Super Big                   order.              staying well hydrated, using
Gulp and Double Gulp sizes.                                        plenty of sunscreen and by
                                              Make sure you       wearing a hat when servicing
These drink holders are very                   have plenty of
inexpensive to refill, hold a lot of                               in the summertime.
                                               water to drink,
liquid and can your drink cold
and ice solid for 10 to 12 hours.
These things are excellent to                     99
have, especially during the hot
summer months.
      especially in the Summer. Protect yourself from dehydration and heat stroke.

     Use a large hat to protect yourself from the heat. In the Summer time the heat can become
      quite intense.

     Use plenty of sunscreen. Skin cancer after long time unprotected exposure to direct
      sunlight is a common problem in the swimming pool industry.




Once you start driving:

     Make sure your head lights are on at all times to make your vehicle more visible to other
      drivers. Driving with your head lights on will reduce the chances for an accident.

     Always drive safely, obeying all traffic laws. If you must use your cellular phone use a
      hands free device or pull over to the side of the road and never text message while driving.


When you arrive at your service account:

     Be careful to not allow moisture from rain or
      otherwise into your dry chemicals. Trichlor tablets         A Note About Parking
      and Trichlor granular have a mixture of both              If possible do not park in the
      chlorine and acid. Moisture can deteriorate Trichlor
      freeing the chlorine and acid and mixing them in an
                                                               customer’s drive way. This will
      enclosed container. The concentrated gas is known        prevent any possible oil leaks
      as “Mustard Gas” and can be highly dangerous.            from staining their drive way and
      Also be careful when opening a 3 inch Trichlor           should the customer return home
      tablet feeder as if it is clogged or not working         than they will not be
      properly than this “Mustard Gas” can also be             inconvenienced by your vehicle
      trapped within the chlorinator. Moisture mixed with
      Calcium Hypochlorite can also be dangerous as it is      being in the way. Sometimes
      such a powerful oxidizer, when mixed with water it       there is no other parking
      can generate enough heat to catch fire.                  available but if you can avoid it,
                                                               stay out of their drive way.
     When using Liquid Chlorine and Muriatic Acid
      always be sure to dunk the bottom of the container in the water before and after use to
      prevent any unseen drips from staining the customer’s deck.

     If you must walk on the tile to service a pool always walk flat footed and slowly. The tile can
      become dangerously slippery when wet and a slip and fall on the tile can cause great
      injury.


                                                100
   Always walk carefully and slowly if you must navigate around artificial rock wall areas to
    service the pool. Artificial rock surfaces can be very uneven and difficult to maintain your
    balance on.

   Always be mindful of where your pole is. With a single wrong step or a moment of
    inattention can put your pole through a window or worse.

   Always! Always! Always! Close the gates behind you. Even if there is no pet in the yard be
    in the habit of always closing the gate to prevent children from straying into the pool area
    unattended and to prevent pets from escaping the back yard.

   Anytime a gate does not close or operate properly be sure to bring it to the home owners
    attention and contact your service manager regarding this safety hazard.



   Always be mindful and careful of where you lay your equipment on the deck. Customers do
    tend to come outside and your equipment spread out on the ground can cause the
    customer to trip.

   Try to keep the skimmer lid on the skimmer as much as possible. Often enough has a
    service technician accidentally stepped into a skimmer which can cause injury.

   In rain or wet conditions try to make sure that your hand is dry when turning on a pump,
    time clock or other electrical devise. An ungrounded wire or improperly installed electrical
    devise can cause an electrical hazard and injury to you. Should you come across such an
    electrical problem be sure to report it to your customer immediately.

   If a dog in the yard seems aggressive and unsafe do not try to enter the yard to provide
    service. Leave a note on the door hanger and report the problem and the inability to
    provide service to your customer.




                                              101
     24. Additional Notes About the Pool Service Business

Becoming a swimming pool service technician and a small business owner means that you have
many choices before you. When I first started in this business it took me a while to rewire my brain
to understand that I owned the business. I kept asking the people whom I hired to help me build
my service route “what do I do about this problem or that problem?” Their response was, “that’s a
good question. What are you going to do?” It was then that I realized that owning the business
meant that I held sole responsibility. I could change it and make adjustments as I see fit, but I also
take responsibility for the choices I make.

Operating your own swimming pool service business you will have to decide things like if you want
to pursue repairs or subcontract them out. Do you want to send your bill to your customers in
advance to fund your chemicals and expenses before the work is done, or after the work is
completed when the pay has been earned? How will you reserve your vacation days? There are
many technical problems you will have to solve with billing paperwork, invoices and such. As the
owner of a business you will have to be the technician, the marketing and advertising department,
the I.T. department, customer service, the secretary, the plumber, the electrician and more. The
bottom line is that running a business isn’t easy. This section will discuss the operational aspect of
the swimming pool service as a business.

When should you send the bill to your customers?

This is a commonly debated topic among swimming pool technicians. There is no right answer,
honestly. Use the business model that works best for you. Billing your customer in advance at the
beginning of the month before the work is done will generate income for you to pay for the
chemicals and equipment you will need over that month, however some customers have fears that
a pool guy might take the money and run, or once they have payment they will do lower quality
work since they have already been paid. Billing after the work is done at the beginning of the next
month makes you earn it by providing quality work before payment is made, however you must
then rely on your customer to pay the bill since you are now out on chemical costs and labor. You


                                                 102
can also bill in the middle of the month and have the bill due at the end of the month. Each way
has its pros and cons but ultimately it will be your choice.


What insurance carrier should you choose?

There are a number of “pool guy groups” that get together into a large organization for insurance
and support. A couple to name for example would be the Independent Pool and Spa Service
Association (I.P.S.S.A.) and the United Pool Association (U.P.A.). These “chapters” are divided up
by geographical area. Each chapter will have their own dues to pay as well as the insurance dues
to pay. The monthly prices for chapter dues and insurance will vary from one group to another, but
figure on paying $ 75.00 to $ 90.00 a month (This estimation is made in 2010 and may not reflect
future changes in prices). A group or organization will sometimes offer additional benefits such as
getting you “Water Chemistry Certified” or offering “Sick Route Coverage” in the event you
become ill or are unable to service your accounts. There is also a group called A.S.A.P.P. which
does not require any meetings and is less expensive however they do not offer any sick route

coverage. Each group or organization is different and may have a variety of benefits to offer.
These groups are also a great resource for repair technicians, subcontractors, contractors and
furthering your swimming pool business education. Usually you would be expected to attend an
hour or two meeting once a month, but again each chapter and organization is different. Here are
some online resources to find the groups nearest you:

Independent Pool and Spa Service Association http://www.ipssa.com/

United Pool Association http://www.unitedpoolassociation.org/

American Spa And Pool Pros http://www.asapponline.com/


Should you advertise?

I have never advertised in the yellow pages or other publication, however through larger
companies I have experienced that the larger publications are excellent for bringing in repair
business. I have been told by other technicians that the cheaper the publication you advertise in,
so too will be the cheaper customers

I have sent out door flier types of advertisements. Out of the 10,000 advertisements I had sent out
I received about 8 customers. Fliers work better with repetition and timing. The more you send a
flier to the same areas the more likely you are of getting a response.

To gain new business I would recommend using large advertisements on the side of your truck.
You can try the magnets however due to their lack of size and visibility these tend have gotten few
responses.

Word of mouth has been my most effective means of gaining new customers. I usually offer a
month of free service for any references from my existing customers and also advertise this in my
monthly billing statements.




                                                103
There are many means to market and advertise your business though. Trial and error can be quite
the educational experience though costly at times. Try to make the most you can with the least
expense.

Should you use a pool equipment cart?

I tried using a pool cart for my first two years in business. For me it seemed a bulky and clumsy
additional weight both in the back yard and on the back of my truck. I did not like the idea of
having chemicals in the cart, outside of the bed of my truck. I also found that there were many
yards that often had obstructions blocking my path with a pool cart to the swimming pool. While
many swimming pool technicians swear by their cart, personally I prefer carrying my gear to the
pool side.




           25. Helpful Pool Service Forms and Documents


I have placed here 8 different forms and documents that have helped me in the swimming pool
service. On many of these forms I have placed the fictitious name “Acme Pool Service” which is
shown here only in example and bears no reflection to any existing business. These 8 forms and
documents I have personally used while in business. They were custom made using a very simple
“Microsoft Word” program. There are many different accounting programs to help with your
business paperwork, literature, billing, forms and other documents and these forms and
documents that I am presenting here are only for use as an example. These forms and documents
are as follows:

      Proposals for Swimming Pool and Spa Service: These are some helpful forms that I use
       to propose my business and prices to a new potential customer. There are 3 of these forms
       that I use: Residential Swimming Pool Service, Residential Spa Service and Commercial
       Pool Service.

      Wind and Rain Advisory: A form I use to alert customers of what I can and can not do
       during wind and rain conditions and ways they can keep their pool safe during these
       conditions.

      Summer Health and Safety: A form I send out in the summer to alert my customers of
       important health and safety tips.

      1 Month of Free Service: A form I use to alert customers of my reference policy of giving 1
       month of free service for each reference.

      Vacation List: A list of all the holidays that I will be taking off for the year.
                                                   104
        Example Invoice: This is an example of a bill I would send to a customer at the end of the
         month.

        Water Chemistry Field Analysis Sheet: This is a handy form that I use for analyzing a
         new customer or a commercial account’s water chemistry. I would usually leave this with
         the customer to give an example of what their water chemistry should be and what it
         currently is.

        Swimming Pool Drain Waiver: This document is for use when you are draining the
         swimming pool or doing any repairs that require draining. This document should be signed
         and dated by the customer before the swimming pool is drained.


             *Please note that all of these forms and documents are here as examples only.



                                                        Acme Water
                                                             Pool Service
                                             Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985
                           Residential Pool and Spa Service Agreement
Service Includes:
    1.   Test water chemistry: chlorine, pH balance, total alkalinity, cyanuric acid, calcium hardness and phosphate levels.
    2.   Adding chlorine and Muriatic acid. (Salt for salt generated chlorinators will be bill separately unless provided by the customer.)
    3.   Clean tile, dirt and grease line only (calcium removal will be charged extra upon request).
    4.   Net the top and bottom of leaves and debris.
    5.   Vacuum the surface as needed.
    6.   Brush the walls and surface as needed.
    7.   Clean out the skimmer and pump baskets of debris.
    8.   Inspect the equipment to insure that all is in working order.
    9.   Backwash the filter as needed.

Algaecide and Conditioner:
    1.   Algaecide will be added all throughout the year but will be billed separately at $ 75.00 once in June.
    2.   Conditioner will be added all throughout the year but will be billed separately at $ 40.00 once in February and once in September.

Salt Chlorine Generators:
    1.   Salt chlorination cells for salt chlorine systems will be inspected every 90 days and cleaned as needed at $ 20.00 per cleaning.

Filter Sanitations:
    1.   Filters will be sanitized, inspected, cleaned and parts lubricated as needed at a charge of $ 85.00 per filter for Diatomaceous and
         Cartridge filters.
    2.   Filter sanitations are done once every 6 months.
    3.   Sand filters can only be backwashed. To open a sand filter and stir the sand or replace the sand will be an extra repair charge.

Pool Covers:
    1.   Pool covers should be removed on service days to provide the technician access to the pool for service.
    2.   If the pool cover is not removed on the scheduled service day than only chemical service will be provided that day.

Windy/Rainy Days:
    1.   The water chemistry will be checked, necessary chemicals added, baskets emptied and large debris netted. This will constitute service
         for the week. It may take multiple service calls to return your pool and spa to its optimum condition after inclement weather. You may also
         ask to have a Special Clean done to immediately return you pool or spa to its optimum condition, however this will be done at an extra
         charge.

Repairs:
    1.   Minor repairs, such as the replacement of skimmer and pump baskets, skimmer weir gates and filter tank pressure gauges will be done
         automatically and billed to the customer as applied.
    2.   Major repairs are discussed with the customer and approved before proceeding.

Adding Water:
                                                                        105
    1.   It is the responsibility of the customer to maintain the proper water level of the swimming pool and spa; however water may be added by
         the service technician at the time of service to help insure that proper water levels are maintained.

Payment:
    1.   Monthly service is billed before the service month and payment is expected by the 20th of the service month.
    2.   Chemicals will be billed, as per usage on the following month.
    3.   Payment for any major repair work will be due upon completion.
    4.   Any payment not received by the end of the month will be subject to a late fee of $15.00 or 5% of the amount owed, whichever is greater.
    5.   After 2 months of non payment service will be suspended and 30, 60 and 90 day late payment and delinquency claims (as applied) may
         be reported to Equifax, Experian and TransUnion credit bureaus as well as any appropriate claims to the Better Business Bureau at the
         discretion of Acme Water Pool Service.

Holidays
    1.   There are four months containing five weeks in that month in which there are no additional service fees. This in turn balances out the
         legal holidays or vacation time observed. The week prior to a holiday or vacation extra sanitizer will be added to your pool or spa.
    2.   Acme Water Pool Service is closed and service is not performed on the following days: New Year’s Eve and Day, Easter, Memorial Day,
         Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.
    3.   1 Week vacation may be taken at Easter, Thanksgiving and Christmas or as otherwise advised. Advanced notice will be given prior to
         such vacations.

           Weekly Pool Service: $___________ Per Month                          Bi-Annual Filter Sanitations: $___________ Each

Acme Water Pool Service ~ 1234 Example Ave., Happytown, Ca 98765 ~ (818) 555-1234
         Bus. Lic. # I-57302 ~ Insured by Arrow Insurance ~ Water Chemistry Certified by I.P.S.S.A. since 1985

                                                         Acme Water
                                                             Pool Service
                                              Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985
                                      Residential Spa Service Agreement
Service Includes:
    1.   Test water chemistry and add chemicals: chlorine, pH balance, total alkalinity, cyanuric acid, calcium hardness and phosphate levels.
    2.   Clean tile, dirt and grease line only (calcium removal will be charged extra upon request).
    3.   Net the top and bottom of leaves and debris.
    4.   Vacuum the surface as needed.
    5.   Brush the walls and surface as needed.
    6.   Clean out the skimmer and pump baskets of debris.
    7.   Inspect the equipment to insure that all is in working order.
    8.   Backwash the filter as needed.

Filter Sanitations:
    1.   Filters will be sanitized, inspected, cleaned and parts lubricated at a charge of $ 85.00 per filter for Diatomaceous and Cartridge filters.
    2.   Filter sanitations are done once every 6 months.
    3.   Sand filters can only be backwashed. To open a sand filter and stir the sand or replace the sand will be an extra repair charge.

Spa Draining and Refill:
    1.   The spa will be drained and refilled every 6 months to ensure the health of the water.
    2.   The home owner will be responsible for refilling the spa and contacting the technician once it is full to begin the chemical start-up.
    3.   The cost to drain and chemically start-up the spa is $85.00.

Windy/Rainy Days:
    1.   The water chemistry will be checked, necessary chemicals added, baskets emptied and large debris netted. This will constitute service
         for the week. It may take multiple service calls to return your pool and spa to its optimum condition after inclement weather. You may also
         ask to have a Special Clean done to immediately return you pool or spa to its optimum condition, however this will be done at an extra
         charge.

Repairs:
    1.   Minor repairs, such as the replacement of skimmer and pump baskets, skimmer weir gates and filter tank pressure gauges will be done
         automatically and billed to the customer as applied.
    2.   Major repairs are discussed with the customer and approved before proceeding.

Adding Water:
    1.   It is the responsibility of the customer to maintain the proper water level of the spa; however water may be added by the service
         technician at the time of service to help insure that proper water levels are maintained.

Payment:
    1.   Monthly service is billed before the service month and payment is expected by the 20th of the service month.
    2.   Chemicals will be billed, as per usage on the following month.
    3.   Payment for any major repair work will be due upon completion.
    4.   Any payment not received by the end of the month will be subject to a late fee of $15.00 or 5% of the amount owed, whichever is greater.
                                                                        106
    5.   After 2 months of non payment service will be suspended and 30, 60 and 90 day late payment and delinquency claims (as applied) may
         be reported to Equifax, Experian and TransUnion credit bureaus as well as any appropriate claims to the Better Business Bureau at the
         discretion of Acme Water Pool Service.

Holidays
    1.   There are four months containing five weeks in that month in which there are no additional service fees. This in turn balances out the
         legal holidays or vacation time observed. The week prior to a holiday or vacation extra sanitizer will be added to your spa.
    2.   Acme Water Pool Service is closed and service is not performed on the following days: New Year’s Eve and Day, Easter, Memorial Day,
         Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.
    3.   1 Week vacation may be taken at Easter, Thanksgiving and Christmas or as otherwise advised. Advanced notice will be given prior to
         such vacations.


Weekly Spa Service: $___________ Per Month

Drain and Refill Spa: $___________ Every 6 Months

Filter Sanitation:       $___________ Every 6 Months

   Acme Water Pool Service ~ 1234 Example Ave., Happytown, Ca 98765 ~ (818) 555-1234
         Bus. Lic. # I-57302 ~ Insured by Arrow Insurance ~ Water Chemistry Certified by I.P.S.S.A. since 1985

                                                       Acme Water
                                                            Pool Service
                                             Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985
                          Commercial Pool and Spa Service Agreement
Service Includes:
    1.   Test water chemistry: chlorine, pH balance, total alkalinity, cyanuric acid, calcium hardness and phosphate levels.
    2.   Clean tile, dirt and grease line only (calcium removal will be charged extra upon request).
    3.   Net the top and bottom of leaves and debris.
    4.   Vacuum the surface as needed.
    5.   Brush the walls and surface as needed.
    6.   Clean out the skimmer and pump baskets of debris.
    7.   Inspect the equipment to insure that all is in working order.
    8.   Backwash the filter as needed.

Filter Sanitations:
    1.   Filters will be sanitized, inspected, cleaned and parts lubricated as needed at a charge of $ 85.00 per filter for Diatomaceous and
         Cartridge filters.
    2.   On the average this service is done once every 3 to 6 months depending upon the filter pressure and usage of the swimming pool or spa.
    3.   Sand filters can only be backwashed. To open a sand filter and stir the sand or replace the sand will be an extra repair charge.

Windy/Rainy Days:
    1.   The water chemistry will be checked, necessary chemicals added, baskets emptied and large debris netted. This will constitute service
         for the week. It may take multiple service calls to return your pool and spa to its optimum condition after inclement weather. You may also
         ask to have a Special Clean done to immediately return you pool or spa to its optimum condition, however this will be done at an extra
         charge.

Repairs:
    1.   Minor repairs, such as the replacement of skimmer and pump baskets, skimmer weir gates and filter tank pressure gauges will be done
         automatically and billed to the customer as applied.
    2.   Major repairs are discussed with the customer and approved before proceeding.

Adding Water:
    1.   It is the responsibility of the customer to maintain the proper water level of the swimming pool and spa; however water will be added by
         the service technician at the time of service to help insure that proper water levels are maintained.

Payment:
    1.   Monthly service is billed before the service month and payment is expected by the 20th of the service month.
    2.   Chemicals will be billed, as per usage on the following month.
    3.   Payment for any major repair work will be due upon completion.
    4.   Any payment not received by the end of the month will be subject to a late fee of $15.00 or 5% of the amount owed, whichever is greater.
    5.   After 2 months of non payment service will be suspended and 30, 60 and 90 day late payment and delinquency claims (as applied) may
         be reported to Equifax, Experian and TransUnion credit bureaus as well as any appropriate claims to the Better Business Bureau at the
         discretion of Acme Water Pool Service.

Holidays


                                                                      107
    1.   There are four months containing five weeks in that month in which there are no additional service fees. This in turn balances out the
         legal holidays or vacation time observed. The week prior to a holiday or vacation extra sanitizer will be added to your pool or spa.
    2.   Acme Water Pool Service is closed and service is not performed on the following days: New Year’s Eve and Day, Easter, Memorial Day,
         Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.
    3.   1 Week vacation may be taken at Easter, Thanksgiving and Christmas or as otherwise advised. Advanced notice will be given prior to
         such vacations.

Pool #1: $___________ x _______ Services Per Week = $_____________ Per Month                        Chemicals Billed Separately
                                                                                                    Liquid Chlorine per gallon =            $ 3.75
Pool #2: $___________ x _______ Services Per Week = $_____________ Per Month                        Calcium Hypochlorite per lbs. =         $ 3.00
                                                                                                    Dichlor Granular per lbs. =             $ 3.65
Spa #1: $___________ x _______ Services Per Week = $_____________ Per Month                         3 inch Chlorine Tablets, each =         $ 1.50
                                                                                                    Muriatic Acid per gallon =              $ 3.85
Spa #2: $___________ x _______ Services Per Week = $_____________ Per Month                         Potassium Monopersulphate per lbs. =    $ 4.00
                                                                                                    Sodium Bromide per oz. =                $ 0.50
                                                                                                    Conditioner per lbs. =                  $ 2.50
Other    $___________ x _______ Services Per Week = $_____________ Per Month                        Phosphate Treatment, per =              $ 45.00

                                            Monthly Total = $_____________ Per Month

   Acme Water Pool Service ~ 1234 Example Ave., Happytown, Ca 98765 ~ (818) 555-1234
         Bus. Lic. # I-57302 ~ Insured by Arrow Insurance ~ Water Chemistry Certified by I.P.S.S.A. since 1985


                                                      Acme Water
                                                          Pool Service
                                            Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985



                                       Wind and Rain Advisory


 During the wind and rain season your service technician may be limited in service. If it is raining or the
wind is blowing you will still receive service, however it may be limited to only maintaining your pool/spa’s
safety rather than the cosmetics of it. Your pool/spa may require several hours of work to recover from
weather damage your technician can only spend up to 30 minutes maintaining it to insure that all
customers are serviced. Ultimately, while your technician is there once a week the home owner still owns
the pool/spa and is ultimately responsible for its safety and wellbeing.

  The chemicals will be balanced, the skimmer and pump baskets will be checked and emptied and any
large debris that may cause damage to your pool/spa will be removed. Vacuuming and cosmetic service
will wait until the following service, provided there are better weather conditions. There will also be heavy
amounts of dirt in your pool/spa and your technician can only vacuum as well as your equipment will allow.
If you have old or out dated equipment recovery can be a very slow process.

 If you require extra service to clean your pool/spa more quickly you can schedule an extra service call
with your technician at a rate of $ 35.00 per 30 minute service call. Keep in mind that some weather
damage clean up can take several hours.

Here are a few things that you can do to help keep your pool/spa safe during the wind and rain season:

        Pull out any large debris that might cause damage to your pool/spa
        Check the skimmer and pump baskets and empty them frequently between service
         visits if they are full, else they will break and cause damage to your pump
        Check your floor cleaner if you have one for any clogs or stuck debris to help keep it
         running properly

                                                                     108
      If in doubt and you fear damage may occur, turn your pool/spa timer off and contact
       your service technician
      Remove any glass tables from the pool/spa area during the windy season as it is in
       risk of knocking over, breaking and glass and other hazardous debris being knocked
       into the pool/spa

Remember, when the winds and rain come everyone’s pool/spa are affected. It may take a few weeks to
recover, however the more you are able to help with the weather damage clean up the faster your pool/spa
will be safe and looking beautiful again.




                                        Acme Water
                                          Pool Service
                                Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985



                          Summer Health and Safety
  Your pool/spa can be the focal point of your back yard and a great source of relaxation and
enjoyment. Owning a pool/spa is also a great responsibility. If health and safety are neglected
a pool/spa can become a hazard and unsafe liability of your home. The following is a list of helpful
tips that can help minimize any health and safety risks associated with your pool/spa and can help
to maximize your enjoyment of it.




                                                  109
  1. Make sure your pool/spa water is maintained        5. Remove large debris from pool/spa
     at the proper level. Your pool/spa should             between service visits. Often, during the
     always be filled to at least half way up the          windy season the strong winds can knock
     skimmer opening (the rectangular box                  chairs, tables, tree branches and other large
     opening along the top of the pool/spa). Low           debris into your pool/spa and such debris left
     pool/spa water can result in air being sucked         there can cause damage.
     into the pump causing it to run dry and burn
     out. Normal evaporation can result in your         6. Check your pool/spas skimmer and pump
     pool/spa losing as much as 2 or more inches           baskets between visits during the windy
     of water per week. Be sure to check your              season. Depending on the amount of debris
     pool/spas water level at least twice per week         around the pool/spa area the winds can knock
     and after each use.                                   a large amount of debris into your pool/spa.
                                                           Much of this debris will be collected in your
  2. Rinsing your face and body off before                 skimmer and pump baskets. If these baskets
     swimming will greatly reduce any redness of           become full from too much debris they can
     the eyes, itchiness and other swimmer                 break allowing that debris to clog or damage
     discomforts commonly associated with                  your pump. Keep the baskets clean between
     chlorine. Chlorine bonds with germs, bacteria         service visits during the windy season to help
     and swimmer wastes such as sweat, dead                reduce any risks of damage.
     skin, mucous and tears creating chloramines
     (that bad chlorine smell created when              7. Do not run around the pool/spa area. The
     chlorine bonds with and begins to burn away           area around the pool/spa can become
     waste). Chloramines are really what cause             slippery from the water and running on a wet
     most swimmer discomfort, not the chlorine             surface can result in accidents and injury.
     itself. Rinsing off before swimming will
     remove any swimmer waste and prevent               8. Protect yourself from the Sun’s harmful
     uncomfortable chloramines from forming.               ultra violet rays. Too much exposure to the
                                                           Sun’s ultra violet rays can result in sun burn
  3.   Make sure all pool/spa area and related             or similar skin related conditions. Be sure and
       gates are working properly. Keeping your            use proper protection.
       pool/spa secure from unattended children can
       help to prevent accidents and drowning.          9. Contact your service technician before
                                                           having a pool/spa party so that he can
  4. Remove all toys from the pool/spa area                prepare the water prior to the event for heavy
     after use. Toys in the pool/spa and                   usage and to leave with you with any extra
     surrounding area can lure small unattended            needed chemicals to add after the party.
     children risking accidents and drowning.              Additional charges for extra chemicals
                                                           may apply.




                                          Acme Water
                                             Pool Service
                                  Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985


                                 1 Month Free Service


 Since the founding of Acme Pool Service in 1997 the 1 month free
service for references has applied. We have never advertised in any
publication or otherwise. Rather than pay other services for advertising
                                                      110
we at Acme Pool Service would rather pay our customers back for their
assistance in helping our business to grow. We offer 1 month of free
service for any reference that signs up for monthly service.

  It is always an honor for a business to be referred to a customer’s
friends, family and neighbors as it shows a satisfaction in quality of
service.

 Please feel free to contact us or have any reference contact us and
mention you as the reference to receive a free month of service. There is
no limit to how many times this will apply to your account, although
service is restricted to certain areas within our route coverage.

 Thank you again sincerely for your business and support.

Sincerely,

Acme Water Pool Service




                                 Acme Water
                                    Pool Service
                          Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985


                            2008 Vacation List

 The following is a list of vacation days taken by your technician for 2008. These
scheduled annual vacation days will not be reflected in your monthly bill. If you
are in need of service during these vacation days please contact your technician to
schedule an extra service call.

                                           111
         Holiday                                 Days

       New Year’s                Tue. Jan. 1st, 2008
        Day 2008
         Spring                  Mon. Mar. 24th thru
        Vacation                   Sun. Mar. 30th
        Memorial                   Mon. May 26th
          Day
     Independence                   Fri. July 4th
          Day
         Labor                     Mon. Sept. 1st
          Day
    Veterans/Patriots             Thur. Sept. 11th
          Day
      Thanksgiving           Thur. Nov. 27th and
                               Fri. Sept. 28th
         Winter              Thur. Dec. 25th thru
        Vacation               Wed. Dec. 31st
       New Year’s            Thur. Jan. 1st, 2009
        Day 2009




                                     Invoice #                           1108
Acme Water Pool Service
                                     Payment Due Date                    11/20/08
   123 N. Imaginary Ave.
   Happy Town, Ca 98765                        Annual Account Summary
        (818) xxx-xxxx
                                     Monthly Service                      $ 95.00
                                     Conditioner (Feb. and Sept.)         $ 35.00
                                     Algaecide (June)                     $ 75.00
                                     Filter Sanitation (Apr. and Oct.)    $ 85.00
       Joe Schmoe
   1234 E. Customer Ln.
    Coolsville, Ca 91234

                           112
Quantity Item/Service                                                                                             Price
               October service                                                                                   $ 95.00
               Filter sanitation                                                                                 $ 85.00
     1         Filter tank o-ring                                                                                $ 12.50




Thank you for your business.                                                                                   Total Due
                                                                                                               $ 192.50
Please make check payable to: Acme Water Pool Service
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Please note: A $15.00 late fee will be applied to any payment not Helpful Tips of the Month
received by the 30th of each month.


                 Invoice #                 1108                          * These dry air conditions will cause evaporation
                                                                         of your swimming pool water. Be sure and check
                 Payment Due Date          11/20/08
                                                                         your water level and add water regularly.
                 Total Due                 $ 192.50
                 Payment Enclosed                                        * November holidays: Thurs and Fri, November
                                                                            th     th
                           Payment From:                                 27 and 28 Thanksgiving. No service provided
                                                                         on those days.

                 Joe Schmoe                                              * The Santa Ana wind season is here. Please
                                                                         keep any glass table tops away from the pool
             1234 E. Customer Ln.                                        area and cut back any excessive foliage if able.
                                                                         Keep pump and skimmer baskets clean.
              Coolsville, Ca 91234

                                                 Acme Water
                                                      Pool Service
                                          Quality Pool and Spa Service since 1985


                               Field Technician Water Chemistry Analysis

Date: _______           Customer: ________________ Technician: ______________

Pool Type:      O   Plaster           O   3M Color Quartz         O   Painted
                O   Fiberglass        O   Vinyl                   O   Pebble Tech
Spa Type:       O   Plaster           O   3M Color Quartz         O   Painted
                O   Fiberglass        O   Vinyl                   O   Pebble Tech

Pool/Spa Size: ________ Gallons Pool/Spa Surface Conditions: _________

                                                            113
Present Condition of Water:                              Clear _______ Cloudy______ Algae______

Type of Filtration:                  D.E._________ Cartridge_________ Sand___________

Filter Pressure: ______PSI

Type of Chlorination: Salt______ 3” Tab Floater______ Chlorinator__________

                                                                   Water Test Results

                Test                                               Result                              Ideal Range
Free Available Chlorine                                                                                                3.0 - 5.0 ppm
Bromine                                                                                                                3.0 - 5.0 ppm
pH Balance                                                                                                                7.4 - 7.6
Total Alkalinity                                                                                                       80 - 120 ppm
Cyanuric Acid (Conditioner)                                                                                             70 - 90 ppm
Total Dissolved Solids                                                                                                2500 ppm Max
Calcium Hardness                                                                                                      200 - 500 ppm
Copper/Iron                                                                                                            0.2 ppm Max
Phosphates                                                                                                           0 - 200 ppm Max
Salinity (Salt)                                                                                                      3000 - 3500 ppm

                                           Notes
      1.    ___________________________________________________________
      2.    ___________________________________________________________
      3.    ___________________________________________________________
      4.    ___________________________________________________________
      5.    ___________________________________________________________
      6.    ___________________________________________________________
      7.    ___________________________________________________________
      8.    ___________________________________________________________




                Pool Draining, Tile Cleaning, Acid Wash & Repair Waiver
                                                                  Disclosure Statement And Acknowledgement

DRAINING AND/OR ACID WASH TREATMENT OF A SWIMMING POOL’S FINISH ARE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES USUALLY NEEDED
PERIODICALLY THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF A SWIMMING POOL. HOWEVER, SINCE THESE PROCEDURES INVOLVE DRAINING THE SWIMMING
POOL AND APPLYING CHEMICALS TO THE PLASTER, THERE ARE CERTAIN RISKS INVOLVED NOT NORMALLY ASSOCIAED WITH DAY TO DAY
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES AND WHICH ARE NOT WITHIN THE CONTROL OF THE POOL SERVICE TECHNICIAN. THE PURPOSE OF THIS
STATEMENT IS TO PROVIDE YOU, THE CUSTOMER, WITH ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THESE PROCEDURES AND INFORM YOU OF
SOME OF THE RISKS INVOLVED AND WHAT THE TYPICAL RESULTS OF SUCH PROCEDURES ARE.

Periodic draining of swimming pool water is a common maintenance practice. It is routinely performed to remove water that has become hard or laden with excessive
minerals, or to perform repairs to a pool. Normally, removal of water from a pool causes no problems. However there are a few things that can happen of which you should
be aware. When the water is removed, the pool may rise out of the ground, a condition often times caused by hydrostatic pressure (i.e., too much moisture in the soil). Once
exposed to air, tile may fall off the pool; the plaster can shrink, expand, crack, blister, flake or pop off, etc. These problems do not normally occur, and are beyond the control
of the person who has simply "drained the water." However, the possibility of these problems can be reduced by not draining the pool during the wetter times of the year, not
leaving the pool empty for more than 48 hours during hot or dry weather before refilling. Repairs that require the draining of a pool should be made as quickly as possible
and the pool refilled as soon as possible.

                                                                                      114
______________________________________ will empty your pool/spa, for the following service needs:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Owner acknowledges that _______________________________________________ is not responsible for the structural integrity of an empty pool/spa. Any and all
damages, losses, and expenses, including, but not limited to structural problems, existing or new movement, water table conditions, soil conditions or acts of nature that
contribute to structural damage to the swimming pool/spa, coping, decking, tile, plumbing, electrical, or related surface failure of (plaster, fiberglass, pebble or paint), arising
from empty pool/spa is the responsibility of the owner.

WARNING: Special problems to plaster, fiberglass or other pool surfaces, such as crazing, spalling, chipping, peeling or de-lamination may result from emptying the
pool/spa. These conditions may also occur during the refill, when performing the needed repairs, or after the completion of the repairs. It is fully understood that if these
problems do occur it is beyond the control of responsibility of the pool service company. The pool/spa should be left empty only to complete repairs in a timely manner. The
owner is advised to contact the installation contractor (plaster or fiberglass) prior to emptying the pool/spa. Several instructions or warranty issues may need clarification
prior to emptying the pool/spa.


                                                ACID WASHING AND ACID TREATMENTS
The decision to use acid procedures to remove stains and mineral build-up from a pool’s surface should be very carefully considered. Under most circumstances staining or
mineral build-up takes many months or years to accumulate. While acid treatments are recognized as a common procedure for removal, there are several problems that may
occur. The process of applying acid to plaster surfaces may cause the surface to etch, become rough or expose the aggregate in the plaster mix. To what degree this occurs
depends on the concentration of acid, the temperature of the stain being removed and the quality and condition of the plaster itself. In some cases cracking, thinning or
delamination of the tile and plaster could be a pre-existing condition and is beyond the control of the acid wash applicator. Consideration should be given to the experience
and recommendation of the applicator and if you have any doubts, seek a second opinion and/or additional information.

An evenly colored, smooth texture after an acid procedure is a totally unrealistic expectation. The stains most likely took a long period of time to develop, and could be
embedded deeply into the plaster material. At best, the consumer can expect the pool’s appearance to look "brighter" than before, with some stains remaining. Sanding will
aid in the restoration of the pool’s surface texture.

BY SIGNING IN THE PLACE INDICATED BELOW YOU ARE ACKNOWLEDGING THAT YOU HAVE READ AND UNDERSTOOD THE RISKS, TERMS,
CONDITIONS AND OTHER INFORMATION DISCLOSED THAT THE ABOVE LISTED. YOU HAVE WAIVED ALL RIGHTS TO DAMAGE DONE TO THE
POOL/SPA AS A RESULT FROM REMOVING THE WATER FROM THE POOL/SPA AND THAT COMPLETE REMOVAL OF ALL STAINS IS NEITHER
GUARANTEED NOR REPRESENTED.


Owner’s name_____________________________ Owner’s Signature___________________________

Address: ________________________________________________________Date: __________________________




                       26. Service Technician Training Guide Tests

These tests are here to reflect on the lessons you have learned in this training manual. Hopefully
this manual has proven to be a quality guide to help you along in becoming a knowledgeable and
quality swimming pool service technician.

Section 3: Three Keys to Clear, Clean and Healthy Water:
1. There are 3 keys to clear, clean and healthy water. They
   are:
            O       A. Chlorine, acid and salt
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       O   B. Clarity, fluidity and taste
       O   C. Circulation, filtration and chemical balance
2. Circulation is:
       O   A. The flow or current in water
       O   B. How the water is filtered
       O   C. When you super chlorinate or shock the water
3. An average sized pool and spa of about 20,000 gallons should circulate for
   how long per day?
       O   A. All day long

       O   B. 4 – 5 hours per day
       O   C. Once per week
       O   D. 6 – 8 hours per day
4. When a body of water is not circulating it becomes:
       O   A. Sun damaged
       O   B. Bad smelling
       O   C. Stagnant
5. There are three primary types of filters in the swimming pool service. They are:
      O    A. Metal, plastic and fiberglass
      O    B. Silver, tan and grey
      O    C. Diatomaceous earth, cartridge and sand



6. The entire body of water should be passed through the filter at least how often?
      O A. Once per day
      O B. Once per week
      O C. Once per month
7. The filter’s job is to hold what sort of material?
      O A. Water, chlorine and acid
      O B. Earth, wind and fire
      O C. Dirt and debris
8. What will cause dirt and debris to pass through the filter and back into the swimming pool?


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      O A. An improperly assembled filter
      O B. A tear in one or more of the filter grids or cartridge
      O C. Damage to the inner structure of the filter
      O D. All of the above
9. What is the single most important key to keeping water healthy and killing algae?
      O A. Circulation
      O B. Filtration
      O C. Chemical balance
10. Bad water chemistry can cause what kinds of problems?
      O A.    Swimmer discomfort
      O B.    Swimmer illness
      O C.    Damage to the surface
      O D.    Damage to the equipment
      O E.    All of the above



Section 4: About Chlorine, Sanitizers and Oxidizers:
1. Chlorine is a Greek word meaning:
       O   A. Khlôros, meaning 'pale green'
       O   B. Sulfuric salt
       O   C. White plastic bottle



2. Chlorine in its natural form is a:
       O   A. Liquid
       O   B. Solid
       O   C. Gas
3. Chlorine is both a sanitizer and an oxidizer. What does it mean to sanitize?
       O   A. Sanitize is to wash ones hands

       O   B. Sanitize means to add soap
       O   C. Sanitize means to kill germs and bacteria
       O   D. Sanitize means to make clean
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4. Chlorine is both a sanitizer and an oxidizer. What does it mean to oxidize?
      O    A. To oxidize means to use oxygen
      O    B. To oxidize, much like a chemical fire, means to burn up organic material including
              germs, bacteria, human waste such as sweat, dead skins cells, tears, mucous,
              urine and feces as well as other harmful organisms such as algae.
      O    C. To oxidize means to add acid
5. When chlorine bonds with and begins to sanitize and oxidize organic material in the water it
   creates a foul chlorine and ammonia like smell. This combined chlorine is called a:
      O    A. Chloramine
      O    B. Hypochlorous acid
      O    C. Water salinity
6. Chloramines are combined chlorine with organic material in the water. Chlorine bonds and
   burns away organic material such as human waste like sweat, dead skin cells, mucous,
   urine, feces and in this process causes a foul smell. Swimmers can eliminate this reaction
   by simply doing what before they enter the water?
      O A. Rinse off before swimming to eliminate the organic material that chlorine will bond
           with
      O B. Improve their personal hygiene and think about using deodorant now and again
      O C. brush their teeth more than once a day
7. Chloramines can cause what swimmer discomforts?
      O A. Irritable bowel syndrome
      O B. Bubonic plague
      O C. Red and irritated eyes and rashes and itchy, dry skin



8. What causes water to become dull, listless and cloudy?
      O A. Organic material in the water
      O B. A cloudy day
      O C. Kids peeing too much in the water
      O D. Dogs swimming
9. Liquid chlorine has a very high pH balance of about 13. To account for this pH increase for
   gallon of liquid chlorine added you should also add:
      O A. ¼ gallon of Muriatic acid
      O B. 1 gallon of 2% low fat milk

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      O C. Add more water to the pool
10. Dichlor granular chlorine has 2 elements in it. They are:
      O A. Chlorine and acid
      O B. Liquid chlorine and water
      O C. Hopes and dreams
      O D. Chlorine and conditioner
11. Trichlor 3” tablets have 3 elements in them. They are:
     O A. Chlorine, bromine and ammonia
     O B. Chlorine, acid and conditioner
     O C. Hopes, dreams and good intentions
12. Trichlor, whether it be in tablets or granular has acid in it and if left on the surface of a pool
    could cause what sort of damage?
    O A. The acid in the tablets or granular could etch the plaster or surface or even burn
         holes and stain the surface. Such damage is often seen on the top step of a plaster
         pool as the results of a 3” tablet floater sitting over the top step for long periods of
         time.
    O B. The acid could release air bubbles into the water
    O C. The acid could increase the filter pressure
13. 3” Trichlor chlorine tablets dissolve slowly, depending upon the temperature of the water and
    the circulation. While this form of chlorine does not add an immediate dose of chlorine to the
    water it can be:
    O A. An effective back up chlorination method to replace the chlorine used during heavy
         Use
    O B. An effective way to add conditioner to the pool
    O C. An effective way to lower the pH balance of the water

14. The negative effects of using Calcium Hypochlorite are:
    O A. It smells funny
    O B. It increases the calcium hardness due to the high calcium content and can
         temporarily cloud the water when added
    O C. Can increase the amount of conditioner in the water
15. Salt is Sodium Chloride. As the salt crystals pass through a salt system cell some of the
    chloride gas is freed from its confining sodium chloride crystals. Once free from the crystals
    the chloride gas by itself is called:
    O A. Salty
    O B. Chlorine
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    O C. Acid
16. The salt level for a salt chlorination system should be maintained at what levels?
     O A. 2000 – 5000 ppm
     O B. 3250 – 3500 ppm
     O C. 150 – 300 ppm
17. The chlorine generated from a salt chlorination system has a very high pH balance of about
    13. To lower this pH balance and keep the chlorine in its effective killing range you must add
     what to the water?
     O A. Muriatic acid
     O B. More salt
     O C. Conditioner
18. Chlorine is only in its killing form in low pH balance conditions. What is the proper pH
    balance to maintain at all times for the most comfortable water for the swimmer and to
    keep the chlorine in its optimal killing form?
     O A. 6.5 – 7.0 pH
     O B. 7.4 – 7.6 pH
     O C. 8.0 – 8.2 pH
19. Chlorine is consumed by bonding with germs, bacteria and organic material but is destroyed
    by the Sun’s harmful ultra violet rays. What is added to the water to protect the chlorine from
    these U.V. rays?
    O A. Muriatic acid
    O B. Conditioner (Cyanuric acid)
    O C. Salt



20. Chlorine levels should be maintained at what level at all times?
    O A. 1.5 – 2 ppm
    O B. 6 – 10 ppm
    O C. 3 – 5 ppm


Section 5: pH Balance (Power of Hydrogen):

1. pH is a measurement of:
      O    A. How much chlorine is in the water

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      O    B. The measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
      O    C. The amount of conditioner in the water
2. What does pH stand for?
       O   A. Potens Hydrogen (Latin for Hydrogen Power)
       O   B. Power of Hydrogen
       O   C. Potential of Hydrogen
       O   D. Pondus Hydrogenii (Latin)

       O   E. Pouvoir Hydrogène (French)
       O   F. All of the above

3. Chlorine is most active and in its killing form in low pH conditions. The ideal pH balance of
   swimming pool water should be:
       O   A. 7.8 – 8.0

       O   B. 7.4 – 7.6
       O   C. 6.5 – 7.0
4. Who first introduced the concept of pH?
       O   A. Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen at the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909
       O   B. Richard Nixon in Yorba Linda, Ca in 1978
       O   C. Charlie Taylor in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1983
5. One reason to keep the pH balance at 7.3 – 7.4 is because it is close to a human’s pH
   balance. What is a human’s natural pH balance?
      O    A. 7.25 – 7.5
      O    B. 8.0 – 8.45
      O    C. 7.34 – 7.45

6. A pH below 7.0 causes water to become:
      O A. Lemonade
      O B. Acidic and corrosive, causing metals to dissolve and cause staining
      O C. Basic and alkaline
7. High pH balance can cause what harmful effects?
      O A.    Scaling water
      O B.    Plugged filters
      O C.     Reduced circulation

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      O D.     Cloudy water
      O E.     Chlorine inefficiency
      O F.     Swimmer irritation
      O G.     All of the above
8. pH balance is lowered by adding:
      O A.     Sodium Bicarbonate
      O B.     Muriatic Acid
      O C.     Liquid Chlorine
9. pH balance is increased by adding:
      O A. Soda Ash
      O B. Sodium Bromide
      O C. Conditioner
10. Water’s natural pH balance is:
     O A.     7.2
     O B.      8.0 - 8.2
     O C.     7.6


Section 6: Total Alkalinity (TA):
1. What is alkalinity a measurement of?
       O   A. How much soda ash is in the water
       O   B. The amount of acid in the water
       O   C. The ability of a solution (water) to neutralize acids based on the amount of
              alkaline particles in the water

2. Total alkalinity is a measurement of the waters ability to neutralize:
       O   A. Chlorine
       O   B. Acid
       O   C. Soda ash
3. Total alkalinity in swimming pool water should be maintained at:
       O   A. 200 – 250 ppm

       O   B. 80 – 120 ppm
       O   C. 40 – 60 ppm
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4. Alkaline particles determine the ability of water to resist changes in the:
       O    A. pH
       O    B. Free Available Chlorine
       O    C. Calcium Hardness
5. What can be added to the water to increase the total alkalinity?
      O     A.    Muriatic acid
      O     B. 3” Trichlor tablets
      O     C. Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
6. Total alkalinity and pH balance are both related in what way?
      O A. Muriatic acid lowers both of them when added
      O B. Total alkalinity determines the rate of change of pH balance
      O C. Total alkalinity acts as a buffer to protect pH balance from making drastic changes
      O D. All of the above
7. What is used to lower total alkalinity?
      O A.       Liquid chlorine
      O B.       Salt
      O C.       Muriatic acid
8. If the total alkalinity is too low than when acid is added it will result in:
      O A.       Drastic pH bounce and instability
      O B.       Highly unbalanced water condition resulting in damage to copper heat exchangers,
                 light rings, stainless steel ladders, and concrete pool surfaces
      O C.       Both A and B



9. A high total alkalinity can result in:
      O A. Scaling water
      O B. Plugged filters
      O C. Reduced circulation
      O D. Cloudy water
      O E. Increased rise in pH balance
      O F. All of the above
10. While pH balance can change from one day to the next, total alkalinity is much slower to rise
                                           123
     and fall taking:
     O A.     hours to change, rather than days
     O B.     weeks to change, rather than days
     O C.     years to change, rather than days


Section 7: Conditioner, Stabilizer (Cyanuric Acid):
1. Cyanuric acid is also called and known as:
       O   A. Conditioner
       O   B. Stabilizer
       O   C. Both A and B
2. Conditioner is added to the water slowly through the skimmer to:
       O   A. Increase the pH balance
       O   B. Clean the filter
       O   C. Protect the chlorine from the Sun’s harmful ultra violet rays
3. Conditioner fall out staining will most often happen with older water and at very cold
   temperatures, though has been known to fall out in other conditions as well, such as
   low pH conditions from acidic water (below 7.0). What do conditioner stains look like?
     O A.     At 110+ ppm you’ll see a light purple dust coat on the surface that can usually be
              brushed away.
     O B.     At 120+ ppm you will see a heavier purple dust coat on the surface that does not
              brush away and the beginnings of a deeper shade of purple vertical lines, as if
              scribbled in with a Crayon, along the walls
     O C.     At 130+ ppm you will see a deep purple dust coat and splotches on the surface as
              well as dark purple vertical lines, as if gouged in with a Crayon
     O D.     All of the above


4. Without conditioner, chlorine will:
       O   A. Be unprotected from the Sun’s U.V. rays and will not last long in the water,
              causing unstable chlorine bounce and allowing chlorine resistant algae to grow
       O   B. Be increased, causing super chlorination or break point chlorination
       O   C. Be in its maximum killing form
5. Too much conditioner in the water (over 100 ppm) can cause:
      O    A. A light purple staining over the pool’s surface, plastic parts, baskets, floor cleaner,
              main drain lids and plumbing

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      O    B. Chlorine instability
      O    C. High Total Alkalinity
6. Name two types of chlorine that also have conditioner in them:
      O A. Muriatic Acid and Liquid Chlorine
      O B. Calcium Hypochlorite and Sodium bromine
      O C. Dichlor granular chlorine and Trichlor chlorine including granular, 1 inch and 3 inch
           tablets
7. How do you reduce the conditioner level in a pool if the conditioner level is too high?
      O A.    Add more chlorine to use up the conditioner
      O B.    Back washing the filter, splash and draining the water out of the pool
      O C.     Add muriatic acid
8. Conditioner is never added directly to the pool as it is an acid and when sitting on the surface
   can etch and stain the surface. Conditioner also has to break down under pressure. How do
   you apply conditioner to the pool water?
      O A.    Just add Dichlor and 3 “ Trichlor tablets only to slowly raise the conditioner level
      O B.    Dump it all in the skimmer at one time and turn off the pump
      O C.    With the pump running, slowly add the conditioner, 1 to 2 lbs at a time in through
              skimmer, wait a few minutes, and add more as needed as to not clog up the pump
              basket. Make sure the pump runs for at least 4 hours to break down the conditioner
              inside the filter under pressure to slowly disperse it into the swimming pool water.
9. Why should you never try to raise the conditioner level to 90 to 100 ppm all at one time?
      O A. You risk over estimating how much conditioner is needed and add too much and
           have to drain the pool down to get rid of the excess conditioner
      O B. Conditioner is expensive and you want to save some for later
      O C. Too much conditioner will cause you to lose chlorine in the water



10. The conditioner level should always be kept at:
       O   A. 40 – 60 ppm

       O   B. 100 – 150 ppm
       O   C. 70 – 90 ppm


Section 8: Calcium Hardness:
1. Hard water is the type of water that has high:

                                                125
      O    A. Conditioner
      O    B. Chlorine levels
      O    C. Mineral content
2. Hard water minerals primarily consist of:
      O    A. Copper and Iron
      O    B. Calcium (Ca2+), and Magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations
      O    C. Cobalt and Manganese
3. The term “hard” water comes from what industry?
     O A.    The term “hard” comes from the laundry detergent industry and means that it is
             “hard” to form suds
     O B.    The term “hard” water comes from the swimming pool industry and means the
             water is “hard” to kill algae
     O C.     The term “hard” water comes from the chlorine industry and means the water is
              “hard” to retain chlorine
4. Water with calcium hardness below 180 ppm will become:
      O    A. Corrosive and look to pull calcium out of the plaster, tile grout and the concrete in
              the deck
      O    B. “Hard” and should be drained
      O    C. Ideal and should be kept below 180 ppm
5. Water with high calcium hardness, over 500 ppm:
      O    A. Scaling water and plugged filters
      O    B. Reduced circulation and cloudy water
      O    C. Heater inefficiency and additional calcium deposits on the tile and spill ways
      O    D. All of the above



6. Calcium hardness, when below 180 ppm, can be raised by adding:
      O A.    Muriatic acid
      O B. Sodium bicarbonate
      O C. Calcium elevator
7. You can reduce the calcium hardness in the water by:
      O A.     Add more chlorine to neutralize the calcium
      O B.    Back washing the filter, splash and draining the water out of the pool

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      O C.      Add soap to the water
8. Calcium hardness should be maintained at:
      O A.      180 to 500 ppm
      O B.      100 to 150 ppm
      O C.      500 to 1,000+ ppm
9. According to the United States Geological Survey, what percent of homes in the U.S. have
   hard water?
      O A. 62.8%
      O B. 25.5%
      O C. 89.3%
10. Hard water leaves the swimmer’s skin feeling “less than clean”, while soft water leaves the
    swimmer’s skin feeling:
      O    A. Dry and irritated

      O    B. Slippery
      O    C. Like there is a film or debris sticking to it


Section 9: Algae! Know Your Enemy:
1. Algae are:
      O    A. Single-cell plants containing chlorophyll. They are some of the hardiest and
              most widespread organisms living on the planet, existing in over 30,000
              different varieties
      O    B. Discolorations in the plaster resulting from bad water chemistry
      O    C. Stains left from leaves and debris




2. What does algae require to grow?
      O    A. Warm water
      O    B. Sunlight
      O    C. Carbon Dioxide
      O    D. All of the above
3. Yellow algae can exist and grow even in water with how much chlorine?
      O    A. 0.5 to 3.0

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      O   B. 1.0 to 3.0
      O   C. 3.0 to 5.0
      O   D. All of the above
4. Yellow algae appear as:
      O   A. A yellow powdery growth
      O   B. A green thick growth covering the entire pool
      O   C. Small bluish-black spots
5. There are about how many species of green algae?
      O   A. 600
      O   B. 6000
      O   C. 60
6. The green algae (singular: green alga) are the large group of algae from which the
   embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. This means that green algae is one of the primary
   sources that other plants have eveolved from. Is this statement true or false?
      O A. True
      O B. False
7. Green algae can be found:
      O A. On the walls
      O B. On the floor
      O C. Floating in the water, giving it that green tinge
      O D. Floating on the surface
      O E. All of the above




8. Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a
   phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name
   "cyanobacteria" comes from Greek word κυανός (kyanós) for the color of the bacteria and
   means:

      O A. Black
      O B. Blue
      O C. Bacteria
9. Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing cyanobacteria have been found from:

                                               128
      O A. 280 million years ago
      O B. 2.8 million years ago
      O C. 2.8 billion years ago
10. Black (blue-green) Algae is evident by the formation of:
     O A. Yellow powdery deposits on the walls
     O B. Small dime (or smaller) to quarter sized black (or blue-green) spots
     O C. A green tinge to the water
11. Black (blue-green) algae is:
     O A. Present by thick, black slimy nodules tenaciously adhering to the surface
     O B. Very resistant to chlorine
     O C. Likely to return over time due to having very deep roots
     O D. All of the above
12. Algae can bloom:
    O A.    Within 12 hours in untreated water
    O B.    When the pH balance rises causing the chlorine to become inefficient
    O C.    When the conditioner level is too low causing chlorine bounce or unstable chlorine
            levels
    O D.    All of the above
13. Phosphates are:
    O A.    Microscopic dead plant material that provide food for algae
    O B. Found in almost everything, including the tap water, air, plants and even within our
         own body
    O C. Absorbed by algae as a food source and once the algae blooms it has consumed all
         the phosphates it needs to live out its entire life
    O D.    All of the above

14. Algae is harmful and unhealthy for swimmers because:
    O A. It harbors and protects germs and bacteria
    O B. It looks unsightly
    O C. It sticks to the swimmer
15. Algae can grow, all though it would be weak and unhealthy, even in perfect water chemistry
    conditions:
    O A. True

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    O B. False


Section 10: Algaecides and Phosphate Removers:
1. There are three main groups of algaecides:
       O   A. Copper, ammonia and sodium bromine
       O   B. Silver, copper and zinc
       O   C. Quats, polyquats and copper salts
2. An algaestat is:
       O   A.   A preventative maintenance treatment to prevent algae growth
       O   B.   A powerful algaecide that kills algae on location
       O   C.   A mixture of copper and bromine
3. Metal based algaecides cause the chlorine to work more efficiently, however can also cause:
       O   A. Rapid chlorine depletion

       O   B. Staining on the swimming pool surface, equipment and tile

       O   C. The algae to become resistant or immune to chlorine
4. Liquid application, zinc balls and Nature2 cartridges are all ways of distributing:
       O   A. Chlorine evenly throughout the water
       O   B. Metals into the water
       O   C. Sanitizer into the water




5. Many metal based algaecides, such as the Nature2 system claim that you can allow the
   chlorine level to drop to as low as 1.5 ppm (parts per million) due to the chlorine being more
   efficient because of their product, however without enough sanitizer and oxidizer in the water
   to kill germs and bacteria and burn away organic material water will become:
      O    A.   Dull and cloudy
      O    B. Tinged in a green color
      O    C. Drinkable and healthy
6. Sodium Bromine works just as chlorine does as a sanitizer and an oxidizer however, it is
                                                 130
   different in that:
      O A. It has metals in it
      O B. It is unaffected by pH balance and is not protected by conditioner
      O C. It has acid in it
7. As sodium bromine is destroyed by the Sun’s U.V. rays chlorine will:
      O A. Sacrifice itself to recharge the sodium bromine
      O B. Take the place of sodium bromine as a sanitizer and oxidizer
      O C. Further speed up the destruction process as to remove the sodium bromine
8. When using a sodium bromine based algaecide it is good to:
      O A.     Add additional chlorine to keep the sodium bromine charged
      O B.     Lower the pH balance to help the sodium bromine sanitize more effectively
      O C.     Raise the conditioner level to protect the sodium bromine
9. Phosphates are:
      O A. Algae spores
      O B. Dead plant material and food for algae
      O C. Plants that fall into the water
10. Once algae blooms it has consumed enough phosphates to:
     O A. Live its entire life
     O B. Destroy the chlorine in the water
     O C. Neutralize the acid in water




11. Phosphates can be found in:
     O A.     Drinking water, food and the human body
     O B.     Air, soil and swimming pool fill water
     O C.     Liquid chlorine and many other swimming pool service chemicals
     O D.     All of the above
12. Algae need very little phosphates in order to bloom, colonize and live its entire life:
    O A. True
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    O B. False
13. When algae die it becomes:
    O A. Chloramines
    O B. A sanitizer and oxidizer
    O C. Phosphates
14. Phosphate removers work by:
    O A.    Causing the phosphates in the water to clump up together in large enough amounts
            to be collected in the filter
    O B.    Sanitizing and oxidizing the phosphates
    O C.    Politely asking the phosphates to relocate to someone else’s pool
15. When phosphates clump up together they can create more mass and fall out of circulation
    causing a white, slimy snow like fall out on the surface. When this is vacuumed up or makes
    its way to the filter the filter pressure will:
    O A. Greatly increase and the filter will need to be backwashed and possibly even cleaned
    O B.    Remain the same and compact the phosphates
    O C.    Automatically dispose of the phosphates
16. Algae can bloom when:
     O A. The sanitizer and oxidizer (chlorine usually) become too low
     O B. The pH balance becomes too high and thus not allowing the sanitizer to work
     O C. The conditioner level is too low causing the chlorine level to radically bounce and
          be unstable
     O D.    At anytime, even in perfect water chemistry conditions
     O E.    All of the above




17. Chlorine is poisonous to algae, however if the chlorine is weak due to high pH, is unstable
    due to low conditioner levels or the amount of regular Free Available Chlorine is not
    maintained at a high enough level than:
     O A. The algae can not bloom
     O B. The muriatic acid will be ineffective
     O C. The algae may be weakened, but not killed and as it colonizes and continues to
          grow it becomes very resistant to chlorine
18. Always brush algae with a wall brush when treating it to:
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     O A. Knock away the protective blossom (the part of algae that we can see) to expose the
          roots to the swimming pool water’s chemicals and algaecides
     O B. Remove the visible algae, making the pool surface look better
     O C. Both A and B
19. After an algae removal has been done it is good to backwash or clean the filter to:
    O A. Create another charge for the customer
    O B. Remove conditioner from the water
    O C. Remove the dead algae from the filter and maximize circulation and filtration
20. When scrubbing black algae with a steel wire brush it is best to:
    O A. Scrub lightly as to not damage your brush
    O B. Only scrub the places where you can see the algae
    O C. Rinse your brush off afterwards with liquid chlorine as black algae can be transmitted
         from one pool to another


Section 12: Salt Chlorination Systems:
1. Salt is composed of:
       O   A. Muriatic acid
       O   B. Sodium chloride or sodium and chlorine
       O   C. Chlorine, acid and conditioner
2. The salt chlorination system’s cell frees the:
       O   A.   Chlorine from the sodium chloride crystals
       O   B.   Acid from the hypochlorous acid
       O   C.   Salt from the water



3. The chlorine freed and introduced to the water is in its gas form and has a high pH balance of:
       O   A.   11 to 13

       O   B.   6.5 to 8.0
       O   C.   7.0
4. Because salt systems constantly increase the pH balance of the water, and being that
   chlorine needs low pH conditions to be in its killing form more acid than normal must be used
   to keep the pH balance at:


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       O   A. 8.0 to 8.2
       O   B. 7.6 to 7.8
       O   C. 7.4 to 7.6
5. A salt cell should be inspected and if need be cleaned once every:
      O    A.    90 days
      O    B.    Year
      O    C.    Month
6. The main benefit to the swimmer of using a salt chlorination system is that:
      O A.      A salt chlorination system is much less expensive to operate than traditional
                chlorine methods

      O B.      The water requires far less acid to balance the pH
      O C. The water feels softer and easier on the swimmer
7. By adding more acid to reduce the pH balance to a salt chlorinated pool than a regular pool,
   not only the pH is being lowered but also the:
      O A. Total Alkalinity
      O B. Conditioner level
      O C. Calcium Hardness
8. Most salt chlorination systems require the salt level to be between:
      O A. 4,000 to 5,000 ppm
      O B. 1,000 to 1,500 ppm
      O C. 3,250 to 3,500 ppm
9. Salt is a natural corrosive to metals and can rust through and destroy a metal filter:
      O A. True
      O B. False



10. It is always important to test the salt level independently, separately from the salt system
    computer board using a salt test strip or an electronic salt reader because:
     O A. It is less expensive
     O B. The computer board can easily and often become inaccurate and give false
          readings
     O C. It is faster



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Section 13: About Swimming Pool Filters:
1. Most diatomaceous earth filters use how many grids?:
       O    A.    6
       O    B.    4
       O    C.    8
2. If there is a tear in the filter grid of a D.E. filter:
        O    A. The water will lose chlorine more rapidly
        O    B. The dirt and debris will leak through the tear and back into the pool
        O    C. The filter will collapse and you will need to replace the entire filter
3. When in backwash mode a D.E. filter will send much, but not all of the dirt and debris:
        O    A. Into the sewer line if it was properly plumbed or simply out through the backwash
                line

        O    B. Back into the swimming pool
        O    C. Into the spa
4. How much Diatomaceous Earth should be added to a D.E. filter after cleaning or
   backwashing?:
        O    A. 10 to 15 lbs.
        O    B. 20 lbs.
        O    C. 1 lbs. per 10 sq. ft. of filtration area of the filter
5. To lubricate, protect and make for easy reassembly and cleaning in the future a filter’s tank
   o-ring, each grid’s end piece and other screws and bolts that hold the filter together should be
   lubricated using:
       O     A. Baby oil
       O     B. Vaseline
       O     C. Teflon based lubricant such as Magic Lube


6. When cleaning a D.E. filter always clean the grids off in a place that will not be seen by the
   customer or will not dirty the customer’s yard and also always clean up your work area and
   around the skimmer from any spilled D.E. powder because:
       O A. Leaving such mess in a customer’s yard is seen as careless and unprofessional
       O B. Leaving behind dirt and debris is not something we can charge extra for
       O C. Customers actually enjoy cleaning up our mess, so it is usually ok
7. A cartridge filter does not have a backwash feature to aid in keeping the filter clean:

                                                       135
      O A. True
      O B. False
8. Cartridge filters do not use:
      O A. Chlorine in the water
      O B. Diatomaceous Earth to filter the water
      O C. Conditioner
9. A cartridge filter should be cleaned:
      O A. Every time the pool is vacuumed
      O B. Once every 6 months or as needed when the filter pressure increases
      O C. Whenever the mood strikes you
10. Sand filters should be backwashed about:
     O A. Once per week
     O B. Once per month
     O C. As the filter pressure increases
     O D. All of the above as needed



Section 14: Different Types of Pool and Spa Surfaces:
1. Plaster is very delicate at start-up when a pool is first surfaced. You must NOT use a regular
   vacuum, only a brush-vac on a new plaster pool for at least:
       O    A. 1 week
       O    B. 5 weeks
       O    C. 2 months




2. The chemicals for a brand new plaster start up must be added slowly, over__________ to
   prevent any staining to the new plaster.
       O   A. 1 month
       O   B. 1 year
       O   C. 1 week
3. Most, but not all staining can be removed from a plaster surface by:
       O   A.   Super chlorinating

                                                136
       O   B.    Adding additional sodium bromine
       O   C.    Acid washing the surface
4. On grey and black plaster surfaces you will see calcium staining much more than on a white
   plaster surface. This calcium staining will create a white and grey mottling effect over the
   surface and can not be acid washed off.
       O   A. True
       O   B. False
5. A Pebble-Tech or Pebble-Sheen (smaller pebbles are used for Pebble-Sheen) surface must
   be brush-vaced at start-up:
      O    A. True
      O    B. False
6. The darkest shades of Pebble-Tech or Pebble-Sheen surfaces should be avoided when
   recommending the product as to avoid:
      O A. Noticeable calcium staining on the surface that can not be acid washed off
      O B. The warmer water temperatures caused by the darker color absorbing and retaining
           more heat from the sunlight
      O C. The textured surface
7. 3M Color Quartz, also called Diamondite Quartz and Quartzite is similar to plaster, however it
   is a combination mixed with a 3M quartz product giving a variety of vibrant colors, sometimes
   with blue or white crystal like specks mixed into it giving it more reflective properties in light,
   however it is very durable and can be start up without brush vacing just like:
      O A. Plaster
      O B. Gunnite
      O C. Pebble-Tech
8. 3M color quartz can be acid washed to remove surface staining:
      O A. True
      O B. False

9. Fiberglass is not made up of an alkaline material and does not give off additional Total
   Alkalinity from friction with the water. This makes a Fiberglass surfaced pool or spa VERY
   sensitive to:
      O A.      Free Available Chlorine
      O B.      Acid and pH changes
      O C.      Conditioner, Cyanuric Acid levels
10. A more polished surface, such as fiberglass or an all tile surface is more reflective to sunlight
    and to the Sun’s harmful Ultra-Violet rays. These U.V. rays destroy chlorine. The U.V. rays
                                                137
     will reflect and bounce more in these types of pools affecting the chlorine more intensely.
     this means that:
     O A. The Free Available Chlorine level should be kept fairly strong, the conditioner level
          should always be at 100 ppm and a reliable chlorinator should be installed to help
          keep chlorine in the water
     O B.     Less chlorine is needed
     O C.     Less conditioner is needed
11. NEVER use a steel wire brush in a fiberglass, vinyl lined or all tile pool:
     O A. True
     O B. False
12. Always add as little acid as possible and be mindful of the pH balance when adding 3 inch
    tablets to a fiberglass or all tile pool because:
    O A. The chlorine level is too easily raised
    O B. These surfaces are VERY sensitive to acid and pH change
    O C. It will drop the conditioner out of circulation causing surface staining
13. When cleaning a vinyl lined pool always be VERY careful as not to:
    O A. Add too much sodium bromine
    O B. Over chlorinate
    O C. Tear or puncture the liner
14. ALWAYS use a steel wire brush to brush a vinyl lined or painted pool:
    O A. True
    O B. False




15. A painted pool can possibly be sensitive to acid and pH change, but not always, depending
    on the type of paint used and how glossy or reflective it is. Each painted surface can react to
    acid differently.
    O A. True
    O B. False


Section 15: Types of Surface Staining:

                                                 138
1.   Copper staining on the surface of the pool looks like:
        O   A.    Light to dark mottled and patchy turquoise blue stains on the surface
        O   B. Green and orange spotting
        O   C. Yellow powdery staining along the walls
2. When copper staining oxidizes it turns the existing blue copper stains on the surface:
        O   A. Purple
        O   B. Red
        O   C. Grey to black
3. Iron staining on the pool’s surface is:
       O A.      Orange-ish red to brown, often along the walls
       O B.      A deep grey to black color, usually on the floor
       O C.      White
4. Calcium is usually noticed along the water line or any spill ways and areas that get a lot of
   splash. Such calcium is caused by evaporation as when the water evaporates only the water
   itself, H2O, goes. The calcium, layer upon layer is left behind, day after day, minute after
   minute. Operating a pool durring non evaporation hours, early mornings or later evenings can
   help slow down the calcium deposit problem from evaporation as well as regularly coating the
   tile surface with an auto wax to help the water bead off more rapidly. Calcium also falls out
   onto the pool’s surface though we do not see it on white plaster pools. We can easily see it on
   colored pool surfaces. Other minerals and metals will stain onto calcium, using it like an
   anchor or a primer to adhere to more easily. Calcium also does not acid wash off as it is more
   dense than both the plaster surface and the grout in the tile and more damage will be done to
   the surface than to the calcium itself. What color is calcium when it falls out of circulation?
        O   A. Red
        O   B. Blue

        O   C. White




5. Conditioner will stain the surface, equipment and any plastics in the pool. What color is
   conditioner staining?:
       O    A. Light to dark blue found mostly on the floor
       O    B. A light powdery purple ranging from a dusty coat to deep lines on the walls
       O    C. White nodule like build ups usually along the tile surface
6. Sequestering and chelating (“key-late-ing”) treatments bond with any dissolved metal in the
   water and keep it from precipitating as a stain. These chemical compounds are also referred
   to as ____________________. Some are strong enough to pull metal deposits off the surface

                                                   139
   and back into solution, thereby removing the stain.:
      O A. Stain and scale inhibitors/preventors
      O B. Metal suspenders
      O C. Metal removers
      O D. All of the above
7. Draining and acid washing a pool will:
      O A.     Dissolve a fine layer of the plaster away, thereby removing much of the surface
               staining, but not all depending on how deep the staining is
      O B.     Super chlorinate the plaster, bleaching it back to its original color
      O C.     Pull the stains out of the plaster while leaving the plaster itself unharmed




Service Technician Manual Test Answers:

Section 3: Answers: 1. C, 2. A, 3. D, 4. C, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. D, 9. C, 10. E

Section 4: Answers: 1. A, 2. C, 3. C, 4. B, 5. A, 6. A, 7. C, 8. A, 9. A, 10. D,
        11. B, 12. A, 13. A, 14. B, 15. B, 16. B, 17. A, 18. B, 19. B, 20. C

Section 5: Answers: 1. B, 2. F, 3. B, 4. A, 5. C, 6. B, 7. G, 8. B, 9. A, 10. B

Section 6: Answers: 1. C, 2. B, 3. B, 4. A, 5. C, 6. D, 7. C, 8. C, 9. F, 10. B
                                                  140
Section 7: Answers: 1. C, 2. C, 3. D, 4. A, 5. A, 6. C, 7. B, 8. C, 9. A, 10. C

Section 8: Answers: 1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. A, 5. D, 6. C, 7. B, 8. A, 9. C, 10. B

Section 9: Answers: 1. A, 2. D, 3. D, 4. A, 5. B, 6. A, 7. E, 8. B, 9. C, 10. B,
                 11. D, 12. D, 13. D, 14. A, 15. A

Section 10: Answers: 1. C, 2. A, 3. B, 4. B, 5. A, 6. B, 7. A, 8. A, 9. B, 10. A,
         11. D, 12. A, 13. C, 14. A, 15. A, 16. E, 17. C, 18. A, 19. C, 20. C

Section 12: Answers: 1. B, 2. A, 3. A, 4. C, 5. A, 6. C, 7. A, 8. C, 9. A, 10. B

Section 13: Answers: 1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. C, 5. C, 6. A, 7. A, 8. B, 9. B, 10. D

Section 14: Answers: 1. B, 2. A, 3. C, 4. A, 5. B, 6. A, 7. C, 8. A, 9. B, 10. A,
                  11. A, 12. C, 13. C, 14. B, 15. A

Section 15: Answers: 1. A, 2. C, 3. A, 4. C, 5. B, 6. D, 7. A




    27. Glossary of Swimming Pool and Spa Service Terms

Acid
Chemical compound characterized by sour taste and a pH less than 7 with the ability, when in
solution, to react with a base to form a salt and to turn litmus red. Also, a substance that releases
hydrogen ions (H+) in water. In pool water maintenance Muriatic Acid and Sodium Bisulfate (Dry
Acid), also an acid, are used to lower pH and alkalinity.
                                                 141
Acid Demand
A measure of the amount of acid required to reduce pH to a predetermined level. This can be
accomplished using an acid titration procedure, referred to as an Acid Demand Test.

Algae
Tiny, hardy, plantlike organisms that will rapidly proliferate in water absent adequate sanitizer.
Algae do not cause diseases but can harbor bacteria that do. Green-, black-, and mustard-colored
algae are commonly seen in problem pools and spas. Here, besides being aesthetically
displeasing, algae are a safety concern because they create slippery surfaces and can make it
impossible to see a swimmer in trouble.

Algaecide
A chemical used to kill algae.

Algaestat
A chemical used to inhibit the growth of algae.

Alkalinity
See TOTAL ALKALINITY.

Bacteria
Potentially disease-causing, one-celled organisms requiring control by sanitizing agents.

Balanced Water
Water that is chemically stable, that is, neither corrosive nor scaling forming. The Langelier
Saturation Index (LSI) for perfectly balanced water equals zero.

Base
Chemical compounds characterized by bitter taste and a pH greater than 7 with the ability, when
in solution, to react with an acid to form a salt; also referred to as alkalis. Also, a substance that
releases hydroxyl ions (OH-) in water. In pool water maintenance two bases are commonly used:
Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate), to increase pH, and Baking Soda (Sodium bicarbonate), to
increase Total Alkalinity.




Base Demand
A measure of the amount of alkali material required to raise pH to a predetermined level. This can
be accomplished by use of a base titration procedure, referred to as a Base Demand Test.

Breakpoint Chlorination
Dosing water with sufficient free chlorine to remove combined chorine (chloramines). Dosage is
calculated as 10 times the combined chlorine value.

Bromamines
Byproducts formed when bromine reacts with contaminants in pool and spa water; unlike
chloramines (combined chlorine), bromamines are effective sanitizers and do not need to be

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eliminated.

Bromine
A compound containing the halogen bromine which is used to kill microorganisms in water.

Calcium Hardness
A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. Calcium hardness is the main component of
scale.

Chloramines
See COMBINED CHLORINE.

Chlorine
A compound containing the halogen chlorine which is used to kill microorganisms in water.
Chlorine in its natural state is a greenish-yellow gas. In swimming pool water chlorine serves as
both an oxidizer and a sanitizer.

Chlorine Demand
Amount of chlorine required to eliminate all contaminants in the water.

Chlorine Residual
The amount of chlorine still available for sanitation and oxidation after the chlorine demand has
been satisfied.

Combined Chlorine
Smelly, irritating reaction product of free chlorine with ammonia and other nitrogen-based
contaminants in water; also known as chloramines.

Conditioner
Another term for cyanuric acid, which is used to slow down the degradation of chlorine by the UV
component of sunlight. See STABILIZER.

Corrosion
An eating away of a material caused by chemical reactions. Water low in calcium hardness can be
corrosive; it will dissolve metals, etch plaster, and pit concrete.

Cyanuric Acid
Chemical used to prevent the degradation of chlorine by ultraviolet (UV) light.


Disinfect
To kill all disease-causing organisms.

Free Chlorine
Chlorine available to sanitize and oxidize water; also known as free available chlorine.

Total Chlorine
The sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine.

Halogen


                                                143
An element found in Group VII of the Periodic Table, including chlorine, bromine, and iodine,
characterized by the ability to disinfect water.

Hardness (Hard Water)
A property of water that contains ions which form scale. “Total hardness” is considered to be the
sum of calcium and magnesium hardness. In water treatment, calcium and magnesium hardness
values are usually expressed as calcium carbonate to facilitate treatment calculations. Hardness
can be removed by ion exchange softening.

Muriatic Acid
Also known as hydrochloric acid; used to reduce pH and alkalinity. May be used to remove stain
and scale.

Oxidizer
A compound (e.g., chlorine, bromine, potassium peroxymonopersulfate) used to “burn up” organic
contaminants in water. See SHOCKING.

pH
A measure of the acidity /basicity of an aqueous solution. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with
7 being the neutral midpoint. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale; a pH greater than
7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale.

Phosphates
Phosphates are the microscopic organic food for algae. If there are too many phosphates in the
water than algae can grow to be very healthy, hardy and resistant to chlorine.

Potassium
Potassium Peroxymonopersulfate is a powerful oxidizer and water clarifier. It is also sold as a
non-chlorine “shock” treatment.

ppm
Abbreviation for parts per million.

Sanitize
To kill all living organisms, including algae, harmful bacteria, and other pathogens.

Scale
A buildup of crusty mineral deposits principally composed of calcium carbonate. Scaling water in
piping will gradually reduce circulation, and will inhibit heat transfer.

Shocking
The periodic addition of an oxidizing chemical to rid pool and spa water of organic contaminants
such as body oils, perspiration, personal care products, dust and dirt, etc. A non-chlorine shocking
agent, such as potassium monopersulfate, cannot leave a sanitizing residual whereas the various
chlorine compounds used for this purpose, such as calcium hypochlorite, can; however, use of a
non-chlorine shock will allow swimmers to reenter the water sooner. See
SUPERCHLORINATION.

Soft Water
Water lacking the ions which form scale. May be achieved by ion exchange softening. See
HARDNESS.

                                                 144
Soda Ash
Also known as sodium carbonate, used to raise pH levels.

Sodium Bicarbonate
Also known as Baking soda, used to raise total alkalinity levels.

Sodium Bisulfate
Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity; also known as dry acid.

Sodium Sesquibicarbonate
An even mix of soda ash and sodium bicarbonate, used to raise pH balance and total alkalinity
levels simultaneously.

Stabilizer
Another term for cyanuric acid, which is used to slow down the degradation of chlorine by the UV
component of sunlight. See CONDITIONER.

Superchlorination
Application of a large dosage of chlorine all at once to destroy built-up chloramines and scour the
pool of oxidizable organic contaminants, including a green algae bloom. Typically the chlorine
level would be raised to 30 ppm and then allowed to fall back gradually to below 5-10 ppm before
swimming resumes. See SHOCKING.

Total Alkalinity
A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water which indicates its buffering ability, i.e.,
resistance to changes in pH. Generally, the higher the total alkalinity, the greater the resistance to
pH change.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
The measure of all solids dissolved in a sample of water.

Ultra Violet Rays (U.V.)
The Sun’s harmful Ultra Violet rays can cause the degradation of sanitizers such as chlorine and
sodium bromine and bounce within reflective pool surfaces such as fiberglass.




                        28. Final Notes from the Author


  You know, I have been servicing pools for over 13 years at the time that I had written and
finished the 2nd edition of this guide and I still learn new things about this industry, service,
chemistry and people every day. Don’t expect to learn everything in this guide in one reading.
Many of these topics will take time and experience in the field to truly develop.

                                                 145
 As long as this guide has been helpful and made your service experience easier and more
efficient than it has served its purpose. There are many technicians out there who will disagree
with some or even many of the things in this guide, however it is not meant to tell you what to do,
so much as it is to guide you along in your development as a high quality and knowledgeable
swimming pool and spa service technician.

 Much of what was written in this manual was based on actual experience from the field and what
works where it counts, not in a laboratory or perfect world swimming pool conditions. In the end
use your better judgment and common sense. Do not forget that there are always many resources
available to you. Much of what I have learned has been from others. I am happy to have the
opportunity to share what I have learned with you and I encourage you to share the things that
you learn with each others as well.

 Thank you, sincerely for reading this guide. I am not a writer, but I do hope that this guide has
been easy to follow. If you have any comments, concerns, corrections or ideas you can email me
at: will_scott1@yahoo.com

Thank you again for reading it.

Sincerely,


Jansen T Falvai
                                                                            Sales Manager
                                           This free copy of
                           Swimming Pool & Spa Service Training Guide
                                     has been provided to you by:




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