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									           “Mutations” dans
    l’enseignement supérieur aux
             Etats-Unis

              Intervention le 18 mars 2009
            Michael Harris, Université Paris 7
                          et IUF

Avec mes remerciements à Peter Hogness, rédacteur en chef du Clarion, journal du syndicat de l
City University of New York
 Organisation de l’intervention
• Présentation du système universitaire américaine
  Les étudiants
  Cout de l’enseignement supérieur
  Le corps enseignant
  Financement des universités publiques et privées
  Gouvernance
• Les “mutations”
  Contingent faculty
  “Corporatization”
  Effets de la crise
Pour éviter des malentendus
Pour éviter des malentendus
• L’intervenant n’est pas un expert du
  système éducatif américain.
Pour éviter des malentendus
• L’intervenant n’est pas un expert du
  système éducatif américain.
• Il n’est pas venu en France par préférence
  pour le système français.
Pour éviter des malentendus
• L’intervenant n’est pas un expert du
  système éducatif américain.
• Il n’est pas venu en France par préférence
  pour le système français.
• Il est membre de l’IUF mais ce n’est pas
  parce qu’il n’aime pas l’enseignement.
Pour éviter des malentendus
• L’intervenant n’est pas un expert du
  système éducatif américain.
• Il n’est pas venu en France par préférence
  pour le système français.
• Il est membre de l’IUF mais ce n’est pas
  parce qu’il n’aime pas l’enseignement.
• Il n’a aucune patience avec les idées reçues
  à propos du système américain, par
  exemple :
(Le Monde du 5 mars) …




 Comme en France, c’est rare mais ce n’est pas
 impossible. Aux Etats-Unis, les sociologues sont
 autorisés à déterminer les origines socioéconomiques
 et éthniques (!) des étudiants, par exemple :

                                          Source : America’s
                                          Untapped Resource,
                                          2007
Mais je suis à peu près sûr que plus que la moitié
de l’assistance tient des propos comparables à
ceux cités dans Le Monde.

Quant à l’intervenant, il croit que l’enseignement
supérieur public (contrairement à l’éducation
secondaire) a toujours été plus démocratique aux
USA qu’en France, mais que cette tradition est
ménacée :




                   comme partout ailleurs :
En fait, et selon un phénomène paradoxal mais observable … dans beaucoup
d’autres univers sociaux… l’argent (public) va plutôt d’abord aux héritiers et donc
à ceux qui ont déjà le plus de capital. C’est-à-dire que ce sont généralement les
étudiants d’origine favorisée qui bénéficient des financements les plus
importants, comme des meilleures conditions d’études. Et ici je ne parle pas du
cas de ces élèves de grandes écoles, dont les études sont intégralement prises en
charge par l’Etat en échange de quelques années de bons et loyaux services…

Ce constat de l’inégalité de notre système d’enseignement supérieur, et
partant de ses fonctions de reproduction sociale, est à peu près unanimement
partagé. Or ce qui est étonnant avec les réformes lancées par Valérie Pécresse,
c’est que le souci de la démocratisation semble avoir complètement disparu de
l’agenda politique. …
En fait, il est clair que les réformes actuelles, loin de vouloir lutter contre ces
inégalités vont plutôt les amplifier et ce ne sont pas les mesures cosmétiques du
Plan réussite en Licence qui contrediront cette tendance.
SOURCE : cours du département de sociologie de Paris VIII Vincennes- Saint Denis, effectué le
vendredi 20 février 2009, devant l’ENA.
Le système
éducatif aux USA
ést assez
compliqué.
Page suivante :
Les 24 meilleures universités des USA, selon le classement
             US NEWS AND WORLD REPORT

  A la différence du classement de Shanghai, celui de
  USNWR, qui classe les universités en (au moins)
  4 catégories (Tier 1-4), sans compter les “small liberal arts
  colleges”, est très suivi par les administrations des
  universités
                                  Un peu d’histoire
American universities have their roots in the establishment of the colonial colleges -- institutions such as
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, William and Mary -- that were founded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
or shortly after the American Revolution. These colleges drew on medieval sources and the tradition of
Cambridge and Oxford to offer a prescribed curriculum of ancient classics, rhetoric, mathematics, Christian
ethics and philosophy. Their purpose was to educate a small, elite group of leaders for the church, the learned
professions and citizens for the new nation. Their goal was the preservation of learning and its transmission
through teaching to the next generation. The large number of private liberal arts colleges in the United States
today, which offer only four-year baccalaureate degrees, continues the tradition of these colonial colleges
today in America.

During the last third of the nineteenth century, either just prior to or immediately following the American Civil
War, an entirely new kind of university appeared on the American scene. This new university accompanied the
spread of American settlement to the west, both to the Great Plains of the upper Midwest, and to the new
states of the West Coast. New lands were brought under cultivation, and the continent was connected by the
transcontinental railroad. The United States was entering the industrial age.

The emergence of new universities to serve this new society began with the passage of the Morrill Act,
legislation passed in 1863 and signed by President Lincoln, according to which the federal government
granted large tracts of land* to each of the states, the sale of which was to provide the money for the
establishment of universities in each of the states. Thus was born a uniquely American institution, the public,
land-grant university - universities like the University of Illinois, the University of Minnesota, the University of
California and many others. These state universities had several functions. They were intended to educate a
larger percentage of the population for life in a democratic society. And, without ignoring the classical
disciplines, they were intended to conduct research and provide training in applied fields, above all, in
agriculture and engineering. These "land-grant" universities were similar to the technical universities in France
and Germany. With the addition of the agricultural extension service later, these institutions were responsible
for "extending" the knowledge of modern agriculture to the farmers in all of the states.
SOURCE : The Privatization of Public Universities, discours de R. Berdahl, Chancellor, UC
Berkeley, Erfurt, mai 2000

*débarrassé d’indigènes, bien sûr…
                                 Un peu d’histoire
American universities have their roots in the establishment of the colonial colleges -- institutions such as
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, William and Mary -- that were founded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
or shortly after the American Revolution. These colleges drew on medieval sources and the tradition of
Cambridge and Oxford to offer a prescribed curriculum of ancient classics, rhetoric, mathematics, Christian
ethics and philosophy. Their purpose was to educate a small, elite group of leaders for the church, the
learned professions and citizens for the new nation. Their goal was the preservation of learning and its
transmission through teaching to the next generation. The large number of private liberal arts colleges in the
United States today, which offer only four-year baccalaureate degrees, continues the tradition of these colonial
colleges today in America.

During the last third of the nineteenth century, either just prior to or immediately following the American
Civil War, an entirely new kind of university appeared on the American scene. This new university
accompanied the spread of American settlement to the west, both to the Great Plains of the upper Midwest,
and to the new states of the West Coast. New lands were brought under cultivation, and the continent was
connected by the transcontinental railroad. The United States was entering the industrial age.

The emergence of new universities to serve this new society began with the passage of the Morrill Act,
legislation passed in 1863 and signed by President Lincoln, according to which the federal government
granted large tracts of land* to each of the states, the sale of which was to provide the money for the
establishment of universities in each of the states. Thus was born a uniquely American institution, the
public, land-grant university - universities like the University of Illinois, the University of Minnesota,
the University of California and many others. These state universities had several functions. They were
intended to educate a larger percentage of the population for life in a democratic society. And, without
ignoring the classical disciplines, they were intended to conduct research and provide training in applied
fields, above all, in agriculture and engineering. These "land-grant" universities were similar to the technical
universities in France and Germany. With the addition of the agricultural extension service later, these
institutions were responsible for "extending" the knowledge of modern agriculture to the farmers in all of the
states.
SOURCE : The Privatization of Public Universities, discours de R. Berdahl, Chancellor, UC
Berkeley, Erfurt, mai 2000
Nombre d’étudiants inscrits, 2007
              2-year         4-year        Total


Public        6,324,000      7,167,000     13,491,000


Privé           294,000      4,464,000      4,757,000



         Source: U.S. Dept. of Education 2009
Cout de
l’enseignement
supérieur
public :

l’exemple du
système CSU
(California
State
Universities)
      Cout de l’enseignement supérieur public :
    l’exemple du système University of California




`A titre de comparaison :
“annual fees at the University of California have risen from zero in 1960-61, to $450
in 1971, to $3600 at the present time, down from two years ago.” Berdahl, mai
2000
       Cout de l’enseignement supérieur public :

   l’exemple de SUNY (State University of New York)
         et CUNY (City University of New York)
 The SUNY Board increased undergraduate tuition by $620 (14 percent)
… to $4,950 per year, graduate tuition by 14 percent annually, and
non-resident undergraduate and graduate tuition by 21 percent
annually. These increases are effective beginning in the Spring 2009
semester. The 2009-10 Executive Budget also recommends that the
SUNY Board increase resident graduate tuition by an additional 7
percent, effective with the fall 2009 semester.

The CUNY Board authorized increasing undergraduate tuition by up to
$600 (15 percent), … to $4,600 per year. Additionally, CUNY graduate
tuition would increase by 20 percent.




Source : New York State Division of the Budget, 6 dec. 2008
Les universités privées sont beaucoup plus chères,
mais les bourses sont très répandues :


The College Board estimates that in 2008-09, full-time students at
independent colleges and universities receive an average of $10,200 in
grant aid from all sources and federal tax benefits. This aid reduces the
average net tuition and fee price that full-time undergraduates pay from
the published “sticker price” of $25,100 to about $14,900. Full-time
students attending four-year public colleges and universities receive an
estimated average of $3,700 in grant aid from all sources and federal tax
benefits, which reduces their average tuition and fees they pay from the
$6,600 sticker price to about $2,900.
Source :        The Financial Downturn and Its Impact on Higher Education Institutions

Prepared by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO)

in Partnership with the Association of Governing Boards of Colleges and Universities (AGB)
Néanmoins, les dettes encourues par les
   étudiants sont souvent onéreuses
Néanmoins, les dettes encourues par les
   étudiants sont souvent onéreuses




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  Source : Democracy Now! Le 12 mars 2009
    Nombre d’enseignants, 2007
              Professeurs    Teaching      Total
              (full-time)    assistants

Public          877,000        266,000     1,143,000


Privé           494,000         63,000      557,000



         Source: U.S. Dept. of Education 2009
Mais les adjuncts (voir
plus loin) gagnent
beaucoup moins que
les full-time :
“In order to earn
a modest yearly
income, say $33,000,
an adjunct would
have to teach 20
courses at $1,650 per
course - an
impossibility, and twice
the workload of her
salaried peers.”

(à noter le mot “her”)
28%
13%

12%
23%
           Gouvernance

In the United States, a college or university is
typically supervised by a President or Chancellor
who reports regularly to a Board of Trustees
[comité directeur] (made up of individuals [notables]
from outside the institution) and who serves as
Chief Executive Officer. Most large colleges and
universities now utilize an administrative structure
with a tier of vice presidents, among whom the
Provost (or Vice President for Academic Affairs)
serves as the chief academic officer.

Source : Wikipedia
Gouvernance
Quelques-uns de 50 trustees de Chicago



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Quelques-uns de 26 Regents de l’University of California
          “Shared governance”

•   Trustees/Regents
•   President/Chancellor
•   Provost (chief academic officer)
•   Deans
•   Department
•   Faculty senate
•   Syndicats? (uniquement dans les
    universités publiques)
          CONTINGENT FACULTY



A quoi va ressembler
l’université américaine
dans une génération,
selon Marc Bousquet,
How the University
Works (2007)
RECRUTEMENT

             Département de…,
             Hiring committee

             Département de…,
             Hiring committee




  PROVOST   Ad hoc committee
• Mr. Bowen [President of AAUP, 2004] calls the "adjunctification" of the
  faculty one of the top two or three problems facing all of higher
  education. With half of the faculty now made up of part-timers,
  academe is moving toward a piecework system similar to that of farm
  laborers, he says. He recently met a part-timer in New York who teaches
  at eight institutions, juggling as many as 16 courses for a not-so-
  whopping total income of $45,000 a year.
  That looks a lot different than the ideal academic job, says Mr. Bowen,
  noting the tenured position he had at Maine's Colby College, in the
  political-science department. AAUP is always beating the drum for
  tenured jobs, even while they seem to be slipping away. “… we always
  say …that our primary purpose is to guarantee academic freedom — and
  that is inextricably linked to tenure.” (Chronicle, June 11, 2004)

•   Today, 48% of all faculty serve in part-time appointments, and
    non-tenure-track positions of all types account for 68% of all
    faculty appointments in American higher education. (voir
   graphique).
Source: AAUP,
http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issues/contingent/default.htm
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      Syndicalisation des graduate assistants (doctorants)
In 2000 the National Labor Relations Board said that New York University was obliged to
recognize its graduate assistants' union, a decision that led to a wave of organizing at
private universities across the Northeast. But the ruling was reversed four years later
when the board, full of new appointees of President George W. Bush, said graduate
assistants at Brown University were primarily students and were not covered by federal
labor law.

Advocates of unionizing may be helped by President Obama, who is expected to appoint
board members who support labor rights.… The AAUP has been working to persuade
Congress to pass both the Employee Free Choice Act and … the Teaching and Research
Assistant Collective Bargaining Rights Act. That measure, which was introduced last
spring but never made it out of the U.S. House of Representatives education committee,
would explicitly state that teaching and research assistants can form unions with which
universities must negotiate.
Source : Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb. 20. 2009.




Anecdote : soutien exprimé par mes collègues en 2008 pour la syndicalisation des
doctorants : 0% (mais il semble que Alan Sokal est pour…) En 2004 40.000 graduate
assistants étaient membres de syndicats.
        Corporatization
There are many ways in which corporations are       “Academics in Canada are growing
                                                         increasingly
entering into university campuses. Obvious
ones include corporate sponsored classrooms,        concerned about what they see as the
                                                         expanding
while there are not so obvious ones like
scientists plugging away at the latest biotech      influence of corporations over their
                                                         campuses.…
crop and drug research. The main goals of
unversities' governing boards and certain            As government support for the universities
faculty and departments are to secure               has fallen -- from about 60 % of campus
investments from corporations, develop                   budgets
patentable technologies, create start-up/spin-off   in the 1980s to 40 % today -- the institutions
companies, and train graduates to meet                   have
employer's goals. The federal and state             come to depend more and more on private
governments are playing a strong role in                 funds
strengthening corporate-university links, by         for facilities, research, teaching, and other
cutting back on funding for research at public      activities. …
universities and at the same time enacting laws     ‘The danger is that teaching and research
encouraging corporations to invest in university         are
research. … This has led to increases in tuition    going to be steered by these infusions of
fees and the underfunding of many academic               money
departments, especially in the liberal arts.        that our universities are only too eager to
SOURCE: Berkeley Watch                              receive," said Bill Graham, president of the
                                                    [Canadian Association of University
                                                         Teachers]
       Corporatization
“… the increasing dependence on private support leaves public universities vulnerable to influence from
    private sources. Last month, for example, the Chairman of Nike announced that he would withdraw his
    $30 million pledge to the University of Oregon because it had chosen … to affiliate with the Workers'
    Rights Coalition to monitor conditions under which American companies were producing goods in Third
    World Countries. Critical of the decision and the political values he believed it represented, he simply
    withdrew his gift.” (Berdahl, mai 2000)

What are the dangers of a university-industrial complex?

First, … the loss of common ground, … common purpose within the university. … the university-industrial
     complex brings market forces into the university to an extent never before contemplated. … [salary
     differences between disciplines] have grown enormously. At the level of assistant professors, there can
     be as much as 100% between humanists and business school faculty, for example.

Second, with the … new capacity for some faculty -- biologists, engineers, computer scientists, and
   business school faculty -- to earn substantial amounts outside the university, there can be
   corresponding devaluation of the work of humanists and social scientists. … the new president-elect of
   Stanford … [said] that his greatest challenge was to convince Silicon Valley's wealthy contributors to
   Stanford that the humanities were vital to the well being of Stanford.
… Who will guide us through the moral and policy thicket of this new age if the humanists and social
   scientists are weakened by the overwhelming drive of market forces in a university-industrial complex?

And third, the university-industrial partnership … lucrative and essential as it is for much of the basic
    research of the university, can undermine the belief in the basic objectivity of the research of our
    faculty.

(Berdahl, mai 2000)
Capitalism, academic style, was once most evident in the realm of patenting and technology
transfer, pursued by a few research university faculty. But it now extends to … [e]ducation …
transformed into a service mediated and delivered through technology. The result is a
standardized and commodified education.
Capitalism, academic style, was once most evident in the realm of patenting and technology
transfer, pursued by a few research university faculty. But it now extends to … [e]ducation …
transformed into a service mediated and delivered through technology. The result is a
standardized and commodified education.
Academic capitalism is a cultural system within higher education…. It shapes the way we talk
about and define our role in the academy. University presidents increasingly see themselves as
CEOs, and ask to be paid accordingly. More faculty view themselves as small businesspeople,
although they treat their relatively secure academic salaries as sinecures; in public institutions,
these faculty amount to state-subsidized entrepreneurs.
Capitalism, academic style, was once most evident in the realm of patenting and technology
transfer, pursued by a few research university faculty. But it now extends to … [e]ducation …
transformed into a service mediated and delivered through technology. The result is a
standardized and commodified education.
Academic capitalism is a cultural system within higher education…. It shapes the way we talk
about and define our role in the academy. University presidents increasingly see themselves as
CEOs, and ask to be paid accordingly. More faculty view themselves as small businesspeople,
although they treat their relatively secure academic salaries as sinecures; in public institutions,
these faculty amount to state-subsidized entrepreneurs.
Another change that comes with academic capitalism is the rise of nonfaculty professionals on
campus. Although these professionals have advanced degrees, technical bodies of knowledge,
and professional associations, they are hired, evaluated, and fired by supervisors, not by peers,
as faculty are. Their presence on campus thus shifts power to management. …These
managerial professionals conduct some academic work and affect other such work, including
teaching. Some participate with faculty in technology transfer to commercialize intellectual
property. Others are involved… in evaluating or developing the instructional activity of faculty
members. … They promote the use of technology in instruction, conflating it with innovation and
quality, and argue that faculty should change their instruction to become more interactive.
Capitalism, academic style, was once most evident in the realm of patenting and technology
transfer, pursued by a few research university faculty. But it now extends to … [e]ducation …
transformed into a service mediated and delivered through technology. The result is a
standardized and commodified education.
Academic capitalism is a cultural system within higher education…. It shapes the way we talk
about and define our role in the academy. University presidents increasingly see themselves as
CEOs, and ask to be paid accordingly. More faculty view themselves as small businesspeople,
although they treat their relatively secure academic salaries as sinecures; in public institutions,
these faculty amount to state-subsidized entrepreneurs.
Another change that comes with academic capitalism is the rise of nonfaculty professionals on
campus. Although these professionals have advanced degrees, technical bodies of knowledge,
and professional associations, they are hired, evaluated, and fired by supervisors, not by peers,
as faculty are. Their presence on campus thus shifts power to management. …These
managerial professionals conduct some academic work and affect other such work, including
teaching. Some participate with faculty in technology transfer to commercialize intellectual
property. Others are involved… in evaluating or developing the instructional activity of faculty
members. … They promote the use of technology in instruction, conflating it with innovation and
quality, and argue that faculty should change their instruction to become more interactive.
Capitalism, academic style, then, is a mode of production. With entrepreneurial universities
comes a restructuring of professional work. But the rise of managerial professionals challenges
not only the faculty's expertise; it also challenges the prevailing model of shared governance
that sees two parties on campus, faculty and administrators (with the latter serving the trustees).

Gary Rhoades (General Secretary, AAUP): Capitalism, Academic Style, and Shared
Governance
     Corporatization and commercialization of curriculum




Source : Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices
GARY RHOADES AND SHEILA SLAUGHTER, American Academy (2006)
          Corporatization and commercialization of curriculum


•   First, strategic decisions about the development, investment in and delivery of
    curriculum are being increasingly driven by short-term market considerations and
    are made outside the purview of shared governance.




     Source : Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices
     GARY RHOADES AND SHEILA SLAUGHTER, American Academy (2006)
          Corporatization and commercialization of curriculum


•   First, strategic decisions about the development, investment in and delivery of
    curriculum are being increasingly driven by short-term market considerations and
    are made outside the purview of shared governance.


•   Second, the structure of professional employment on campus is changing in ways
    that moves faculty away from the center of academic decision making … For
    example, other professionals (e.g., in teaching centers) are increasingly being
    identified as ”the experts” with regard to pedagogy; the emphasis is on learning,
    not teaching (making the teacher less central to the process); and the curriculum
    is being divided into a set of tasks performed by various personnel (un “chaine de
    montage virtuelle”).




     Source : Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices
     GARY RHOADES AND SHEILA SLAUGHTER, American Academy (2006)
          Corporatization and commercialization of curriculum


•   First, strategic decisions about the development, investment in and delivery of
    curriculum are being increasingly driven by short-term market considerations and
    are made outside the purview of shared governance.


•   Second, the structure of professional employment on campus is changing in ways
    that move faculty away from the center of academic decision making … For
    example, other professionals (e.g., in teaching centers) are increasingly being
    identified as ”the experts” with regard to pedagogy; the emphasis is on learning,
    not teaching (making the teacher less central to the process); and the curriculum
    is being divided into a set of tasks performed by various personnel (un “chaine de
    montage virtuelle”).

•   Third, commercialization of the curriculum is moving institutions away from a
    commitment to providing access to …low-income and minority students and
    toward … providing education to student populations … more advantaged [and]
    already being served in our higher education system. … the emphasis is on
    students who cost less to serve and who can afford to pay more, at the expense of
    less privileged and historically underserved student populations.


     Source : Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices
     GARY RHOADES AND SHEILA SLAUGHTER, American Academy (2006)
                           Corporatization and governance


•   The faculty is depicted as—and probably is—the biggest obstacle to the new
    bureaucratic-commercializing model of the university. One conservative university
    president expressed the wish that the twenty-first century would be "the century of
    management," while the twentieth (happily over) had been "the century of the
    faculty."




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   The faculty is depicted as—and probably is—the biggest obstacle to the new
    bureaucratic-commercializing model of the university. One conservative university
    president expressed the wish that the twenty-first century would be "the century of
    management," while the twentieth (happily over) had been "the century of the
    faculty.”
•   There has been a widespread campaign (variously referred to as culture
    wars or science wars) to ridicule the university, to attack it as a center
    where 1960s radicals hold sway or irrelevant activity is pursued, where
    standards are slack and faculty wasteful in their use of time. A few
    years ago, the chief executive of Monsanto, who served on a university
    board, described as a "nightmare" having to deal with academic cultures
    of governance instead of the corporate ones he was used to.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   The faculty is depicted as—and probably is—the biggest obstacle to the new
    bureaucratic-commercializing model of the university. One conservative university
    president expressed the wish that the twenty-first century would be "the century of
    management," while the twentieth (happily over) had been "the century of the
    faculty.”
•   There has been a widespread campaign (variously referred to as culture wars or
    science wars) to ridicule the university, to attack it as a center where 1960s
    radicals hold sway or irrelevant activity is pursued, where standards are slack and
    faculty wasteful in their use of time. A few years ago, the chief executive of
    Monsanto, who served on a university board, described as a "nightmare" having to
    deal with academic cultures of governance instead of the corporate ones he was
    used to.
•   There is a caricature of how faculties deliberate. The serious deliberation and
    attempts to find consensus that characterize good decision making are dismissed
    as endless nitpicking, talking for the sake of talking, and blocking obviously
    needed reform.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   There has been a sustained attack on tenure… criticized as an
    ineffective form of job security in the age of downsizing that… prevents
    the university from responding to market forces. Major foundations have
    funded studies aimed at finding economically feasible alternatives to the
    current tenure system.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   There has been a sustained attack on tenure… criticized as an
    ineffective form of job security in the age of downsizing that… prevents
    the university from responding to market forces. Major foundations have
    funded studies aimed at finding economically feasible alternatives to the
    current tenure system.
•   Boards [système prive] and legislatures [système public] have insisted on post-
    tenure review [c’est-à-dire, évaluation] as a way of ensuring faculty responsibility
    and of getting rid of supposed deadwood.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   There has been a sustained attack on tenure… criticized as an ineffective form of
    job security in the age of downsizing that… prevents the university from
    responding to market forces. Major foundations have funded studies aimed at
    finding economically feasible alternatives to the current tenure system.
•   Boards [système prive] and legislatures [système public] have insisted on post-
    tenure review [c’est-à-dire, évaluation] as a way of ensuring faculty responsibility
    and of getting rid of supposed deadwood.
•   Faculty senates have been abolished, and boards of trustees have fired university
    presidents who side with their faculties on issues of governance and academic
    freedom. Boards have engaged in curriculum review and general
    micromanagement, and courses with specified ideological content have been
    funded.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   There has been a sustained attack on tenure… criticized as an ineffective form of
    job security in the age of downsizing that… prevents the university from
    responding to market forces. Major foundations have funded studies aimed at
    finding economically feasible alternatives to the current tenure system.
•   Boards [système prive] and legislatures [système public] have insisted on post-
    tenure review [c’est-à-dire, évaluation] as a way of ensuring faculty responsibility
    and of getting rid of supposed deadwood.
•   Faculty senates have been abolished, and boards of trustees have fired university
    presidents who side with their faculties on issues of governance and academic
    freedom. Boards have engaged in curriculum review and general
    micromanagement, and courses with specified ideological content have been
    funded.

•   Tenured faculty have been replaced by contingent workers.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   There has been a sustained attack on tenure… criticized as an ineffective form of
    job security in the age of downsizing that… prevents the university from
    responding to market forces. Major foundations have funded studies aimed at
    finding economically feasible alternatives to the current tenure system.
•   Boards [système prive] and legislatures [système public] have insisted on post-
    tenure review [c’est-à-dire, évaluation] as a way of ensuring faculty responsibility
    and of getting rid of supposed deadwood.
•   Faculty senates have been abolished, and boards of trustees have fired university
    presidents who side with their faculties on issues of governance and academic
    freedom. Boards have engaged in curriculum review and general
    micromanagement, and courses with specified ideological content have been
    funded.

•   Tenured faculty have been replaced by contingent workers.
•   …the outright abolition of tenure, the installation of a whole new system of
    teaching and hiring from above, and the firing of faculty who would object to such
    revolutionary transformation



     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                           Corporatization and governance


•   Writing in the January 4, 1998, issue of the New York Times, James
    Shapiro, a college professor, put it this way:

•   The danger today is that the administrations that now set policy at
    most universities are increasingly tempted to act as if they are
    running a business— letting profit motives drive educational policy. In
    such a climate, revenue-generating programs and inexpensive part-time
    professors are winning out over a committed faculty, good libraries, and
    small classes. American universities have achieved their
    international prominence precisely because they have, until now,
    recognized the value of free inquiry, open expression, and discovery
    that is driven not by financial gain but by broader social ends.




     Source : The Critical State of Shared Governance, Joan Wallach Scott, Academe
     (bimensuel de l’AAUP), July-August 2002
                         Un exemple extrême
The Benefits of Performance-Based Budgeting
A new budgeting procedure and fiscal discipline have boosted the bottom line at Florida's
Nova Southeastern University.

During the early months of 1998, newly appointed President Ray Ferrero Jr. and new
Executive Vice President George L. Hanbury, had performed a thorough fiscal and operational
review and realized that they faced a major budgeting and financial challenge if Nova
Southeastern University (Fla.) was to thrive and prosper. The South Florida-based university,
best known for its distance education and graduate online programs, needed more
stringent fiscal discipline to ensure long term-financial health.

Ferrero immediately realized that barely breaking even was not acceptable and that it would
take central planning and goal setting in order to unite the university and allow it to fulfill its
mission into the future. A strategic plan included targeted financial goals.

A five-year plan was developed to move the university toward a goal of centralized
performance-based budgeting including internal standards and external performance
measurements. Soon goals would be established, from peer comparisons, generated from
research of like programs at comparable institutions as well as year-over-year improvement
standards.




Source : http://www.universitybusiness.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=476
Pas si extrême que ça…
                        La MOC
« Mettre en œuvre une nouvelle méthode ouverte de coordination (§ 37)
Témoignage à propos de la radicalisation de l’AAUP
After it's founding in 1915 in the wake of firings of 6 professors for their anti-war
and/or labor activism, the AAUP grew ever more cautious in defending the
vulnerable. In the 1930s, it sometimes did not even acknowledge the trouble that
befell faculty members for their activities, and did not speak out (at least not in its
publication, The Bulletin) about the launch of the Dies Commission (precursor of
HUAC) in 1938. It didn't intervene in the infamous Rapp-Coudert (anti-
communist) investigation at CCNY and the other CUNY colleges in 1941, either.
It did note the political decision not to allow Bertrand Russell to take a
professorship at CCNY in 1940, however. During my tenure on Comm. A (2000-
2006), it was clear that the Association was undergoing some profound changes,
far too slow and tenuous for my taste. The membership had fallen drastically
since the 1960s and was continuing to fall, the number of tenure-track positions
was declining and soon came to constitute a minority of all the teaching done in
US colleges and universities. And, after 9/11, there were firings of some (albeit
not many) academics who fell afoul of the Bush administration, often by
accident. The last Pres., Jane Buck, understood all this and tried to extend
thereach ofthe AAUP, as did Mary Burgan, the gen'l sect'y and her successor
Roger Bowen. Yet some long-time staff at the AAUP, and some sections of he
membership, resisted these changes, clinging to traditionally timorous ways of
doing things and refusing to recognize how drastically the profession had
changed.
              Effets de la crise




Journal (presque-)
mensuel du
syndicat du
système CUNY (City
University of New
York), numéro de
février 2009.
Source: NY Times, March 7, 2009
[Arizona State University] has eliminated more than 500
jobs, including deans, department chairmen and hundreds
of teaching assistants. Last month, Mr. Crow announced
that the university would close 48 programs, cap enrollment
and move up the freshman application deadline by five
months. Every employee, from Mr. Crow down, will have
10 to 15 unpaid furlough days this spring.

… layoffs and salary freezes are becoming common at public
universities across the nation; the University of Florida
recently eliminated 430 faculty and staff positions, the
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, laid off about 100
employees, and the University of Vermont froze some
administrative staff salaries, left open 22 faculty positions
and laid off 16 workers. “The trend line is states
disinvesting in higher education.”
Dozens of states, hit hard by the recession, made midyear
cuts in their financing for higher education.

Source: NY Times, March 17, 2009
“Universities aspire to prestige… and that is
achieved by increasing selectivity, getting a
research mission and having faculty do as little
teaching as possible…

“Research universities are very expensive… and
you can’t have one in every county and every
state. Your first obligation as a public university
is to treat the undergraduates right. That’s going
to need a national attitude adjustment from
leadership and boards of regents.” (M.G. Yudof,
Président de University of California)



Source: NY Times, March 17, 2009
      QuickTime™ an d a
         decompressor
are need ed to see this p icture .




                                     Chute de 25%
                                     par rapport à
                                     2007

								
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