An Advanced Earth Science Mission Concept Study for �___� For

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An Advanced Earth Science Mission Concept Study for �___� For Powered By Docstoc
					  Overview of Relevant Instrument
Technologies supported by the NASA
   Instrument Incubator Program

        GEO-CAPE Community Workshop
 Karen Moe, NASA Earth Science Technology Office
                 May 11, 2011

              karen.moe@nasa.gov
               http://esto.nasa.gov
    Earth Science Technology Office
    Targeted, Science-Driven, Competed, Actively Managed Technology Program

                                         Current ESTO Investments Supporting GEO-CAPE
                    Infrared                                       Panchromatic
                                                                                                                                IPM: Intelligent Payload Module
                Correlation                                   Fourier Transform                                                          SpaceCube 2
               Radiometer                                          Spectrometer                                         PI: T. Flatley, AIST-08/GSFC
                  PI: D. Neil                                  PI: S. Sander, IIP-                                                    Sensor Web 3D
               IIP-07/LaRC                                                07/JPL                                                  PI: D. Mandl, AIST-
                                                                                                                                             08/GSFC
                                    Spectrometer and Radiometer Technologies                                                      Information Technologies

        PolZero                                                                                                                 Supporting Technologies
          Time-                                     Visible-NIR
        Domain                                      Blind Focal
                                                                                                                                              TIMS Tropospheric Infrared
   Polarization                                   Plane Arrays
                                                                                                                                              Mapping Spectrometer
    Scrambler                                       PI: S. Janz,
                                                                                                                                              PI: J. Kumer, IIP-04/LMATC
    PI: R. Illing                                 ACT-08/GSFC
   ACT-08/Ball                                                                            In-pixel Digitized ROIC                             SIRAS-G Spaceborne Infrared
           Aero                          Component Technologies                          PI: D. Rider, ACT-08/JPL                             Atmospheric Sounder for GEO
                                                                                                                                              PI: T. Kampe, IIP-03/Ball Aero
                                           Pre-Decadal Survey Era                                  Decadal Survey Era
              15                                                                                                                              Geo-SPEC Geostationary
                                                                                                                                              Spectrometer
              12                                                                                    1
                                                AIST        IIP         ACT      ATI                                                          PI: S. Janz, IIP-03/GSFC
                                                                                                    3
# of Awards




              9                                                                                                                              TTSS-FPI Tropospheric Trace
                                                                                                                                             Species Sensing Fabry-Perot Interf.
              6                                                                                                                              PI: A. Larar, IIP-01/LaRC
                                                                                                    9
              3                             1                              5                                        3                         SOX Sensor-Web Operations
                                            2             2         1                2       2                                                Explorer for Atmospheres
              0       1         1                  1                1                                       1
                                                                                                                                              PI: M. Lee, AIST-05/JPL
                    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

  Since FY’07, ESTO has 19 GEO-CAPE related technology development tasks with a total investment of ~$40M
                      Technology Goals


   Reduce payload size (sensors, pointing systems, mirrors)
     Maintain line-of-sight stabilization for high spatial resolution
      at GEO
     Reduce detector pixel size, improve dynamic range
     Improve optical efficiency, grating throughput
   Enhance science return
     Enable retrieval of additional policy-relevant products and
      extended spatio-temporal products
     Track episodic events and avoid imaging clouds over
      coasts
   Enable cost-effective assessment of measurements from
    GEO and in-situ platforms (simulation capability)




                                                                         3
                GEO-CAPE Instrument
          Technology Investments Quad Charts


Program   End    Project                                            PI
          Date
IIP-10    2014   Multi-Slit Offner Spectrometer                     Valle,
                                                                    Ball ATC
IIP-10    2014   GEO-TASO: Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol      Leitch,
                 Sensor Optimization                                Ball ATC
IIP-10    2013   Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier Transform   Sander,
                 Spectrometer (EM PanFTS) for Geo-CAPE mission      JPL
IIP-07    2011   Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer        Sander,
                 (PanFTS) Instrument for Geo-CAPE                   JPL
IIP-07    2011   Infrared Correlation Radiometer for Geo-CAPE       Neil,
                                                                    LaRC
IIP-04    2009   Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers        Kumer,
                 (TIMS)                                             LM ATC



                                                                               4
                                 Multi-Slit Offner Spectrometer
                             PI: Timothy Valle, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

Objective
• Develop a Multi-Slit Offner Spectrometer for
  geostationary (GEO) coastal remote sensing and
  test it in an operational environment to
  demonstrate TRL 6.
  - Key technologies include a butcher block order
    sorting filter and a blazed, curved grating.
  - A Multi-Slit Offner Spectrometer, employed
    in a geostationary remote sensing payload, can
    accomplish the ocean color mission with a small
    package, fast revisit time, and high SNR by
    producing hyperspectral images at multiple
    positions simultaneously, thus, reducing the
    risk for Geo-CAPE Event Imaging.

Approach                                               Key Milestones
• Balance the design parameters of the Multi-Slit      • IIP Point Design Determination    10/11
  Offner Spectrometer for GEO coastal remote           • Detailed Design                  03/12
  sensing.
                                                       • Relay Optics                     02/13
• Design and build a Multi-Slit Offner                 • FPA/Filter                       03/13
  Spectrometer.
                                                       • System Test (TRL 5)              01/14
• Characterize the performance in a thermal
  vacuum environment before and after launch           • Post-Vibe System Test (TRL 6)    03/14
  vibration.
• Show traceability from the measured
  performance to the GeoCAPE Event Imager
  mission.
                                                       TRLin = 3 TRLcurrent = 3
  CoIs/Partners: Curtiss Davis, Oregon State Univ.

 5
          GEO-TASO: Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization
                             PI: James Leitch, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

Objective
 • Demonstrate a compact multi-order 2
   channel spectrometer with up to 4x spectral
   oversampling.
 • Determine optimal spectral/spatial sampling
   and resolution for the Geo-CAPE UV-Vis
   spectrometer.
 • Develop a ruggedized airborne sensor to
   support future Geo-CAPE spectral and
   spatial trades and validation.
 • Demonstrate needed retrieval performance
   under flight-like conditions.


Approach                                                        Key Milestones
 • Derive airborne mission and sensor performance             • Mission and sensor requirements       08/11
   requirements.
 • Design and assemble airborne sensor.                       • Sensor design and long leads on order 03/12
 • Verify sensor performance in the laboratory including:     • Functional test                       10/12
   spectral, spatial, stray light and radiometric precision   • Environmental test                     11/12
   and accuracy to meet limiting trace gas retrieval case
   (HCHO).                                                    • Performance test                      08/13
 • Conduct two NASA DC-8 data collection flights.             • Flight data campaign                  11/13
 • Perform retrieval analysis on airborne data to optimize    • Trace gas retrievals on flight data   03/14
   Geo-CAPE spectral and spatial sampling resolution
   requirements.
 CoIs/Partners: Scott Janz, GSFC, Kelly Chance,
 Xiang Liu, SAO / Jun Wang, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln        TRLin = 3 TRLcurrent = 3

 6
                                                     PanFTS Instrument Concept
                                                                      PI: Stan Sander, JPL
                      Two Parallel Optical Beams
                     Imaged by the Interferometer
                                                       Two Axis
                                                      Instrument
                                                                       Cryo, High
                                                                        Precision
                                                                                       Panchromatic Measurement Concept
                                                     Line-of-Sight     Optical Path
                                                                                                                   Earth Spectrum (Tropical noon, albedo 0.8)

                           UV-Vis    IR             Pointing Mirror     Difference
                                                                                                                                                       Wavelength (µm)


                                                                       Mechanism                                                                               CO2
                                                                                                                                                                         O3                        Chappius

                                                                                                             NH3                                                                                              H2CO
                                                                                                                                                           CH4                                  CHOCHO
                                                                                                                                                           CO                           O2         NO2
                                                                                                                                                           N2O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                SO2
                 ~1m
       IR
Interferometer
   like TES

                                                                           UV-Vis
                                                                      Interferometer
                                                                        like FTUVS
 TES
                                                                                                                    Infrared                                                                 Visible                  UV
2 Stage Cryocooler                                                                                                                                        PanFTS
    like OCO-2

                                                                       FTUVS
                                                                                       • High spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) and wide spectral sensitivity (15 m
                                                                       Instrument
                                                                                         to 0.26 m) allows simultaneous measurement of reflected sunlight and
                                                                       Electronics       thermal emission (day and night) enabling retrieval of several important
                                                                       Cryocooler        atmospheric composition species such as Pollutants (O3, NO2, NH3, SO2,
                 ~.5m                                                  Electronics       HCHO, CH3OH, CO), Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, H2O),
                                            ~1.2m                                        and Transport Tracers (HDO, N2O, O2, O4)

   Instrument Concept                                                                  Technology Assessment / Development Needs
• The PanFTS design has two separate channels optimized for the infrared               • TRLin = 3            TRLcurrent = 4
  and UV-Vis spectral domains, and multiple high speed focal plane arrays              • Engineering Model PanFTS would advance instrument design to TRL 6
  (FPAs) which simultaneously capture high-precision interferograms in each
  pixel for all of the wavelengths in the spectral range                                                                                          4        2     1.5           1.0     0.8 0.7
                                                                                                                                                                                     Wavelength (µm)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.6           0.5        0.4


• The IR side of the interferometer is based on the flight proven design of the                                                               4       Infrared Channel                                          UV-Visible Channel

  Thermal Emissions Spectrometer (TES on Aura)




                                                                                                                           Intensity (a.u.)
                                                                                                                                              3

• The UV-Vis side of the interferometer is based on the Fourier Transform UV                                                                  2                                         NO2 Bands
  Spectrometer (FTUVS) which has been operating for over 12 years at the
  Table Mountain Facility                                                                                                                     1

• The overall design is compact because the two channels share a common                                                                       0
  fore optics, and a single common interferometer optical path difference                                                                                5000                 10000       15000
                                                                                                                                                                                                -1
                                                                                                                                                                                   Frequency (cm )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20000     25000

  mechanism (OPDM)                                                                     OPDM life test in flight-like                          Simultaneous IR + Vis measurement of NO2
• Design Life: 3 years (goal 5 years)                                                   thermal-vac conditions                                   demonstrates functional capability for
                                                                       10/10                                                                         panchromatic measurements
              Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EM PanFTS)
                                 Instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission
                                                   PI: Stanley Sander, JPL

 Objective                                                            PanFTS Instrument                     PanFTS Observational
                                                                         Architecture                            Approach
• Develop a flight size PanFTS engineering model instrument
  which will reduce the risk, cost, size, volume, mass, and
  development time of an instrument that can make air
  quality and greenhouse gas measurements for the
  GEO-CAPE mission.
• Demonstrate two key enabling system level technologies:
   - A flight size FTS instrument that addresses all critical
     scaling issues and is capable of operation over the
     flight instrument spectral range (0.26 µm to 15 µm)
   - Instrument operation in a space like thermal-vacuum        From geostationary orbit the PanFTS instrument will make hourly
     environment demonstrating simultaneous UV-Vis and IR       measurements of atmospheric composition with wide spectral sensitivity
     measurements under critical environmental conditions       and high resolution as well as measure important green house gases that
                                                                inform climate change models


 Approach                                                           Key Milestones
• Develop PanFTS science and measurement requirements
  that support Geo-CAPE air quality and climate processes       •    Develop PanFTS science measurement and
  science                                                            instrument requirements                                  09/11
• Define specifications for an EM instrument design that        •    Complete EM instrument design                            03/12
  can demonstrate the critical capabilities of a flight
  instrument                                                    •    Acquire and test EM components                           07/12
• Acquire and characterize EM components in lab                 •    Perform integrated instrument functional tests           03/13
  environment and then verify in a relevant space flight
  operation environment (thermal-vacuum at 180 K)               •    Acquire preliminary cold testing results                 09/13
• Integrate EM components and assemblies and verify in          •    Complete flight-like environmental testing
  lab environment simultaneous UV-Vis and IR                         and demonstrate EM performance                           02/14
  measurements over the flight instrument spectral range.

CoIs/Partners: J-F Blavier, K. Bowman, A. Eldering, W.              TRLin = 4 TRLcurrent = 4
 Folkner, J. Neu, D. Rider, J. Worden, JPL
   8
                       Infrared Correlation Radiometer for GEO-CAPE
                                           PI: Doreen Neil, NASA LaRC

 Objective
• Develop Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer technology to
  demonstrate the 2.3 um performance needed for the
  Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-                         X
  CAPE) Mission.
  –   Characterize the noise and spectral performance of
      a laboratory prototype of the SWIR (2.3 um)
      subsystem of an infrared gas filter correlation
      radiometer for geostationary carbon monoxide (CO)
      measurements.
  –   Verify the instrument model to guide evolving GEO-
      CAPE mission implementation decisions.
                                                                     Infrared Correlation Radiometer for GEO-CAPE


 Approach                                                    Key Milestones
 • Fabricate the 2.3 um subsystem of an infrared gas          •   System Requirements Review             06/09
   filter correlation radiometer specifically designed for
                                                              •   Critical Design review                 08/09
   geostationary measurements.
                                                              •   Test Plan Review                       03/10
 • Characterize performance to quantify instrument            •   Breadboard Assembly complete           03/10
   response functions (spectral, spatial, radiometric, and    •   Characterizations complete             09/10
   polarization), and explicitly, an end-to-end noise         •   Instrument Performance testing         01/11
   performance characterization.                              •   Instrument Performance Model           08/11
 • Incorporate these characterizations into the CO
   measurement modeling system for use in GEO-CAPE
   mission formulation and payload system engineering.

 Co-Is/Partners: Jack Fishman, William Luck, NASA                  TRLin = 3       TRLcurrent = 3
  LaRC; David Edwards, NCAR; Lackson Marufu, UMD

  04/11
                   Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) for CO
                                  PI: John Kumer, Lockheed Martin Adv. Tech. Center

 Objective
• Develop a miniaturized version of an infrared Grating                                         dewar enclosing        UD FTIR
                                                                                                                       Heliostat
                                                                                                4.65mm module
  Mapping Spectrometer (GMS) prototype for mapping                               Insert picture or graphic here
                                                                                                             4.65mm
  tropospheric CO profiles.                                                                                       skyview input
                                                                                                                     mirror
• Validate operational performance in a field demonstration
  campaign.
• Based on validation results, generate a design                                            2.33mm                        dewar for
  recommendation for a flight instrument version.                                             spec-                          2.33
                                                                                            trometer                     mm detector
 On Sep 29, 2010, LMATC flight-tested the TIMS
 shortwave instrument in a dirigible to assess signal-to-             Diffuser scattering
 noise with realistic geometry. These post-IIP results are            sunlight into the
                                                                      2.33 mm input
 noted in red.                                                        assembly

                                                                            TIMS and FTIR data acquisition at UD, Nov. 2007

 Accomplishments:
• Developed VSWIR and MWIR portable brassboard spectrometers with required spectral resolution and sensitivity; achieved
    – Noise equivalent radiance NEdN = 2.74E-10 & 1.28E-10 W/(cm2srcm-1) for VSWIR & MWIR, respectively, better than threshold
       values 8E-10 & 2E-10 as stated in the original proposal
    – Spectral resolution .25 & .53 cm-1 as compared to goals 0.13 and 0.2 cm-1, however these actuals are far better than achieved by
       previous spectrometers such as SCIAMACHY or AIRS, and coupled with the low noise have facilitated excellent CO retrieval
• Demonstrated ability to acquire high quality atmospheric spectra in ground-based tests
• Validated retrieval of CO profiles from these spectra through comparison with Denver University FTS measurements
• Measurement concept has been demonstrated through ground measurements campaigns and ongoing dirigible flight tests for 2.3 µm
• Developed concepts for flight instrument design, operation, and data production – focus has been on GEO-CAPE Mission
• Analysis of 2.3 and 4.6 µm instrument performance confirmed Geo-CAPE-capable sensing of CO, CH4, and O3, NH3, (latter with 9.6 µm)

  Co-Is/Partners:      AE Roche, R. Rairden, JL Mergenthaler, Lockheed;
                                                                                   TRLin = 3;          TRLout = 5 2010: TRL = ~6
  F. Murcray, Denver University; L. Straw, UMBC; R. Chatfield, NASA ARC


   04/09    Rev. 11/10
                  GEO-CAPE Workshop
              Technology Briefings & Posters


Workshop     Day/Ti Project                                          Presenter
             me
Ocean        Thurs/1 Multi-Slit Offner Spectrometer                  Valle,
Session      :30                                                     Ball Aero
Atmosphere   Thurs/2 GEO-TASO: Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol   Leitch,
Session      :30     Sensor Optimization                             Ball Aero
Atmosphere   Thurs/2 Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier          Sander,
Session      :15     Transform Spectrometer (EM PanFTS) for Geo-     JPL
                     CAPE mission
Poster       Wed/P    Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers    Kumer,
             M        (TIMS)                                         LM ATC
Poster       Wed/P    NASA Technology Investments for GEO-CAPE       Moe,
             M                                                       ESTO




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