Jumping and Throwing
7/8 PE—Track and Field Unit
What is Biomechanics?
Biomechanics refers to the way our
_______, ______, and _____ work
together as we move.
Description of human motion
Body is a system of _______.
A lever has a ________ (axis of
rotation), an effort and effort arm, a
resistance and a resistance arm.
The effort and resistance arms are
usually the bones of the skeleton,
and the fulcra are usually the joints
of the skeleton.
Center of Gravity
The _______ __ ________ is the
theoretical point where all the body
weight is concentrated or the
theoretical point about which the
body weight is evenly distributed.
Forces produce __________
Force is a ______ or ________
_________ force is created inside
the athlete’s body—muscles pulling
__________ forces are applied to
the body—gravity, friction
Horizontal Jump-Long Jump
_______ phases: Approach run, takeoff,
_________ leads to stronger vertical take-
COG is ________ on landing-knees flexed
Horizontal Jump-Triple Jump
Triple jump has additional motions:
– Hop (______ foot)
– Step (_______ feet)
– Jump (take off on ____ foot, land on
Vertical Jump-High Jump
______ phases: Run-up, takeoff,
______ approach to the bar
Push on the ground for takeoff
Twisting somersault over the bar (Bring
COG as ______ as possible)
Glide technique has a ______-______
Knee bent (same as hand holding put)
Glide back (____ steps total)
Plant opposite foot
Turn torso (torque force)
Release at ___-____ degree
Additional jumps and throws
________ = combination of running
and jumping (at least at lower levels)
_______ = throwing
_______ = throwing
Bergemann, B. (2009). EXER 553 BIOMECHANICS for
Coaches and Physical Educators PPT. Retrieved from
From IAAF “Introduction to Coaching Theory.” (2009).
Biomechanics. Retrieved from
Ismail, S. (2009). Biomechanics of Jumps in Track and
Field. Retrieved from
Bartonietz, K. (2009). Rotational shot put technique:
Biomechanic findings and recommendations for training.
Teaching of Gymnastics: Stability and balance. (2009). Retrieved