Connecting the Dots Grade Six by wU8wwh8


									                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson

     Ohio Standards            Lesson Summary:
      Connection               In this lesson, students explore a major period of Western
Fine Arts – Music
                               music history. Students identify selected composers, their
                               work and information about the cultures and regions of that
Historical, Cultural, and      period. Students study and perform music written by
Social Contexts                selected composers of the time period. Each student chooses
                               a composer from that period whose life will serve as the
Benchmark B
Identify composers and
                               starting and ending dates of one tier of a multi-tier time
classify them according to     line. The students construct this multiple-tier time line with
chronological historical       one line detailing important facts about the composer, and a
periods.                       second indicating people and events that are important to
                               the culture and geographic region of the composer.
Indicator 4
Identify selected
                               Students participate in a class discussion about the
composers and their works      connections between the time lines. Each student performs
and place them in the          an etude or excerpt by a Baroque composer with
appropriate historical         appropriate style.

Creative Expression and
Benchmark A                    This lesson is intended for use in an instrumental music
Perform a piece of music,      class, but can be adapted for vocal or general music classes.
independently or in a
                               The lesson works with any historical period the music class
group, with technical
accuracy and expression.       is studying, and could be expanded into a unit by covering
                               more periods. However, limiting exposure to one or two
Indicator 1                    periods makes this lesson easier to teach. Since this lesson
Sing and/or play, alone and    focuses on the Baroque period, include pieces by Baroque
with others, using good
                               composers in the literature. Students should keep their work
posture and breath control
throughout their range, a      in folders so they can refer to it when they make their time
varied repertoire of music     lines.
representing diverse
cultures with appropriate      Estimated Duration:
dynamic expression and
                               Four to five hours (eight 10 to 20 minute lessons.)
tempo for the work being

                               Have students complete Attachment A, A Slice of History.

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                               Interdisciplinary Lesson

Social Studies              Scoring Guidelines:
                            Circulate around the room as students complete the time line.
                            Notice whether or not students can put the events on the time
Benchmark A                 line in chronological order with correct starting and ending
Interpret relationships     dates. Use the pre-assessment results to determine if there are
between events on           students who need help understanding the basic components
multiple-tier time lines.   of a time line.
Indicator 1
Construct a multiple-tier   Post-Assessment:
time line from a list of    Each student creates a tiered time line using the life of a
events and interpret the    composer as the main line. Information about the composer’s
relationships between the   country or geographic region is on the second line. Students
                            perform etudes by Baroque composers in the Baroque style.

                            Scoring Guidelines:
                            Use Attachment F, Time Line Rubric, to evaluate the time
                            line. Use Attachment G, Baroque Style, to evaluate each
                            student’s performance.

                            Instructional Procedures:
                            Day One
                            1. Distribute Attachment A, A Slice of History.
                            2. Have students work alone or in small groups to complete
                               Attachment A, A Slice of History.
                            3. Use a chalkboard or marker board to list the birth/death,
                               beginning/ending dates for the people and events the
                               students researched while completing Attachment A. Have
                               students determine, as a class, how long the intervals
                               should be on the time line.
                            4. Begin a warm up using a melody by a Baroque composer.
                               Share information with students about what work the
                               melody is from and its composer.
                            5. Discuss the Baroque style of playing. Emphasize the
                               concepts that melodies often include grace notes for
                               decoration, rhythms and time signatures that become more
                               complex, and chords similar to what we hear in
                               contemporary music.

                            Instructional Tips:
                             Have the students take turns placing people and events on
                               the time line. As an extension ask students if there are any
                               other events or people they feel would fit onto the time

                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
  other events or people they feel would fit onto the time line.
 Tell students what they are expected to achieve as they construct their own time lines.
 Select Baroque etudes from a method book or another source. If none are available,
  you could create your own. Simple warm ups could be played in the Baroque style.
  From this point students should play Baroque music every day including both etudes
  and pieces. Connect the people and events of the Baroque period to the music the
  students are playing. Suggestions for etudes are:
  a. Bach: Peasant’s Cantata;
  b. Purcell: Rigaudon;
  c. Mouret: Rondeau;
  d. Vivaldi: The Four Seasons;
  e. Handel: Water Music.

Day Two
6. Distribute Attachment B, The Baroque Period, and have the students read it
   individually or in small groups.
7. Have students record full names, dates and events they feel are important in the
   appropriate columns on Attachment C, Baroque Highlights.

Instructional Tips:
 Students may complete the handout as homework to save class time. Attachment B,
   The Baroque Period, is not a comprehensive overview of the Baroque period. You
   might use an informational sheet about the Baroque period created from various
   reference materials such as workbooks or encyclopedia entries. Students could still
   use Attachment C, Baroque Highlights, to record their information.
 There are many new words and terms in Attachment B, The Baroque Period. One
   way to help students learn these new words is to have them write them on large strips
   of paper and place them on the wall. New words can be added to the “word wall”
   throughout the year to help students learn new vocabulary words.

Day Three
8. Discuss Attachment B, The Baroque Period. Ask students to share the information
   they recorded on Attachment C, Baroque Highlights.
    How did you determine which people and events are important?
    How did you determine in which columns to place the information?
9. Lead students on two “scavenger hunts.” Half of the class uses textbooks, method
   books or other sources to find as many Baroque composers and their biographical
   dates as possible. The other half of the class uses similar resources to find other arts
   and political events and people in the Baroque period. Have both groups record their
   findings on Attachment D, Scavenger Hunt.

                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
Day Four
10. Model the creation of a time line as a class activity using the information students
    collected during the scavenger hunts. Place a blank time line on the board.
11. Using Attachment D, Scavenger Hunt, discuss the components and parts of a time
    line with students by asking the following questions:
     How do you construct a time line?
     How do you determine the starting and ending dates?
     How do you determine the intervals of time?
12. With students, determine the intervals to be used on the time line (1600 to 1750).
    Write them on the board.
13. Let students place Baroque composers they found during their scavenger hunt on the
    time line that is on the board. Encourage them to record new information on their
    scavenger hunt paper.
14. Next, examine information about other arts and political events and people of the
    Baroque period. Put this information into categories, sequence it according to date
    and determine how many additional lines are required to include these facts on the
    time line. Add these lines and information to the time line already started on the
    board creating a multi-tier time line like the one students will create for their final

Instructional Tips:
 Help students understand the construction of a multiple-tier time line, by comparing
   the single-line time line and the multiple-tier time line created in step 14.
 Option: Gifted students could collect information for additional tiers to the time line
   to share with the class.
 Collaborate with the social studies teacher to give students information about the
   Baroque period and multi-tier time lines. Students can work with the social studies
   teacher regarding the cultures and geographical regions of most European composers
   during the Baroque period. Questions they should answer include:
   a. How did the country or region originate?
   b. What type of government existed?
   c. Who were the significant leaders?
   d. What historical events happened in that area during the Baroque period?

Day Five
15. Have students choose Baroque composers on which to base their time lines.
16. Distribute Attachment E, Creating Your Time Line. Show students how to create their
    time lines.
17. Assign an excerpt or an etude that you have been studying in class for students to
    prepare for their performance assessment.

                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
Instructional Tips:
 Ask the social studies teacher to help students do research for geographical and
   historical information to use on their time lines. Determine if students can do some of
   the research in the social studies class or if it is necessary to spend time in the library
   or media center for research work.
 Music research should be done during music class time.
 On Attachment E, the acronyms COW (composer, other composer, works) and PIGS
   (people, important facts, government, significant events) help students remember
   what they are putting on their time lines. These two animals are connected because
   they are both farm animals, just as the two tiers they represent should be connected
   with information about composers and the countries where they lived and worked.

Day Six
18. Review the instructions on Attachment E, Creating Your Time Line.
19. Help students begin research for their time lines.
20. Continue working with students on the Baroque pieces they will use in their
    performance assessments.

Day Seven
21. Collect student time lines and assess using Attachment F, Time Line Rubric.
22. Assess student performance of a Baroque style excerpt or piece using Attachment G,
    Baroque Style.

Instructional Tip:
Day Seven does not have to immediately follow Day Six. Allow students adequate time
to conduct research and create their time lines. Decide which assessment you want to
administer first. Be sure students have deadlines well ahead of time.

Day Eight
23. Choose and display four or five exemplary time lines and discuss them. Use
    Attachment H, Making Connections, to help with discussion questions

Instructional Tip:
Attachment H, Making Connections, is for teacher use only, and is just a suggested list of
questions for class discussions.

Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the
intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond
the specified indicator(s).
 Have students prepare and perform pieces that represent events on their time lines.

                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
   Have students write paragraphs describing why they chose specific composers for
    their time lines.
   Provide students with graphic organizers to aid in the research process.
   Have advanced students choose other countries or regions that interest them and add
    more tiers to their time lines.
   Have students use a wider variety of resources, including print at individual reading
    levels, for the scavenger hunts.
   Challenge students to extend their time lines and illustrate or annotate them using
    multimedia technology.
   Have gifted students take their completed time lines, add other tiers and share the new
    information with the class. This time line could include other important people or
    events from that same time period.

 Have students create time lines about a piece of music they are studying in class.
   Students could trace the life of the piece, from conception to performance, and
   include important historical events.
 Students can add graphics or illustrate portions of their time lines.
 Have students add a tier with historical events.
 Students can help create their own rubrics for assessment by determining what
   information is vital for the time lines.
 Have students create time lines of their own lives.
 Have students create a time line game. Students determine important people and
   events and make cards. The purpose of the game would be to place the cards in the
   correct order by date.
 Have students research and create time lines for their favorite contemporary

Library Connections:
Information Literacy

Benchmark B
Identify information needs, select school library media books and materials in a variety of
formats, and demonstrate responsible use and ethical behavior when using library media

Indicator 2
Use a variety of library material formats as part of the research-process (e.g., follow
check-out and check-in procedures and return materials on time).

                             Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson
Benchmark D
Evaluate the accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, coverage and relevance of
information and data sources.

Indicator 1
Identify main ideas and supporting facts to select relevant information to answer

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of specific resources and references to particular musicians, composers or
works of music in any lesson developed by the Ohio Department of Education should not
be interpreted as an endorsement of the particular resource, musician, composer or work
of music. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource,
musician, composer, or work of music.

The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main page; therefore, it may be necessary
to search within the site to find the specific information required for the lesson. Please
note that information published on the Internet changes over time and the links provided
may no longer contain the information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to
preview all sites before using them with students.

Note: Some Web sites contain material that is protected by copyright. Teachers should
ensure that any use of material from the Web does not infringe upon the content owner’s

For the teacher: chalk board or white board, resource materials (encyclopedia,
                 historical books, etc.), example of a completed time line

For the student:   notebook, binder or folder, poster board, markers, method book or

*Term in the Fine Arts Academic Content Standards Music Glossary.
 architecture- the art or science of building
 aristocracy- the highest-ranking class in European society
 aristocrats- very wealthy people who held titles such as duke or countess, who usually
   owned a great deal of land and held a great deal of power in society
 astronomy- the study of the universe
 baroque- a period in music from 1600 to1750; The word “baroque” originally meant
   grotesque or odd but is now used to describe things that are extravagant or ornate
   (informal language: showy, over-decorated).

                              Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson
   biographical dates- indicate the birth and death of a person’s life
   calculus- a method of computation
   chronological- something that is arranged in or listed according to the order of time
   concerto- a composition in several movements for solo instrument and orchestra
   concerto grosso- is a type of concerto written in the late 1600s using a string orchestra
    called the ripieno or tutti , meaning “full” or “all,” together with a smaller solo group
    called the concertino
   flamboyant- architecture that is characterized by curves suggesting flames
   grace notes- ornamentations used to decorate or embellish a melody
   monarchy - a system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person
    who is often a hereditary leader, a ruler for life with absolute powers over all people
    and laws.
   opera*
   oratorio- a dramatic work for soloists, chorus and orchestra usually based on religious
    stories, performed in a concert setting
   ornate- describes an elaborately or excessively decorated object
   peasant- a member of the European class of small land owners and laborers
   physics- the study of matter, energy, motion and force
   sonata- a work with three or four movements that are related in key but differ in
    rhythm and mood
   suite- an instrumental work in several movements often based on traditional dance
   tier- one of two or more rows, levels or ranks arranged above one another
   time line- a table listing important events for successive years within a particular
    historical period

Technology Connections:
 Use time line software to create additional examples for students or have students use
   the program to design their time lines. The following Web sites can be used to create
   time lines:
    line/index.html
    line.html

   Have students use a variety of technology resources for curriculum and personal
    information needs including the library catalog, online encyclopedia or Web sites.

Research Connections:
Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for
Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 2001.

                             Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson
Selwyn, D.W. (1991). Using the arts to teach content in secondary social studies
classrooms. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(6), 2098A

General Tips:
 This lesson works best if done in conjunction with a social studies teacher, but the
   music teacher can do the lesson alone.
 Remember that the process of deciding what information should be placed on the
   time line is as important as the time line itself. Students need to work on reading for
   purpose and deciding what information is most relevant.
 Encourage students to be creative in constructing their time lines. Students can
   include pictures or artwork to help emphasize the significance of the information on
   the time lines.
 If you are working on the lesson solely in the music classroom, ask the social studies
   teacher to help you select appropriate resource materials for the historical information
   on the time lines.

Attachment A, A Slice of History
Attachment B, The Baroque Period
Attachment C, Baroque Highlights
Attachment D, Scavenger Hunt
Attachment E, Creating Your Time Line
Attachment F, Time Line Rubric
Attachment G, Baroque Style
Attachment H, Making Connections

                                           Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                               Interdisciplinary Lesson
                                                 Attachment A
                                                A Slice of History


Directions: Work alone or in small groups to place the people and events below onto the time line above. Be sure to
place them in order by date. Don’t forget to put starting and ending dates on your time line.

George Washington (b. 1732)                             Ohio becomes a state (1803)
Ludwig von Beethoven (b. 1770)                          Civil War (1861)
Johann Sebastian Bach (b. 1685)                         Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock (1620)
Abraham Lincoln (b. 1809)                               Declaration of Independence (1776)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (b. 1756)                       Columbus discovers America (1492)

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                      Attachment B

                                  The Baroque Period
    The Baroque period dates from 1600 until 1750. Originally, the term “baroque” was used
to describe flamboyant, ornate architecture found in German, Austrian and Italian churches.
The Baroque period saw the development of several new music and art forms including
opera. Opera was incredibly popular and led to the opening of many new opera houses.
Claudio Monteverdi is the composer credited with composing the first important opera,
“Orfeo.” He was one of the first composers to use the orchestra to establish the mood of a
piece instead of simply supporting the singers. Composers Antonio Vivaldi and Alessandro
Scarlatti continued his pioneering work. During the Baroque period, there was an increasing
demand for instrumental music, particularly concertos, concerto grossi, sonatas and suites.
Bach’s “Brandenburg Concertos” are some of the most famous concertos from the period.
     One of the most significant composers of the period, Johann Sebastian Bach, composed
mostly church music. He began his career as a church organist and later became a court
musician. He wrote for voices and instruments together, yet many of his pieces were solely
instrumental. Another important composer was George Frederic Handel. He is best known
for the oratorio, “Messiah.”
     In the Baroque era, a composer was expected to do much more than just write music. A
church musician like Bach was expected to compose music, play during the services and
conduct the choir. He also might have to rehearse and conduct the church orchestra. New
music had to be composed for weekly services and for special services. Since music was still
handwritten, copyists would help make enough copies for all the members of the choir and
     The Baroque period occurred during a time of absolute monarchy. Kings had total
control over everyone and made all the laws. A king decided what could be published in
books and determined the style for art and architecture. Everyone had to pay taxes to the
king. During this time, most people were either part of the aristocracy and were very rich, or
they were peasants and part of the poor working class. Who you were and what you did were
based entirely on your birth. If you were born to parents who had money, then you were able
to live a very privileged life. If you happened to be born into a poor family, then you would
have started working at a very young age. The aristocrats were supported by the work of the
poor people and usually did not have to work themselves.
     Living conditions were quite different at this time. Only the wealthy had fireplaces for
heat. There were no such things as bathrooms. The majority of people could not read or
write. There were no public schools, so the wealthy hired tutors to teach their children.
People did not travel very much because roads were not paved or maintained. Trips had to
be made on horseback or in horse-drawn carriages.
     During the Baroque period, many changes took place in science and philosophy. Galileo
and Kepler established the foundations of astronomy. By using newly invented telescopes,
they could look at the sun, stars and other planets. Newton used mathematics to describe

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson

motion which is the science of physics. Other important inventions were the rifle (1611),
submarine (1624), umbrella (1625), adding machine (1642), watch (1657), paper money
(1668), calculator (1671) and thermometer (1715). The design and manufacture of music
instruments became more developed. The famous string-making families of Guarneri and
Stradivari produced instruments of excellent quality.
   Many significant events were happening across the ocean in North America during the
Baroque period. In 1619, the first slaves were brought to America, and in1620 the Pilgrims
founded Plymouth Colony. The Salem witchcraft trials began in 1692, and George
Washington was born in Virginia in 1732.

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                    Attachment C
                                  Baroque Highlights


Read Attachment B, The Baroque Era, and list the information you feel is important in the
appropriate columns below.

Music and the Arts ____________                      Historical Facts_______________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

_____________________________                        ____________________________

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                     Attachment D
                                    Scavenger Hunt
                                       (Group 1)

    Pretend you are a detective. A new piece of music has been discovered and the person
who found it thinks it was written during the Baroque period. This person is very unfamiliar
with Baroque composers. Use your textbook, method book or another source such as the
encyclopedia or Internet to find as many composers as you can from the Baroque period so
that this person has a place to start. You need a minimum of four. Include their birth and
death dates and, remember, the Baroque period lasted from 1600 to 1750.

Baroque Composers:

                            Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                Interdisciplinary Lesson

                              Attachment D (continued)
                                   Scavenger Hunt
                                      (Group 2)
    Assist the detective above by finding as many important political events and people, and
arts events and people (other than music and musicians) as you can find. You need a
minimum of four. The period you are researching is the Baroque period, 1600 to 1750.

                             Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                    Attachment E
                               Creating Your Time Line


You are to create a multiple-tier time line. The first line will be based on the composer you
chose. It will be your C.O.W. line. The second line will include important information about
his or her country or region. It will be your P.I.G.S. line.

Please be sure to include all the information below on your time line.
My composer is:___________________________________________________
Biographical dates are:______________________________________________

On your C.O.W. line include a minimum of:
      Composer- three important events in his life;
      Other composers- four other important composers from the Baroque period (birth
        and death dates, dates of important compositions or performances);
      Works- three important works by your composer.

On your P.I.G.S. line, include a minimum of:
      People- list 4 other important people alive during the composer’s life;
      Important Facts- list two important facts about the country or region;
      Government- include the name of at least one leader;
      Significant Events- include at least two significant events.

Other things to consider for your P.I.G.S. line are:
      Type of government—who was in charge; how decisions were made;
      Customs and traditions;
      Language;
      Predominant religions.

Please use all resources available to you such as an encyclopedia or the Internet.

                          Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                              Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                   Attachment F
                                 Time Line Rubric

Scoring Guidelines:
3 Exceeds             *Information on the musical line is accurate.
  Standard            *Information on the regional line is accurate.
                      *Student includes all required information and adds other
                        important information or another tier to the time line.
                      *Time line depicts regular intervals.

2 Meets               *Information on the musical line is accurate.
  Standard            *Information on the regional line is accurate.
                      *Student includes all required information.
                      *Time line depicts regular intervals.

1 Approaches          *Information on the time line is appropriate but not
  Standard             organized correctly.
                      *Student includes some of the required information.
                      *Student only makes one tier of the time line.
                      *Time line depicts uneven intervals.

0 Intervention        *Information on the time line is inaccurate and not
  Needed               organized correctly.
                      *Little attempt or no attempt is made at all.

                          Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                              Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                    Attachment G
                                    Baroque Style

                    0 points           1 point            2 points           3 points
Tone            Student            Student            Student exhibits   Student plays
                displays a poor    displays an        good tone          with excellent
                tone quality.      inconsistent       control and        tone and varies
                                   tone and is        only needs to      tone color
                                   unable to vary     make small         accordingly.
                                   tone color.        adjustments.

Correct Notes   Student needs      Student            Student plays      Student
                to review key      struggles to       most notes         performs all
                signatures and     follow key         correctly and      notes in tune.
                finger patterns.   signature.         shows a good
                                   Many notes are     grasp of key
                                   wrong.             signature.
Intonation      Student            Student pitch is   Student pitch is   Student plays
                displays no        often              fairly solid;      with precise
                sense of pitch.    inaccurate.        only small         and accurate
                                   Finger patterns    adjustments are    pitch.
                                   need to be         needed.
Rhythm          Student            Rhythmic           Student plays      Student
                displays an        performance is     most rhythms       performs all
                inability to       inconsistent.      accurately.        rhythms
                keep a steady      Many note and      Only minor         properly and
                beat.              rest values are    deficiencies are   demonstrates a
                                   incorrect.         exhibited.         good sense of
Style/         Student shows       Student makes      Student shows      Student plays
Expression     no evidence of      little effort to   an attempt to      with
               dynamics,           include musical    include musical    appropriate
               phrasing or         elements.          elements in the    dynamics,
               tempo                                  appropriate        phrasing, tempo
               markings.                              style.             and style.
Teacher Comments:

                             Connecting the Dots – Grade Six
                                 Interdisciplinary Lesson

                                    Attachment H
                                  Making Connections

Possible questions to ask students while reviewing time lines:

1. What made you choose the composer you picked for your time line?

2. What types of information are included about the composer?

3. Are there any similarities between the events on the two tiers of the time line?

4. Do you see any people or events on the regional line that may have influenced the

5. Can you determine any information about the customs and traditions of the country based
   on the events on the time line?

6. Do you see any compositions that you have performed?


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