AUTHORITY & TEXT Postgraduate Conference in Hispanic & Lusophone Studies 12th & 13th January 2007 Abstracts Keynote Speakers Professor Lúcia Nagib – Director, Centre of World Cinemas, University of Leeds Panaméricas Utópicas: Entranced and Transient Nations in ‘I Am Cuba’ (1963) and ‘Land in Trance’ (1967) This paper examines the astonishing similarities between two political films, Land in Trance (Glauber Rocha, 1967) and I Am Cuba (Mikhail Kalatozov, 1964). Both address the subject of revolution through the enactment of trance. Both reject all forms of naturalistic account, adopting a series of anti-realist devices, such as poetic language, synecdoche, personification, parable and allegory, as a means of expanding the concept of the nation beyond territorial borders and conveying the meaning of revolution through the film form, rather than its content. Because there is no evidence that Glauber Rocha had seen I Am Cuba before he shot Land in Trance, these coincidences are treated as an intellectual ‘transit’ between filmmakers whose art was fuelled by cinephilia and the belief in the reality of the film medium. Dr Rodrigo Cacho – Lecturer in Spanish Golden Age, University of Cambridge Hide and Seek: Lazarillo de Tormes and Autobiography The Lazarillo de Tormes has often been considered as one of the precursors of the modern novel. According to this interpretation, picaresque fiction introduced a first person point of view which echoed the ambiguities and complexities of the human mind. Lázaro evolves and shares with the reader his personal degradation in a corrupt society. Nevertheless, this reading of the text depends on anachronistic approaches that assimilate the picaresque with realism. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical background which motivated such readings of the Lazarillo, by analysing at the same time its autobiographical style. ______________________________ “Authority & Selection” Paloma Peréz Valdés – University College Dublin Reconocimiento literario How does an author in contemporary Spain reach literary recognition? Is there any authority that dictates what authors are writing novels that deserve to be considered literary? Due to the waiting time that the academic world and the literary critics seem to need before making any judgement on this regard, the reader finds him or herself having to choose the authors to read using information acquired from other institutions different from the above. In Spain today, literary prizes count among the best publicity for the author, would they exercise any sort of authority over the reader when it comes to the selection of his or her readings? An answer to this question would imply an enormous amount of data from surveys to the readers, but we can try to examine the prizes themselves, because there are a few conclusions that we can reach, not so much on the actual authority they exercise, but on how they aim to control the reader. Since there are two blocks of prizes, namely, the national and the editorial, I suggest a brief analysis of both in order to decide what are the differences among them, what are the differences in their tendencies, and if a sexual bias exists with regard to the influence they are attempting to exert overt the reader. Cheyla Samuelson – University of California Santa Barbara Authority Lost, Autonomy Gained: new writers in post-boom Mexico The ubiquitous fictional character of the writer in the production of a group of emerging Mexican authors can serve as a vehicle for understanding certain shifts in the perception of the social function of literature and the authority of the author endemic to the current literary debate in Mexico. For most young writers working in Mexico today, the revolutionary aspect of narrative fiction, the politically empowered sense inherent in the even the most formally experimental of Boom or escritura writers, is noticeably absent. For these writers, the overtly revolutionary national project of Carlos Fuentes and Octavio Paz is no longer a viable, or desirable, activity for the writer. I posit that the current literary production of Mexico is diminished in political power, but enriched in artistic freedom of expression. The portrayal of writers in the work of these young authors shows a multiplicity of subject positions possible for the author in Mexico, and allows us to see the ways in which some these seemingly apolitical works serve to reflect and comment on the place of the creative artist in a society in a state of rapid transition. Chandra Morrison – University of Cambridge Rules of Exchange: Sampling across the North/South divide in 'world music' In my paper, I'll examine the exchange of musical text - verbal, vocal, rhythmic - in the process of sampling within the newly constructed genre of 'world music'/ 'world beat'. Questions of authority surface in relation to who can use what textual sources within the contemporary international music industry, and under what terms. The often irregular liabilities of source recognition arouse the convoluted dilemma of denoting authorship, ethics of intellectual/cultural ownership, and the added complexities of monetary/economic beneficiary recognition. Utilising examples from Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa, I'll problematize musical transactions across the North/South divide in particular, to explore the cultural authority of who makes and decides these rules of exchange. ______________________________ “Authority & Selection” Ricardo Vasconcelos – University of California Santa Barbara How anthologies work: the discourse of authority in contemporary anthologies of Portuguese poetry The model of literary anthologies inevitably makes use of the discourse of power, inasmuch as it implies choices that try to conform to either prevailing tastes, or even tastes of minorities, and at the same time tries to define criteria for the relevance not only of its own options, but moreover of what is supposed to be literary or not. It is revealing to analyze how, in most cases, in order to avoid criticism of plain relativism or even biased choices, anthologies are built upon notions of representativeness, which often have little in common. What, in fact, defines the authority of organizers? How easily do these organizers deal with the apparent need to justify their criteria? In what way do the concerns that the somewhat contradictory urges of both building history and canon, or simply getting their choices right in the eyes of those to come, affect not only the options taken but also the discourse of legitimacy? This work aims to discuss these issues namely concerning anthologies of poetry, as elements of cultural authority in the context of Contemporary Portuguese Poetry, by analyzing recent publications and referring to the social impact some of them had. João Paulo Martins Silvestre – University of Aveiro The Portuguese literary corpus and the establishment of a linguistic norm in the eighteenth century This paper presents an approach to the evolution of lexicographers’ and grammar composers’ discourse with reference to the relationship between linguistic norm and the authority of Portuguese writers. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Portuguese language displays a wide variety of forms authorised by printed texts, by the absence of institutional documents sensitive to standardisation and by the lack of models to form a canonical corpus. A reading of the principle grammatical texts of the time reveals divergent solutions for the construction of an authorised orthographic system: - Observance of the authority of writers, resulting in description of the variety of uses, - Emergence of the author-linguist figure who critically evaluates the authority embodied by tradition, according to “rational” criteria, - Minute selection of a corpus of canonical authors, thus disavowing any uses not authorised by written texts and reducing the range of admissible orthographic varieties. The comparative analysis of contemporary grammatical texts reveals, in addition, the authors’ strategies to affirm an authoritative status regarding orthography. The selected authors and works are as follows: - Jerónimo Argote, Regras da lingua portugueza (1725) - Luís Caetano de Lima, Orthographia da lingua portugueza (1726) - João Madureira Feijó, Orthografia (1734) - Rafael Bluteau, Vocabulario (1712-1728) ______________________________ “Authority in Visual & Performance Arts” Maria Sofia Pimentel Biscaia – University of Aveiro Stripping Authority: the aesthetics of excess in Fernando Botero’s and Paula Rego’s painting Paula Rego and Fernando Botero occupy today a privileged position in the universe of the visual arts. Their unique styles enhance the satirical and subversive intents of their work. Mario Vargas Llosa has described Botero’s world as “sumptuous, unusual, cheerful, tender, innocent, sensual, in which knowledge and reason, spurred on by nostalgia, are continually delving into memory to rectify life by appearing to reproduce it”1, a description well-suited to Rego’s work as well. Whilst revisiting their historical memories and affirming the social engagement of their perceptions, the artists continually find themselves constructing a discourse against (in contrast and in opposition) the forms of Authority which condition/ed their native countries, Colombia and Portugal, as well as, more recently, against the panorama of international politics. Thus in this paper I propose to look into the theme of authority in these painters’ work in the following manner (the order presents firstly topics specific to Rego and then to Botero): National politics: the Portuguese dictatorship; violence in Colombia International affairs: the Iraqi conflict; torture in Abu Ghraib Colonialism and neo-colonialism: the Ultramar war; representation of politicians and military figures Religion: Biblical figures, themes and the abortion problem; representation of biblical figures and of the Church Gender politics: animalisation of female figures and interaction of women with animals; private lives and inflated bodies Inês Alves Mendes – University of Oxford Engaging with the canon: Subverting authority through its embodiment The Portuguese Hélia Correia, in her 1991 play Perdição: Exercício Sobre Antígona, reveals a close relationship with Sophocles’ Antigone. The Portuguese drama legitimises and subverts its canonical legacy since, on the one hand, Hélia Correia recuperates similar passages and, on the other hand, she grants them different meanings. This research explores how the balance between tradition (authority) and innovation (marginality) generates an original and subversive meaning for Antigone in Hélia Correia’s play. Furthermore, this work investigates how Antigone’s configuration represents the feminine in contemporary literature and performing arts. Marcelo Moreschi – University of California Santa Barbara Commonplaces of the avant-garde: describing the self-constructed authority of Brazilian and Portuguese Modernist manifestos Martin Puchner, in Poetry of Revolution, suggests that the manifesto is a writing genre that has an essential tension in its very core. For Puchner, such tension would be produced by a conflict of between the performativity and theatricality implied in these texts. On one hand, the manifesto is a kind of text which attempts to be a particular and powerful “speech-act” and thus its own performance per se is intended to intervene in the world and establish a new state of affairs. On the other hand, the illocutionary authority to do that is only simulated, since such kinds of texts and their authors do not usually have the effective power of intervention and changing, at least not at the time of the performance. In fact, this power is what the manifesto ultimately pursues. In other words, what supports and authorizes the manifesto is something that it actually seeks, and therefore, does not have. Keeping this suggestion in mind, I will present an overview of ten of the most important Modernist manifestos written in the Portuguese-speaking world. My purpose is to describe the commonplaces found in these texts (“commonplace” here understood both in the ordinary way – i.e., overused clichés – and in the rhetorical sense – i.e., the topoi employed or implied) and sketch how they rhetorically pursue their own authority. ______________________________ “Conceptual Authority” Juan Herrero Senés - Universitat Pompeu Fabra Time-Authority in interwar literary Spain (1918-1936) We tend to think authority in personal terms: authority is something embodied. But there are other forms of authority, for instance Time. We could divide Time Authority in the authority of the Past (classicism or tradition), of the Present (modernism) and of the Future (utopism). My contribution aims at studying some aspects of this authority in a particular convulsed time- determined epoch: Interwar Literary Spain (1918-1936). We will see how at the beginning Time as Current Times dictates the kind of literature that needs to be written. The Present is a source of Legitimation, and therefore functions as both Authority and Kairos (opportunity). But as the years go by a shift occurs from homocronia to heterocronia (situating the center in the very same times or in other temporal space). The Present is disregarded as Authority, and the Past and the Future occupy its space. In the case of Spanish interwar literature, we can see this progression in three phases: modernism, classicism and romanticism. From the substitution of tradition by individual talent, and of history by “The New”, to the rehabilitation of the Past as basis of order and power. Jacobo Zabalo Puig – Universitat Pompeu Fabra Authority and Ambiguity. Miguel de Unamuno, a Kierkegaard Reader The concept of authority [Myndighed] was introduced in Søren Kierkegaard´s writings by the end of his lifetime, after realizing that his literary strategy (developed by means of several pseudonyms) was not effective enough to promote the idea of the authentic, particular self. In order to communicate coherently this notion, i.e. without imposing a universal meaning, he had to recognize himself as an author “without authority” [uden Myndighed]. The passionate ambiguity of this movement, supported by Kierkegaard´s own life, would be assumed some decades later by Miguel de Unamuno, in whom he posthumously found one of the most faithful followers. Symptomatically enough, he used to call him “brother Kierkegaard” [el hermano Kierkegaard]. As the Dane, he developed a literary corpus tout autre: combining fiction and non-fiction, he drew authors inside novels, wrote novels about how to write a novel, and developed philosophical thoughts in touch with poetical resources. Of course, apart from this methodological brotherhood, Unamuno inherited Kierkegaard´s interest in human subjectivity, and with it the main problem of how it was to be raised. Along this paper we will expose Unamuno´s challenge in improving literary forms of “authority”, the paradoxical topic induced by Kierkegaard´s existential dialectics that, from a contemporary perspective, leads us to a broader critique. Luís dos Santos – Université Libre de Bruxelles El compromiso lingüístico de Juan Goytisolo Las dos etapas ue los cr ticos suelen identificar en larga obra novel stica de uan Goytisolo, se corresponden en realidad con concepciones muy distintas del compromiso literario. Mientras que las primeras novelas del escritor español, al adoptar una estética testimonial y objetivista cuyo principal objetivo es denunciar el autoritarismo del régimen franquista, obedecen a la definición tradicional del compromiso literario, Reivindicación del Conde don Julián (1 reacciona contra ese lengua e transparente al introducir el compromiso en el mismo lengua e, visto ahora como el principal medio de alienaci n, pero también y por consiguiente de liberación. Cabe preguntarse hasta ué punto esa “violencia del lengua e” ( .-J. Lecercle) traduce la tentativa de conciliar el ethos cr tico ue caracteriza a los representantes de la “generaci n del medio siglo” con la necesaria autonom a del lengua e (P. Casanova definida por los centros literarios (en particular París y los preceptos del nouveau roman . Cabe también preguntarse en ué medida el acatamiento de la concepci n central de “modernidad literaria” (aun ue como medio de luchar contra el aislamiento cultural del régimen y la resultante heteronom a del espacio literario español oculta la “violencia simb lica” (P. Bourdieu ue experimentan en aquél entonces las (semi)periferias literarias. ______________________________ “Authority in a Medieval & Premodern Age” Antonella Liuzzo-Scorpo – University of Exeter Alfonso X of Castille: subject, master and figure of authority The right to command or give an ultimate decision, the moral and legal supremacy, the intellectual influence, the power to inspire belief: these are some of the connotations related to the idea of “authority”. What this paper will investigate is how the figure of Alfonso X of Castile matchs perfectly all these semantic definitions, being simultaneously a powerful sovereign and an illuminated practitioner and promoter of several arts. Particular attention will be dedicated to two of the works produced in his scriptorium: the Siete Partidas and the Cantigas de Santa Maria, two instruments supporting Alfonso X’s socio-political aims to consolidate his authority as ruler, emperor, magister and champion of Christianity. Both works, faithful mirrors of the thirteenth- century Iberian society, are also different examples of didacticism, aimed at controlling while educating all its members. Alfonso X acts as the epicentre of a phenomenon of authority which involves all the temporal categories. As a scholar he uses the classical authorities of the past as main sources, as a king he represents the temporal and cultural authority over his subjects, as an emblem of erudition and power both he still plays a central role in the history and literary history of Spain. Naomi Hoogesteger – University of Durham The medieval Spanish ballad: an authoritative text? The medieval Spanish ballad is a form that comes from the masses, rather than erudite composers. It represents life as full of vitality and sexual innuendo. However, in the late Middle Ages professional and religious poets simultaneously began to transcribe oral versions, composing their own in the same style. The religious ballads contain devout women who differ greatly from the libidinous protagonists of popular forms. This paper discusses how religious ballads implicitly used a traditional medium to prescribe behaviour. In particular, I look at three religious ballads from fray Ambrosio Montesino’s 15 8 songbook: Quien es este que en reguarda (Who is this so revered), En Betania estava sola (Alone in Bethlehem), and Por las cortes de la Gloria (In the heavenly courts). The protagonists, the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene become paradigms of idealized female comportment. I will prove that because of the popularity of the traditional ballad amongst the lower echelons of society, religious composers hoped that their imitations would facilitate the dissemination of the acceptable bounds of women’s behaviour. My analysis draws on the debates of current scholarship on the evolution of the popular ballad into an erudite form, and thematic differences between popular and erudite compositions which highlight the effect of authority. I also consider contemporary literary attitudes towards women. Kevin Brown – University College London A proposal of Teresa de Avila’s rhetorical strategy in the twentieth chapter of Libro de la vida If we accept claims of her Jewish ancestry and her personal divine revelations, Teresa de Avila had plenty to conceal from a dominant Church. In Libro de la vida the methods she uses to avoid any threat to her orthodox status within the Roman church are many and varied. Exemplified by the chapter in which she discusses her definition of the possibly heretical rapture (arrobamiento) and borrowing two epistemological terms from the philosopher Richard Rorty, we can trace those moments where Teresa employs ?conversational justification? of belief in her status as a non-heretic contrasted with those where she uses an ?epistemological justification.? The epistemological justifications include those moments of first-person statement, when she speaks of inner states and relies on the supposed validity of a first-person claim. Conversational justifications involve the named or assumed readers and invite social reflection on her words, the coming together of two or more people?s points of perception. Teresa manages to assimilate into conversation what would otherwise be a personal statement; she shifts the privileged representation of rapture from her own account to the readers? shared understanding. ______________________________ “Authority in Gender & Sexuality” Maria Lopes da Silva – University of Cambridge O Testamento do Sr. Napumoceno da Silva Araújo: empowerment and disrobement of self-authority in the feminine Before the independence from Portugal in the 1970s, the literature of Cape Verde was of particular importance in Lusophone literary studies in that it exhibited a feeling of Cape Verdeaness rather than one of the prevailing negritude. Post-independence, it continues to occupy a role of predominance in both qualitative and quantitative terms, of which Germano de Almeida is one of the most illustrious examples. In his novel “O Testamento do Sr. Napumoceno da Silva Araújo”, I will be pondering on the relationship between the male protagonist and important women in his life, focusing on several dichotomies: mother / daughter, sexualisation / dessexualisation, and empowerment / disrobement of authority, Through them, I aim to offer a portrait of Mindelo’s (capital city of the island of S. Vicente social state of affairs for women pre and post-independence. Yolanda Melgar – University College Dublin Autoridad y texto en las “novelas de formación” de Carmen Boullosa (mexicana) y Sandra Cisneros (chicana) In this paper I will comparatively analyse the female ‘Bildungsromane’ of two contemporary women writers, the Mexican Carmen Boullosa and the Mexican-American ('Chicana') Sandra Cisneros in relation to the broad issue of ‘Authority and Text’. From the point of view of authority of the text, both writers exercise their author-ity in a very different way from their male counterparts, putting an end to the version of the great Latin American and Chicano (male) myths, which reached their apotheosis with the Latin-American ‘Boom’ and the Chicano ‘Movimiento’. From the point of view of authority within the text, I will examine the differentiated ways in which the female characters portrayed in these first-person narratives use their author-ity in order both to challenge Mexican and Chicano patriarchy and depict the identity of Mexican and Chicana Woman as embedded in a particular historical background. With this analysis I will show how both writers exercise their author-ity to reach very different conclusions regarding the depiction of female identity, and I will explore the reasons behind these differences, their relationship with the Mexican and Chicana feminist movements, and their significance in the literary context of Mexican and Chicana female writing. Nuala Kenny – University College Dublin Authority and maternity in the novel La Enredadera by Josefina Aldecoa What is Authority? According to Edward Said, authority suggests ‘a constellation of linked meanings: a power to enforce obedience or a power to influence action, […] not only those, but a connection with author – a person who originates or gives existence to something, a begetter, beginner, father, or ancestor, a person also who sets forth written statements’. This quote succinctly reflects the notion of male authority, if not superiority, that pervaded the literary world. In this paper, I wish to set forth a new perspective on authority. This approach will centre on mother-daughter relationships and their portrayal in La enredadera by Josefina Aldecoa. Initially, as feminism came to the fore, the importance of maternity was downplayed. However, as daughters rejected the shackles that oppressed their mothers, they also silenced them. Josefina Aldecoa, an author of the mid-century generation, examines the impact of patriarchal society on women’s lives in her first novel La enredadera, published in 1 84. She contemplates the profound effect; both negative and positive, motherhood has on a woman’s life, providing mothers with a voice. The protagonists, Clara and Julia, despite living a century apart, both face the burden of the feminine condition and struggle to reject male authority. ______________________________ “Authority & Censorship” Jordi Mir Garcia – Universitat Pompeu Fabra Reviews and publishers for a political and cultural transformation in Spain during the 60s and the 70s Spain on 1976, thirty years ago, first political and cultural reviews proposing a breaking-off with the Francoist society were edited. There is, for example, El Viejo Topo (The old mole). These proposals attempted to go beyond formal democracy and so-called “real socialism”. Censorship had still not disappeared; these reviews and publishers had troubles with it. But it was time for the protest movements aiming to participate in the new society after Francisco Franco’s death, to emerge. During the Francoist period, publications and publishers that tried to take advantage of the dictatorship’s narrow margins appeared. We can consider Nuestro Cine (Our cinema), a review that brought out much more than cinema criticism or information on films that could not be seen in Spain; or the publisher Ariel, which became a reference for history, laws, sociology or philosophy, also by the publication of some foreign authors for the first time. This paper presents some publications, from the sixties and the seventies, that were the voice of a critical though and agents of its dissemination. They were references, authorities, for a significant part of population. Jacqueline Mulhall – Dublin City University Exercising moral authority: Literary censorship and the double standards on sexuality in Franco’s Spain Censorship is invoked to exert control over public discourse and to suppress dissident voices. It is a mechanism by which the dominated are silenced in the interests of sustaining the presumed common good. When Church and State unite in exercising such authority, censorship takes on a moral imperative. In 1950s Spain, notions of womanhood operated within a Catholic, patriarchal, bourgeois logic which judged women by their sexual decorum, stripped women of their sexuality and eroded notions of female sexual desire. A vigorous system of state censorship strictly controlled the dissemination of ideas which challenged this moral modelling of the female persona. However, the subject matter of the novela neorrealista femenina proved to be fertile terrain for the censor and was regularly censored on grounds of moral subversion. Descriptions of female sexual desire, sexual relations outside the bounds of marriage and female nakedness were all expurgated from the published copy for contravening prevailing moral codes. Paradoxically, in a society that based its moral codes on Catholic, conservative norms, prostitutes and working-class women − it would appear − were exempt from the moral codes imposed on their middle-class counterparts. Indeed, passages in which women of a lesser social standing cross moral boundaries remained largely untouched by the censors’ thick blue pencil. Through an examination of the original manuscripts of Carmen Kurtz’ La Vie a Ley (1 56 and Mercedes Salisachs’ Una mu er llega al pueblo (1 5 this paper will examine this double standard on female sexuality. Nicola Rooney – Trinity College Dublin Challenges to authority from the Basque clergy during the Franco dictatorship The Franco dictatorship based its claims to legitimacy primarily on a strict identification with the Catholic Church, known as “National Catholicism”. In the Basque Country, National Catholicism reinforced the divisions of the Spanish Civil War, asserting the dominance of the victorious Spanish culture of the Franco regime over the defeated culture of Basque regional nationalism. This paper will examine the various ways in which a section of the Basque clergy, opposed to National Catholicism, challenged the authority of both political and church leaders during the final decade of the dictatorship. Although Basque priests had been involved in acts of protest since the end of the civil war, from 1965 onwards the situation became more acute. The 1 6 ’s saw the emergence of a new generation of priests that had not participated in the war. Encouraged by the declarations of the Second Vatican Council (1961-5) in favour of the mutual independence of Church and State and the duty of the Church to defend human rights, these priests began to question the legitimacy of the Franco regime in sermons, clandestine documents, and other forms of protest. The increasing militancy of these protests, combined with the attention given to them in the international media, created a worrying situation for both civil and ecclesiastical authorities and led to the creation of a special prison for priests in 1968, a visual symbol of the disintegration of National Catholicism. Elisa Martín Ortega – Universitat Pompeu Fabra The world of exile: an approach to the place of Sephardic language in contemporary poetry The literary influence of Hispanic Judaism –marked, since 1492, by stealth and silence– has been broadly analyzed by 16th ant 17th century criticism, but occupies a marginal place in contemporary studies. The aim of this paper is to highlight such an influence through an approach to Clarisse Nikoïdsky’s works (Lyon, 1 38-1996) –novelist in French and poetess in Sephardic– and its influence in uan Gelman’s poetry (Buenos Aires, 1 3 . The Sephardic language offers a clear example of alterity in the sinus of Spanish itself. It allows an approach to the most relegated territories of language. Clarisse Nicoïdsky holds a peripheral position in Hispanic poetry from 20th century. In a brief justification of her poems she declared that Sephardic was “la lingua de la familia, del secreto, del susto y –quisas– de la vergüenza” [C. NICOÏDSKI 1 2:36]. She made the decision to use it for her writings after her mother’s death, perceived as the last bastion of a declining tradition. The discovery of her poems opened a new path in uan Gelman’s poetry, deeply marked by exile from his country. The meeting with Nicoïdsky pushed him to write a book in Sephardic, Dibaxu (1994), in which the most forgotten linguistic territory –and, for him, also alien– became the right way to express his own tragedy. This paper will build a bridge between the uprooting forced by political authority, and the study of linguistic and cultural borders (Sephardic culture in Hispanic world). Poetry becomes, in this case, its confluence point. Reviews and publishers for a political and cultural transformation in Spain during the 6 ’s and the ’s Spain on 1976, thirty years ago, first political and cultural reviews proposing a breaking-off with the Francoist society were edited. There is, for example, El Viejo Topo (The old mole). These proposals attempted to go beyond formal democracy and so-called “real socialism”. Censorship had still not disappeared; these reviews and publishers had troubles with it. But it was time for the protest movements aiming to participate in the new society after Francisco Franco’s death, to emerge. During the Francoist period, publications and publishers that tried to take advantage of the dictatorship’s narrow margins appeared. We can consider Nuestro Cine (Our cinema), a review that brought out much more than cinema criticism or information on films that could not be seen in Spain; or the publisher Ariel, which became a reference for history, laws, sociology or philosophy, also by the publication of some foreign authors for the first time. This paper presents some publications, from the sixties and the seventies, that were the voice of a critical though and agents of its dissemination. They were references, authorities, for a significant part of population.
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