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STUDY ON THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT by gddmZl

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									              UNITED NATIONS
         ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
           Chemicals Branch, DTIE




  STUDY ON THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN
HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN AFRICA OF THE
       TRADE OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING
        CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY




              Draft of December 2008
Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                           .




                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                  Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                                       iv

1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                                  1
  1.1     Background                                                                                                    1
  1.2     Study objectives                                                                                              1
  1.3     Study coverage and report organization                                                                        1
  1.4     Study methodology and sources of information                                                                  2

2.0       OVERVIEW OF CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY AND PRODUCTS
          CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY                                                                          3
  2.1 Cadmium and products containing cadmium                                                                           3
  2.1.1  General characteristics and occurrence of cadmium                                                              3
  2.1.2  Common products containing cadmium                                                                             4
  2.2 Lead and products containing lead                                                                                 5
  2.2.1  General characteristics and occurrence of lead                                                                 5
  2.2.2  Common products containing lead                                                                                7
  2.3 Mercury and products containing mercury                                                                           8
  2.3.1  General characteristic and occurrence of mercury                                                               8
  2.3.2  Common products containing mercury                                                                             9

3.0 OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE
       ENVIRONMENT FROM PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND
       MERCURY                                                                                                      11
  3.1 Cadmium and products containing cadmium                                            11
  3.1.2  Potential effects of cadmium and products containing cadmium on the environment 11
  3.1.2  Potential effect of cadmium and products containing cadmium on human health     13
  3.2 Lead and products containing lead                                                  14
  3.2.1  Potential effects of lead, and products containing lead on the environment      14
  3.2.2  Potential effects of lead and products containing lead on human health          16
  3.3 Mercury and products containing mercury                                            17
  3.3.1  Potential effects of mercury and products containing mercury on the environment 17
  3.3.2  Potential effects of mercury and products containing mercury on human health    18




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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4.0       KEY ORGANIZATIONS AND DATABASES DEALING WITH TRADE
          STATISTICS OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND
          MERCURY                                                                                                  20
  4.1 UN Comtrade and commodity classifications and codes for products containing cadmium,
  lead and mercury                                                                        20
  4.2 Limitations and challenges associated with trade data statistics and data analysis. 23

5.0       PRODUCTION AND TRADE PATTERN OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING
          CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY                                                                                24
  5.1 Products containing cadmium                                                                                  24
  5.1.1    Global production                                                                                       24
  5.1.2    Sources and supply of cadmium                                                                           25
  5.1.3    Global cadmium trade                                                                                    26
  5.2    Lead and products containing lead                                                                         43
  5.2.1.   Global source and production                                                                            43
  5.2 2 Global trade of lead                                                                                       46
  5.3 Products containing mercury                                                                                  69
  5.3.1    Global production                                                                                       69
  5.3.2    Source and supply of mercury                                                                            70
  5.3.3    Global mercury trade                                                                                    70

6.0       ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND INITIATIVES FOR COLLECTION,
          RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL OF USED PRODUCTS CONTAINING
          CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY IN AFRICA                                                                      93
  6.1 National Initiatives                                                                                         93
  6.1.1 Environmental quality standards/guidelines                                                                 95
  6.1.2 Environmental source control actions and regulations                                                       97
  6.1.3     Actions and regulations on products containing cadmium, lead or mercury                                97
  6.1.4 Other standards and waste management programmes                                                            99
  6.2    International agreements and instruments                                                                 100
  6.2.1 Basel Convention                                                                                          100
  6.2.2 Rotterdam Convention                                                                                      101
  6.2.3     Other agreements                                                                                      102
  6.2.4 SAICM                                                                                                     102
  6.3    International organizations and programmes                                                               103
  6.4 Sub-regional and regional initiatives                                                                       104
  6.4.1      Bamako Convention                                                                                    104
  6.4.2      The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN)                                        104
  6.4.3     The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)                                                  105
  6.4.4     East African Community (EAC)                                                                          105
  6.4.5 Clean Air Initiative in Sub-Saharan African Cities                                                        105
  6.4.6 The African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP)                                  105




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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7.0       LABORATORY ANALYSES RESULTS OF SELECTED PRODUCTS
          CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY                                                                    106
  7.1     Sampling procedure                                                                                      106
  7.2     Analysis of samples in various samples at SEAMIC Laboratory                                             106
  7.3     Laboratory results                                                                                      107

8.0       CASE STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE
          ENVIRONMENT FROM CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY AND
          PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY                                                           110
  8.1     Case Study No. 1: E-waste management in Kenya                                                           110
  8.2     Case Study No. 2: Bridging the digital gap vs. creating a digital dump                                  111
  8.3     Case Study No 3 E-waste environmental contamination in Ghana                                            112
  8.4     Case No 4: Lead intoxication in Thiaroye sur Mer, Senegal                                               113
  8.5     Case Study No 5: Dump sites in Africa: A hazard to children and the environment                         115



ANNEX 1A: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY                                                                        118

ANNEX 1B : QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                                          123

ANNEX 6A : SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE FROM
      GOVERNMENTS, IGOs AND NGOs                                                                                  143

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                        154




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER 1:                INTRODUCTION
1.   This report responds to the request of the Governing Council (GC) of the United Nations
     Environment Programme (UNEP), Decision 24/3 III requesting UNEP to: “provide available
     information on lead and cadmium to address the data and information gaps identified in the
     Interim Reviews and to compile an inventory of existing risk management measures” to be
     presented to the Governing Council at its 25th session in February 2009.
2.   Based on concerns expressed by African countries, UNEP in cooperation with the Africa
     Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP) conducted this study on
     “the possible effects on human health and environment in Africa of the trade of products
     containing cadmium, lead and mercury”. The study was financed by the Government of
     Sweden.
3.   The report analyses the global flow of products containing cadmium, lead and mercury into
     and from Africa. The study also identifies databases dealing with such trade statistics,
     initiatives in place especially in Africa to address the negative impacts from products
     containing these heavy metals. Case studies of good management of wastes from these metals
     and effects of the trade to humans and environment are also given.


CHAPTER 2:    OVERVIEW OF CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY AND
PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY
4.   Cadmium (Cd) in its elemental form is a soft, silver-white metal which is easily cut with knife.
     It belongs to Group IIB of the Periodic Table. It is present in nature as complex oxides,
     sulphides and carbonates in zinc, lead and copper ores. It is not recovered as a principal
     product of any mine, but as a by-product of other non-ferrous metal extraction, mainly from
     zinc-ores. About 18 percent of world consumption is sourced from recycling. Current major
     uses of refined cadmium are: batteries (NiCd batteries), pigments for plastics, ceramics and
     enamels; stabilizers for plastics; plating on iron and steel; and as an alloying element of some
     lead, copper and tin alloys.
5.   Lead (Pb) in its elemental form is silvery-white and turns blue-grey when exposed to air. It
     belongs to Group IVA of the Periodic Table. Its properties include: a low melting point, high
     density, ease of casting, low strength, ease of fabrication, acid resistance, and corrosion
     resistance. Naturally, lead is usually found in ore with zinc, silver and copper and it is
     extracted together with these metals. Mining produces more than 90 percent of current global
     consumption. Recycling accounts for about 10 percent of the total global lead consumption.
     About three quarters of the lead consumption is mainly used in the production of batteries
     while one fifth in lead sheets for roofing and flashing, ammunition such as lead shot for
     shotguns, metal alloys, cable sheathing and petrol additives.
6.   Mercury (Hg) occurs naturally in the environment in a large number of forms. Like lead or
     cadmium, mercury is a constituent element of the earth, a heavy metal. There are several forms

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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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      of mercury occurring naturally in the environment. One of them, elemental mercury is a shiny,
      silver white metal which is in liquid form at room temperature. It belongs to Group IIB of the
      Periodic Table. Sources of releases of mercury to the biosphere beyond human control include
      natural mobilisation of mercury and re-mobilisation of anthropogenic mercury previously
      deposited in soils, sediments and water bodies. The most common natural forms found in the
      environment are metallic mercury, mercuric sulphide, mercuric chloride, and methyl mercury.
      Some micro-organism and natural processes can change the mercury in the environment from
      one form to another. Mercury is mainly used in many domestic and office appliances and
      industrial processes. Statistics have shown that in 2005 mercury uses in products (PVC,
      batteries, measuring devices, switches/relays, lighting and dental use) comprised almost two
      thirds of the total global mercury demand while one third of it was for industrial processes.


CHAPTER 3:    OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
AND THE ENVIRONMENT FROM PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD
AND MERCURY
7.    Generally the three heavy metals under consideration are toxic and harmful to environment
      and humans. Human activities are the major sources of these metals in the environment.
8.    Cadmium emissions to the environment migrate continually in the three main environmental
      media, as a result of which the cadmium level in the environmental media (air, water and soil)
      varies widely. However, its lifetime in the atmosphere is relatively short compared to other
      substances such as mercury or persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
9.    Cadmium is not an essential element for plants or animals life. It is toxic to plants, animals
      and micro-organisms. Excess cadmium exposure produces adverse health effects on human
      beings. The main sources of human exposure to cadmium include ambient air; occupational
      exposure and cigarette smoke.
10.   The primary adverse effects of cadmium include kidney damage and lung emphysema. The
      population at highest risk comprises women with nutritional deficiencies or low iron content,
      people with kidney disorders, and foetuses and children with low body iron stores. The World
      Health Organization (WHO) has established a provisional tolerable weakly intake (PTWI) for
      cadmium at 7g/kg of body weight.
11.   Lead occurs naturally in the environment. Volcanoes are the major natural sources of
      emissions and mobilization of lead to air. Others are airborne soil particles, sea spray, and
      biogenic material and forest fires. Most lead in the environment result from human activities
      such as mining, industrial processes and energy generation. Human activities influence the
      global cycle of lead significantly. In 2004, an estimated 3.15 million tonnes of lead were
      extracted from the earth's crust by humans and brought into circulation.
12.   Exposure to lead can occur from breathing contaminated air (both in the workplace and
      elsewhere), eating lead-based paint chips or contaminated dirt. Dust and soil are significant
      lead exposure sources, especially in young children. The major source of direct lead releases to
      soil is through the use of products containing lead.



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13.   Lead toxic even at very low exposure levels and has acute and chronic effects on human
      health. It is a multi-organ system toxicant that can cause neurological, cardiovascular, renal,
      gastrointestinal, haematological and reproductive effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of
      lead can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsions, coma or even death. Long-term (chronic)
      exposure to lead in humans results in effects on the blood, central nervous system (CNS),
      blood pressure, kidneys, and Vitamin D metabolism. Lead is a well-documented neurotoxicant
      and lead exposure in children is linked to a lowering of their intelligence quotient (IQ).
14.   Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment in different chemical forms.
      Once released it can move easily between air, water and land. Natural processes can even
      change mercury from one form to another. Human activity is now the main source of mercury
      being released into the environment. Much is released unintentionally from processes where
      mercury is unwanted impurity. Emissions into the air from fossil fuel combustion (petrol, gas
      and coal power plant and incinerator), are expected to increase unless other energy sources are
      used or emissions better controlled. On average, around the globe there are indications that
      anthropogenic emission of mercury have resulted in deposition rates today that are 1.5 to 3
      times higher than those during pre- industrial times. In and around industrial areas the
      deposition rates have increased by 2 to 10 times during the last 200 years. Highly contaminated
      industrial site and abandoned mining operations continue to release mercury. Also, land, water
      and resource management activities such as forestry and agricultural practices and flooding can
      make mercury more bio available.
15.   Mercury and its compounds are highly toxic to humans and environment. Large amounts can
      be fatal to humans, but even relatively low doses can seriously affect developing nervous
      systems. The toxicity to humans and other organism depends on the chemical form, the
      amount, the pathway of exposure and the vulnerability of the person exposed. Some
      populations are especially susceptible and vulnerable to mercury exposure, most notably the
      foetus, the new-born, and young children because of the sensitivity of the developing nervous
      system. Thus parents, pregnant women, and women who might become pregnant, should
      particularly be aware of the potential harm of methyl mercury. Preliminary critical limits to
      prevent ecological effect due to mercury in organic soil have been set at 0.07 -0.3 mg/kg for
      total mercury in the soils.


CHAPTER 4:    KEY ORGANIZATIONS AND DATABASES DEALING WITH
TRADE STATISTICS OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND
MERCURY
16.   Key organizations collect and maintain databases of commercial statistics on trade of products.
      These include, among others, the UN Comtrade, Eurostat, United States (US) International
      Trade Commission, Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) and the Inter-
      American Development Bank (IDB/CTS) databases. This report focused mainly on the UN
      Comtrade database because it is comprehensive and easily accessible.
17.   UN Comtrade is an acronym for “United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database,”
      maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). The data, which is kept in a
      standard format, provides information on trade transaction for each country. This report has
      used information on commodities specified by the more commonly used classifications codes

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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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      which are: the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) and the Harmonized
      Commodity Description and Coding System (HS)
18.   Some of the data provided in the UN Comtrade database, particularly the net weight of traded
      commodities, are only estimates. Data extracted for this study from this database revealed that
      some countries have not reported trade transactions and whereas one country shows an amount
      it exported to another, the other country does not show that it received a similar import during
      the referred time. Export figures were considered more accurate due to a common practice of
      underreporting to avoid taxes for imports. A big limitation and challenge of the trade data
      statistics is the unavailability of data for second hand products including those containing
      cadmium, lead and mercury.


CHAPTER 5:    PRODUCTION AND TRADE                                        PATTERN          OF      PRODUCTS
CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY

19.   The trade pattern examined and described in this report looked at the trade flow of imports and
      exports for the years 2000 to 2005 and where data available to 2006, in terms of volume
      /weight (Kg) of the products into and from the African countries based on the records of the
      UN Comtrade. To address these issues the following information was extracted:
          The major products containing cadmium, lead and mercury imported into and exported
           from the African countries.
          The major importing and exporting countries and their partners.
          The trend of importation and exportation of these products
20.   The data downloaded was compiled in tables, and analysed to allow ranking, identification of
      major players and creation of charts and maps of the trade flows.
21.   Cadmium production and trade. The worldwide primary cadmium production is
      predominantly from China, Japan, Korea, United States of America, Canada, Mexico,
      Australia and Kazakhstan. Primary cadmium production in Africa which was always quite
      small has virtually disappeared. In the 1980s cadmium pigment and platting were the main
      application areas followed by batteries and stabiliser in polymers. Generally, since 1990,
      cadmium consumption for pigments, stabilizers, alloys and other uses has decreased
      significantly. By 2005, batteries (NiCd batteries) share had surpassed others increasing to
      account for about 82 percent of the estimated world consumption.
22.   Imports of products containing cadmium into Africa comprised mainly phosphate fertilizers
      and cadmium anti oxidizing agents for rubber and plastics. Phosphatic fertilizers was the most
      imported cadmium containing product comprising over 90 percent of imports. Over 700
      thousand tonnes were imported during the 2000-2005.

23.   During the period 2000 to 2005, phosphatic fertilizer materials were also the most exported
      product containing cadmium (99 percent). Others were plastic/rubber stabilizer and pigments.
      Over 9 million tonnes of cadmium containing products were exported, equivalent to over
      1300% per cent of import volumes.

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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
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24.   The major trading partners were Tunisia, Morocco South Africa, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Portugal
      and Italy. The major importers, exporters and trading partners for above cadmium products is
      given in Table i and Table ii.


Table i: Major products containing cadmium imported into Africa: 2000-2005

S/N     Product name        Quantity     %      Major                         Major import
                            (tonnes)            importers                     partners
1       Phosphatic          700,537      90.15% Morocco                   22% Portugal                 35%
        fertilizer                                                            Italy                    20%
        materials SITC                                                        Egypt                    16%
        1-5612
                                                    Algeria               15% Turkey                   18%
                                                                              France                   17%
                                                                              Bulgaria                 15%

                                                    Corte                14.% USA                      44%
                                                    d’Ivoire                  Bulgaria                 18%
                                                                              Morocco                  17%

2       Cadmium anti 69,911              9.00%      Mozambique            29% Portugal                 100
        oxidizing preps                                                                                 %
        381230
                                                    South Africa          19% Italy                    26%
                                                                              Germany                  21%
                                                                              Malaysia                 16%
                                                    Morocco               15% Belgium                  27%
                                                                              Spain                    24%
                                                                              Italy                    15%
3.      Cadmium             4,455        0.57%      South Africa          26% China                    26%
        Nickel                                                                Japan                    13%
        850730                                                                Sweden                    8%
.                                                   Algeria               18% France                   45%
                                                                              Spain                    42%
                                                                              UK                        3%
                                                    Swaziland             11% South Africa              100
                                                                                                         %




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Table ii: Major products containing cadmium exported from Africa: 2000-2005

S/No     Name         of Quantity         % Total Major                             Major
         Product         (tonnes)         Cd       Exporters                        Export
                                          products                                  Partners
1        Phosphatic       9,1743,81       99.31%   Tunisia               52%        Brazil          19%
         fertilizer                                                                 Iran            17%
         materials                                                                  UK              0.44%
         5612
                                                       Morocco           35%        Iran            282%
                                                                                    Brazil          22%
                                                                                    UK              18%
                                                       South Africa      35%        Netherlands     45%
                                                                                    India           30%
                                                                                    Japan           6%


25.   The total imports of products containing cadmium have increased from about 72,000 tonnes in
      2000 to a maximum of 196,000 tonnes in 2004 while reported exports decreased from about
      1.7 million tonnes in 2000 to about 1.6 million tonnes in 2005, an increase of about 400
      percent and a decrease of about 5 percent for imports and exports respectively.

26.    By far the leading traded product containing cadmium in Africa is phosphatic fertilizer and
      plastic and rubber stabilizers. Generally, further analysis of the import and export data for the
      selected cadmium containing products shows that during the period 2000/5, Africa was a net
      exporter of products containing cadmium which was mainly due to exports of phospahtic
      fertilizers from Morocco.

27.   Lead production and trade. The total global mine production of lead has decreased slightly
      during the last thirty years, from 3.6 million tonnes in 1975 to 3.1 million tonnes in 2004.
      During the same period, global refined lead production and metal consumption have increased
      from about 4.7 million tonnes to about 7.1 million tonnes. Globally, lead is mined in more than
      40 countries, the major producers being China and Australia, which represent 30 percent and
      22 percent of global lead mining production, respectively. China is also a leading world
      producer of refined lead producing 27 percent of the global production followed by United
      States of America and Germany producing 23 and 5 percent respectively.
28.   South Africa and Morocco are the two major countries from Africa which produce, mine and
      refine lead. Between the years 2000-2005 both countries have produced one percent each of
      the total world production of the refined lead.
29.   During the period 2000/5, unwrought lead, automatic data processing machines (computers)
      and lead acid electric accumulators for vehicles formed over three quarters of total lead
      imports to Africa amounting to about 1.6million tonnes, while automatic data processing
      machines (computers) and lead ores and concentrates amounting to about 4 million tonnes
      formed over 90 percent of exports from Africa.
30.   While the major product containing lead which was imported into Africa during the period
      2000 – 2006 was unwrought lead, the major product containing lead that was exported from


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      Africa was automatic data processing machines (computers) with more than half of the
      imported products containing lead. The major exporters of this product during the same period
      are Namibia and South Africa. Other major exported products include automatic data
      processing machines and lead acid accumulators.

31.   The general trend seems to be increasing from the period 2000 to 2006 with the maximum
      trade transaction carried out in the year 2004. The sudden increase is mainly contributed by the
      major imports of unwrought lead carried out in the same year by Namibia from South Africa,
      and export of lead ore concentrate in 2005 by South Africa to China, and automatic data
      processing machines (computers) by Namibia to South Africa in 2004. Namibia exported to
      South Africa an equivalent amount of imports into all African countries (about 1.6 million
      tones)

32.   The major importers, exporters and trading partners for the above products containing lead are
      given in Table iii and Table iv.

33.   China is increasingly capturing the import market share of products containing lead in Africa.
      For example, the import market share of automatic data processing machines (computers) to
      South Africa by China in the year 2002 was 8 percent, 12 percent in 2003 and rose to 35
      percent in 2006 taking over the market from United Kingdom with the market share reduced
      from 20 percent in 2002 to 5 percent in 2006. The same is for the market share of the import
      of automatic data processing machines into Algeria which is the second importer of the
      product. The market share of imports into Algeria has been captured by China and
      increasingly yearly from 9 percent in 2002 to 30 percent in 2006 taking over the market from
      United Kingdom and France whose market share dropped from 12 percent in 2000 to 5 percent
      in 2006 and 26 percent in 2000 to 10 percent in 2006 respectively.

34.   Further analysis of the import and export data for the selected lead products shows that during
      the period 2000/6, Africa was a net exporter of about 700 million kgs of products containing
      lead equivalent to the amount of lead ores to China from South Africa




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Table iii: Major products containing lead imported to Africa: 2000-2006
                                           Percent of
                            Quantity                       Importer
       Product Name                          total                        %      Partner of trade       %
                            (tonnes)                       (country)
                                           products
1    Unwrought lead         1,002,009     46              Namibia        76%     South Africa        100%
     HS96- 7801                                           South Africa   11%     Australia           71%
                                                                                 China               23%
                                                          Tunisia        4%      Morocco             52%
                                                                                 China               17 %
                                                                                 Canada              9%
                                                                                 Belgium             9%
2    Automatic data         344,142       16              South Africa   22%     China               29%
     processing                                                                  United Kingdom      9%
     machines (                                                                  Ireland             8%
     computers) HS02-                                                            USA                 8%
     8471                                                 Algeria        14%     China               47%
                                                                                 France              9%
                                                                                 Indonesia           8%
                                                          Morocco        12%     China               26%
                                                                                 USA                 19%
                                                                                 France              12%
3    Lead acid electric     205,579       10              Algeria        14%     France              40%
     accumulators for                                                            China               24%
     vehicles HS96-                                                              Tajikistan          5%
     850710                                               South Africa   11%     France              20%%
                                                                                 Rep. of Korea       19%
                                                                                 Germany             17%
                                                          Ghana          10%     China               30%
                                                                                 Indonesia           26%
                                                                                 Rep.of Korea        12%

Table iv: Top most exported products of lead from Africa, major exporters and partners:2000-2006.

                                             Percent of
      Product Name and        Quantity                       Major                Major partners
                                               total
            Code              ( tones)                      Exporter                 of trade
                                             products
1    Data processing          1,701,333     48              Namibia      99%     South Africa        50%
     machines                                                                    Angola              50%
     ( computers)
2    Lead ores &              1,204,892     34              South        80%     China               61%
     concentrates                                           Africa               Belgium             21%
     (SITC96-(260700                                        Tunisia      5%      Morocco             27%
                                                                                 Germany             22%
                                                                                 Italy               14%
                                                            Morocco      10%     Bulgaria            38%
                                                                                 Italy               24%
                                                                                 Belgium             17%
3    Unwrought lead HS        338,349       10              Morocco      81%     Spain               50%
     7801                                                                        Belgium             10%
                                                                                 Algeria             8%
                                                            South        8%      Belgium             33%
                                                            Africa               Zimbabwe            29%
                                                                                 India               18%
                                                            Namibia      7%      Korea               73%
                                                                                 China               26%


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35.   Mercury production and trade. The key players in the international mercury trade include,
      among others are, Kyrgyzstan, China, South America, European Union as well as Algeria in
      Africa. Kyrgyzstan and China are the two countries that continue to mine virgin mercury, and
      only Kyrgyzstan mines for export, China uses all its virgin mercury for its own production.
      The European Union supplies approximately 30 percent of the global mercury stock pile and is
      involved in more than half the global trade in mercury, even though it accounts for only 10
      percent of the world’s demand.
36.   Recycled mercury has played an important role on the global market in recent decades. In
      1982, the OECD estimated that the secondary production could be as much as 40 percent of
      the primary production. Masters (1997)1 stated that 700 – 900 metric tonnes of mercury are
      recycled globally every year, of which some 200 – 400 metric tonnes originate from spent
      mercury containing products, and the rest come mainly from chlor – alkali facilities2.
37.   Among the major mercury containing products traded globally include batteries consuming
      about 300 – 600 tones per year, measuring and control (largely medical sector) consuming
      150-350 tones per year, electric and electronic switches consuming 150 -300 tones per year,
      lighting consuming 100- 150 tones per year and cosmetics. African and South America
      countries use a large and still growing amount of mercury in small – scale gold mining,
      process in which mercury is heated and released nearly in its.

38.   Radio/TV transmitters, fluorescent lamps and thermionic cold cathode make more than 80
      percent of mercury containing products imported by Africa. Similarly, Radio/TV transmitters,
      fluorescent lamps and mercury fluorescent lamps lamps make more than 80 percent of mercury
      containing products exported by Africa.

39.   The major importers, exporters and trading partners for mercury products is given in Table v
      and Table vi below




1
    Masters, H. B. (1997): Metals & Minerals Annual review – 1997, Mercury, Mining Journal Ltd
2
    UNEP Global Mercury Assessment Report, December 2002


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Table v: Major products containing mercury imported from Africa, major exporters and partners: 2000-
          2006
        Product          Weight         % of total
                                                         Importer/         %           Partner            %
         Name            (Kgs)          Products
 1   Radio/TV                                          South.            22%        Finland           16%
     transmitters(    71,759,845            34         Africa                       Rep. Korea        14%
     HS92 8525)                                                                     Germany           14%
                                                       Morocco           15%        France            22%
                                                                                    Sweden            18%
                                                                                    China             11%
                                                       Nigeria           11%        UK                34%
                                                                                    USA               22%
                                                                                    Germany           8%
                                                       Tunisia           11%        France            33%
                                                                                    Sweden            17%
                                                                                    Japan             14%
 2   Florescent       48,552,281            28         Sudan             19%        China             97%
     lamps                                                                          Indonesia         2%
     (HS92-
     853931)                                           South Africa      13%        China             39%
                                                                                    Germany           16%
                                                                                    USA               9%
                                                       Morocco           12%        China             55%
                                                                                    Hungary           14%
                                                                                    Poland            13%
                                                       Nigeria           10%        China             38%
                                                                                    Other Asia        23%
                                                                                    USA               9%
 3   Thermionic       26,214,694            20         Tunisia           59%        China             28%
     cold cathode                                                                   Poland            17%
     (HS96-                                                                         Turkey            16%
     8540)                                             Algeria           24%        China             56%
                                                                                    France            16%
                                                                                    Rep./Korea        11%
                                                       South Africa      13%        Korea Rep.        49%
                                                                                    China,            24%
                                                                                    Brazil            24%
 4   Electric         11,309,086,16         **         Kenya             88%        Denmark           86%
     switch/relay     7                                                             Germany           10%
     (SITC 772)                                                                     Belgium           1%%
                                                       Mozambique        6%         China             39%
                                                                                    Japan             28%
                                                                                    Swaziland         27%

     ** Excluded in the calculations




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Table vi: Top major products containing mercury exported from Africa, major exporters and partners:
          2000-2006
   S     Name     of      Weight             Percent        Exporter        %          Partner             %
   /     product.         (Kgs)               of total
   N                                         Products
   1     Radio/TV         4,131,578              45         Mauritius       30%        United Arab         64%
         transmitters.                                                                 Emirates
         (HS92-                                                                        Italy               18%
         8525)                                                                         France              4%

                                                            South.          25%        Australia           18%
                                                            Africa                     Denmark             7%
                                                                                       USA                 6%
                                                            Cote      d     24%        France              99%
                                                            Ivoire
   2     Fluorescent      1,410,572             17          South           18%        Zimbabwe            41%
         lamps.                                             Africa                     Mozambique          21%
         (HS92-                                                                        USA                 9%
         853931)
                                                            Egypt           4%         Syria               63%
                                                                                       Iraq                16%
                                                                                       Zambia              7%
   3     Mercury          1,242,981             14          Algeria         83%        Belgium             49%
         (HS02-                                                                        India               21%
         280540)                                                                       Netherlands         13%
                                                            South           8%         Saudi Arabia        47%
                                                            Africa                     Zimbabwe            22%
                                                                                       Netherlands         21%

                                                            Swaziland       4%         South Africa        100%

   4     Mercury or       181,697               14          Tunisia         91%        Libya               88%
         sodium                                                                        Areas nes           5%
         vapour                                                                        France              4%
         lamps
         (HS92-
         853932)
   5     Electric         124,890,004           **          Tunisia         49%        France              51%
         switch/relay                                                                  Italy               23%
         s                                                                             Germany             16%
         (SITC 772)                                         South           26%        Mozambique          15%
                                                            Africa                     Zambia              14%
                                                                                       Zimbabwe            7%
                                                            Morocco         20%        France              67%
                                                                                       Germany             7%
                                                                                       Switzerland         7%
 ** Excluded in the calculations

 40.   The key trader in Africa of the products containing cadmium, lead or mercury is South Africa.
       The north western African countries of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria are the next group of key
       traders. Overseas partners are mainly EU countries, Australia and China. The African named
       countries are also the richest and most technologically advanced countries in the continent.
       Map i illustrates the trade movements of the products containing cadmium, lead and mercury
       into and from Africa.

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Map i: Summary of trade flow of products containing cadmium, lead and mercury in Africa

Total Heavy Metal Imports




Total Heavy Metal Exports




                   Cadmium
                   Lead
                   Mercury


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CHAPTER 6:    ENVIRONMENTALLY       SOUND    INITIATIVES   FOR
COLLECTION, RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL OF USED PRODUCTS CONTAINING
CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY IN AFRICA

41.   National initiatives. Very few African countries have reported initiatives and future plans
      aiming at the prevention or control of emissions of cadmium, lead and mercury to the
      environment and the effects on human health and the environment. However, available
      information has shown that the environmental authorities in a number of countries consider the
      three heavy metals to be high-priority substances with recognised adverse effects. They are
      aware of the potential problems caused by use and release of these metals and their
      compounds.
42.   Globally also, no country has developed a comprehensive legislation specifically covering the
      whole life-cycle stages of cadmium, lead or mercury. Many countries, particularly the OECD
      countries, have a number of actions and regulations covering specific uses and releases, as well
      as more general legislation on releases and disposal of waste products. Such legislation
      normally includes other heavy metals, particulate matter (PM) and/or specific inorganic and
      organic pollutants, rather than being specific to products containing cadmium, lead or mercury.
43.   Reported initiatives aim to reduce or prevent the release of cadmium, lead or mercury to the
      environment and avoid direct or indirect impact on human health and the environment. The
      initiatives can be grouped into four general groups:
      a) Environmental quality standards or guidelines, specifying maximum acceptable
         concentration of cadmium, lead or mercury for different concentrations (such as drinking
         water, surface water, air, soil, and for food stuffs and feeds);
      b) Environmental source actions and regulations that control cadmium, lead or mercury
         release available technologies into the environment, including limits on air and water point
         sources and promoting use of best available technologies and waste treatment and waste
         disposal restrictions;
      c) Product control actions and regulations for products containing cadmium, lead or
         mercury; and
      d) Other standards, actions and programmes, such as regulations or guidance on exposure
         to lead in the workplace, requirements for information and reporting on use and releases of
         cadmium, lead or mercury in industry and consumer safety measures.

44.   Below are some of the actions taken by some African countries to regulate products containing
      cadmium, lead and mercury as extracted from the Draft final review of scientific information
      on lead and cadmium, and Global Mercury Assessment report:
45.   Ghana, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria have established standards setting maximum
      acceptable concentrations limits for heavy metals (including cadmium, lead and mercury) in a
      number of media, such as water, air, soil and foodstuffs.
46.   Mauritius, Morocco and Niger have reported to have regulations prescribing maximum
      allowable releases of heavy metals and other pollutants from various types of point sources to
      air, water and soil.


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47.   Mauritius has reported to have stopped the use of mercury in paints, reduced lead content in
      petrol from 0.84 g/L to a maximum of 0.4 g/l, introduced the use of unleaded petrol , phased
      out mercury batteries replacing them with Ni/Cd batteries and has launched a sensitization
      programme for collection of mercury buttons. .
48.   Burundi has prohibited import and use of mercury and mercury compound as pesticides in
      agriculture and has applied proposed norm for mercury in air.
49.   Cameroon has banned the importation, commercialization and use of cosmetic products
      containing more than 2% of mercury, whereas fertilizers containing cadmium must be
      registered by the committee for pesticide registration.
50.   Gambia has banned since 1997 the importation of mercury into the country.
51.   Ghana has restricted the importation and distribution of mercury. A phasing out plan for use
      of the leaded gasoline to unleaded gasoline has been drawn.
52.   Guinea has two regulations prohibiting the production, import and all forms of use of mercury
      and mercury compounds within industry and agriculture.
53.   Kenya has banned the importation, production and use of any cosmetic products containing
      mercury. In Kenya, an NGO called Computers For Schools Kenya (CFSK) has opened East
      Africa's first e-waste management plant in Embakasi, Kenya, to handle the region's electronic
      recycling needs.
54.   Lesotho has phased out the use of mercury based pesticides
55.   Madagascar has a decree to phase out leaded gasoline by end of 2005.
56.   Nigeria has banned mercury in batteries and mercury iodide in cosmetics. The allowed
      mercury in dental amalgam capsule is 0.3g.
57.   South Africa is also one of the countries which have a strategy to deal with e-waste..
58.   Tanzania has enacted the Environmental Management Act of 2004 (EMA, 2004), which
      among other issues, provides for the management of hazardous waste and chemicals. Other
      relevant legislations in Tanzania include the Consumer and Industrial Chemicals (Control and
      Management) Act of 2003.
59.   Cameroon and Senegal have established lead batteries recycling facilities.
60.   Other environmentally sound initiatives in Africa include the National Cleaner Production
      Centers aimed promoting and building capacity in cleaner production concepts. African
      countries which have established National Cleaner Production Centres include Ethiopia, Egypt,
      Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Tanzania. The major activities of NCPCs
      include awareness creation, capacity building, assessments and policy advice in cleaner
      production. Cleaner production concept strives for optimal efficiency at every stage of the
      product life while preventing pollution at source and protecting the human health.
61.   The Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) with its secretariat at UNEP supports
      countries to eliminate the use of leaded gasoline, reduce sulphur levels in fuels concurrent with
      the adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies. At the beginning of 2008, 19 countries worldwide

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      were still using leaded gasoline. Morocco and Tunisia are expected to stop using leaded
      gasoline at the end of 2008, while Egypt is expected to stop using leaded gasoline by the end
      of 2010. The goal of the PCFV is the global elimination of leaded gasoline.
62.   International agreements and instruments. The relevant international agreements relevant to
      cadmium, lead and mercury to which most of the African countries are Parties to include the
      Basel Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.
63.   The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
      Wastes and their Disposal which was adopted in March 1989 and came into force in 1992
      provides a global legal framework for controlling the transboundary movements of hazardous
      wastes and establishes obligations for its Parties to ensure the environmentally sound
      management of hazardous waste.

64.   The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain
      Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade of September 1998 has two
      objectives:
         To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international
          trade of certain hazardous chemicals
         To contribute to the environmentally sound use of those chemicals by facilitating
          information exchange.
65.   The Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals is one of the eight protocols to the United Nations
      Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long - Range Transboundary
      Air Pollution (LRTAP). The Aarhus Protocol adopted in June 1998 entered into force in
      December 2003. The Protocol targets three harmful metals namely cadmium, lead and
      mercury.
66.   The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) is a policy
      framework to foster the sound management of chemicals3. SAICM was developed by a multi-
      stakeholder and multi-sectoral Preparatory Committee and supports the achievement of the
      goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development of ensuring
      that, by the year 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant
      adverse impacts on the environment and human health.
67.   International organizations and programmes which have activities in Africa and other parts
      of the world aiming at addressing the adverse impacts of cadmium, lead and mercury on
      human health and the environment include the International Agency for Research on Cancer
      (IARC), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Programme on Chemical
      Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment Programme
      (UNEP), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Bank
      (WB). Other relevant programmes include the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety
      (IFCS) and the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals
      (IOMC).


3
    SAICM, http://www.saicm.org/index.php?ql=h&content=home

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68.   Sub-regional and regional initiatives includes the Bamako Convention, the African
      Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN), the New Partnership for Africa’s
      Development (NEPAD), the East African Community (EAC), the Clean Air Initiative in Sub-
      Saharan African Cities and the African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and
      Production (ARSCP).
69.   The African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP) is a non-
      governmental, not for profit regional association of sustainable consumption and production
      (SCP) practitioners in Africa. The pioneers of the association are the National Cleaner
      Production Centres. Current membership comprises individuals and institutions engaged in
      SCP activities. The mission of ARSCP is to promote the development of national and regional
      capacities for the effective promotion and implementation of principles of sustainable
      consumption and production principles and to serve as the regional clearinghouse for these
      issues. Currently, it is implementing the African Ten Year Framework of Programmes on
      sustainable consumption and production (10YFP on SCP) which incorporates sound
      management of chemicals.


CHAPTER 7:    LABORATORY                            TESTS         OF       PRODUCTS             CONTAINING
CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY.

53.   Fifteen selected products containing cadmium, lead and mercury including paints, plastics,
      toys, gasoline, switches and cosmetics were randomly picked from the general market in Dar
      es Salaam, Tanzania and tested for presence of cadmium, lead or mercury at an accredited
      laboratory facility in Tanzania. Tanzania follows a free market and most of its products are
      mainly imported from Asia and Europe. The tests were carried out using an Inductively
      Coupled Plasma (ICP) optical spectrometry, fully automated machine (ULTIMA2, HORIBA
      JY, France). In all the 35 tested samples from 15 different products, the results revealed that
      compositions of cadmium and lead in the products were less than 0.01 ppm while mercury
      content was less than 0.01 ppb. Soil samples from a lead recycling facility in Dar es Salaam
      and its neighborhood were found to contain an average of about 0.6 ppm cadmium, 115 ppm
      lead and 0.5 ppm mercury which are within the acceptable levels.



CHAPTER 8: CASE STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE
ENVIRONMENT FROM CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY AND PRODUCTS
CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY

70.   Below is an overview of case studies showing good and bad management of wastes from
      products containing cadmium, lead and mercury in Africa as well as their impacts to human
      health and the environment.
71.   E-waste management in Kenya. The electronic and information technology industry is
      currently the largest and fastest manufacturing industry in the world. Electronic equipment
      contains a number of toxic materials including cadmium, lead and mercury Thus e-waste is
      now recognized as the fastest growing waste stream in developed countries. In order to
      prevent significant environmental problems associated with the growing waste stream of e-


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      waste, the Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) has opened East Africa's first e-waste
      management plant in Embakasi, Kenya, to handle the region's electronic recycling needs. .
      This case study demonstrates one way of a good method for waste management
72.   Bridging the Digital Gap Vs Creating a Digital Dump in Nigeria The demand of information
      technology in developing countries is increasing very fast due to the natural hunger among the
      populace to stay abreast technological developments in order to communicate and compete in
      this globalized world. This has been contributed to a larger extend by importation of used or
      second-hand products from developed countries. These e-wastes often end up dumped in
      countries with little or no regulation of its recycling or disposal. In Nigeria alone .an estimated
      500 containers of computers and other electronic equipment come there every month all of
      which ends up in computer markets. The Nigerian government is thus working to abolish the
      importation of second-hand goods. From above it is obvious that trade of used electronics
      equipment is actually a trade of hazardous wastes which should be controlled by the Basel
      Convention. What we are seeing in Nigeria is unfortunately a harbinger of things to come; it is
      soon to be the future in the entire developing world.
73.   Outbreak of lead intoxication from recycling of lead batteries in Senegal. Some countries
      have established facilities for recycling lead waste as away of handling lead waste from
      batteries. However, it is well known that exposure to lead can occur from breathing
      contaminated workplace air or house dust. This therefore requires good management to avoid
      causing problems to workers and people who live near such facilities, particularly the
      vulnerable group such as children. A lead recycling facility at NGagne Diaw quarter of
      Thiaroye sur Mer, Dakar, Senegal was recently the source of cluster of deaths of children in its
      vicinity. WHO found the dead children to have extremely high blood lead concentrations, in
      many cases above 1000 μg/l. It is obvious therefore that recycling is not always a full proof
      waste management solution as it can transform one problem into another when not well
      managed.
74.   E-waste environmental contamination in Ghana. Greenpeace study at two e- waste recycling
      sites in Ghana in 2008 found soil samples from the two sites to contain numerous hazardous
      substances including very high levels of lead, phthalates and chlorinated dioxins. Therefore
      recycling of e-waste pollutes the environment if not well properly managed. In addition, the
      work of dismantling the electronic equipment is done by children (boys) aged between 11 and
      18, but some were as young as 5 who are more vulnerable to the exposure of these hazardous
      chemicals.
75.   High lead concentration in children living near dump sites. A UNEP study in Kenya in 2007
      found 328 children aged 2-18 living around the Dandora waste dump site in Nairobi to have
      concentrations of lead in their blood exceeding internationally accepted levels. When they
      examined and analysed soil samples from the dump site they found that 42 % of soil samples
      recorded lead levels almost 10 times higher than what is considered unpolluted soil (over 400
      parts per million (ppm) compared to 50 ppm).




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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background

1.   The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Governing Council Decision 24/3 III
     requested UNEP to: “provide available information on lead and cadmium to address the data
     and information gaps identified in the Interim Reviews and to compile an inventory of existing
     risk management measures”.4
2.   Based on concerns expressed by African countries, UNEP in cooperation with the Africa
     Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP) conducted this study on
     “the possible effects on human health and environment in Africa of the trade of products
     containing cadmium, lead and mercury”. The study was financed by the Government of
     Sweden. The Terms of Reference for the study are given as Annex 1A

1.2     Study objectives

3.   The main objective of this study is to fill the data and information gaps identified in the
     ‘Interim reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium’ and for mercury information
     gaps identified in the ‘Global Mercury Assessment Report’ and in particular to address the
     global flow of cadmium, lead and mercury in products.

1.3     Study coverage and report organization

4.   The study focused mainly on the analysis of trade, use and disposal of products containing
     cadmium, lead and mercury in Africa in order to assess how this can lead to adverse human
     and environmental effects due to release of these toxic heavy metals. This was done by
     sourcing data and information from published articles and authorized databases as well as
     country submissions.
5.   This report is divided into eight chapters. Chapter one gives the background, objectives, scope
     and methodology of the study. Chapter two provides an overview of the three heavy metals
     including their characteristics and applications in various products while chapter three gives an
     overview of their potential effects to humans and the environment. Chapter four provides a
     description of the main organizations and databases dealing with trade statistics which were
     used in the study. The shortfalls of these databases are highlighted. Chapter five gives an
     overview of the type, quantities and movements in trade (countries and routes) of major traded
     products containing cadmium, lead and mercury in Africa for the period 2000 to 2006. The
     major African importers and exporters of the products containing cadmium, lead and mercury
     in Africa are shown including their global trade partners. Chapter six describes the existing
4
 UNEP Governing Council, Decision24/3 III, http://www.chem.unep.ch/Pb_and_Cd/GC-24-3-III-lead-and-
cadmium.htm


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      environmentally sound initiatives within the African region in terms of awareness and
      regulations for management of wastes from used traded products containing the three heavy
      metals while chapter seven describes the methods used and the results thereof in the analysis of
      selected traded products in Africa containing cadmium, lead and mercury.
6.    The final chapter presents a few case studies in Africa on the management of waste products
      containing cadmium, lead and mercury, demonstrating good practices as well as lessons
      learned for purposes of showing their effects on human health and the environment in Africa.

1.4      Study methodology and sources of information

7.    The methodology applied in carrying out this study includes data collection and analysis,
      literature review, peer review and laboratory analysis of selected products containing
      cadmium, lead and mercury
8.    Trade data was drawn from authorized trade statistical databases, mainly the United Nations
      Commodity Trade Statistics Database (UN Comtrade) as well as other databases recommended
      by individual countries and organizations including the International Trade Commission (ITC)
      recommended by the United States of America, the Nordic on-line database, EU database and
      the WHO databases.
9.    A questionnaire (Annex 1B) was also designed and distributed electronically to different
      countries in Africa and outside Africa, as well as Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs),
      non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and individual experts dealing with cadmium, lead
      and mercury for purposes of collecting additional information and data, particularly on the
      existing waste management strategies and initiatives.
10.   The major sources of information for the study comprised the Draft final reviews of scientific
      information on lead and cadmium and the Global Mercury Assessment report and other
      relevant publications, articles and reports including reports of the International Lead and Zinc
      Study Group (ILZSG) and the International Cadmium Association (ICdA); presentations and
      resolutions made at regional and international fora on chemicals including the SAICM meeting
      held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in July 2008 and the 6th IFCS meeting held in Dakar, Senegal
      in September 2008.
11.   The UN Comtrade database played a major role in providing data for this report. Data for each
      of the products containing cadmium, lead and mercury from the selected list was downloaded
      from the database for the period 2000-2006 for each African country whose data was available.
      The downloaded data for each product/commodity was then summarized to get the totals for
      export and import trade for each commodity and each country in the period indicated and
      partner country of trade for each product. These provided information on the top most traded
      products in Africa and the flow of these products in terms of trade trend, volume, and market
      share.
12.   Laboratory testing of selected products were carried out at the sub-regional Laboratory Centre
      in Tanzania known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Mineral Centre (SEAMIC) using
      standard methods for analyzing cadmium, lead and mercury. All tested products were sampled
      from the market in Tanzania which practices a free market economy.


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2.0   OVERVIEW OF CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY
AND PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND
MERCURY


2.1       Cadmium and products containing cadmium

2.1.1 General characteristics and occurrence of cadmium

13.   Cadmium (molecular formula - Cd) in its elemental form is a soft, silver-white metal which is
      easily cut with knife.5 It belongs to Group IIB of the Periodic Table and it has the following
      physical properties6:

                Atomic weight           112.411
                Atomic number           48
                Melting Point           321.070 C
                Boiling Point           7670C
                Specific gravity        8.65 (at 200C)
                Oxidation state          2
                Readily soluble in acid and ammonium nitrate
                The electrical conductivity of cadmium is less than that of silver or copper, but
                 greater than that of iron.

14.   Cadmium is present in nature as complex oxides, sulphides and carbonates in zinc, lead and
      copper ores. It is not recovered as a principal product of any mine, but as a by-product of other
      non-ferrous metal extraction, mainly from zinc-ores7.
15.   Recycled cadmium accounts for about 18 percent of total global supply. Countries with
      significant collection and recycling activities include France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of
      Korea, Sweden and the United States of America8.
16.   The main sources and releases of cadmium to the environment can be grouped into three major
      categories:

         natural releases due to natural mobilization of naturally occurring cadmium from the earth
          crest and mantle, such as volcanic activity and weathering of rocks;




5
  UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, version of November 2008
6
  Hand book of Chemistry and Physics, 78th Ed.
7
  UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, version of November 2008
8
  Ibid.

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          current anthropogenic releases from the mobilization of cadmium impurities in raw
           materials such as phosphate minerals, fossil fuel and other extracted, treated and recycled
           metals particularly zinc and copper; and

          current anthropogenic release of cadmium resulting from cadmium used intentionally in
           products and processes, releases by manufacturing, use, disposal, recycling, open burning
           and unofficial dumpsites or incineration of products.
17.   Other sources include remobilization of historical anthropogenic cadmium releases previously
      deposited in soils, sediments, land fills and waste or tailings piles.9

2.1.2 Common products containing cadmium
18.   Cadmium is intentionally used in various products including batteries, pigments, stabilizers,
      coatings, alloys and electronic components, such as semiconductors, and in the control rods of
      nuclear reactors.
19.   The general trend in global cadmium consumption over the last two decades has been a steep
      increase in the use of cadmium for batteries and a decrease in the use for nearly all other
      applications. In 1980, cadmium pigment and plating were the main application areas followed
      by batteries which accounted for 23 percent of total global consumption while stabilisers in
      polymers accounted for 12 percent of the total. In 2005, the batteries (NiCd batteries)
      accounted for about 82 percent of the estimated world consumption. Other major uses of
      refined cadmium are: pigments for plastics, ceramics and enamels; stabilizers for plastics;
      plating on iron and steel; and as an alloying element of some lead, copper and tin alloys. Since
      1990, consumption for pigments, stabilizers, alloys and other uses has decreased significantly.
      Figure 2.1 shows the end-uses of primary cadmium in 1990 and 2005.




      Figure 2.1: Consumption of primary cadmium by end-users in 1990 and 2005 (data compiled by
                    ICdA, 2005)




9
    Ibid

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20.   The use of cadmium in some major products is explained below:
21.   Batteries - The market of rechargeable NiCd batteries covers small, sealed-type batteries for
      cordless power tools, telecommunications, emergency lighting and security, and portable
      household applications. The sealed batteries account for about 80 percent of the cadmium
      consumption in the battery market. The remaining 20 percent is consumed in large industrial
      NiCd batteries for railroad, aero-space, electric vehicles and standby power, and other
      applications.
22.   Pigments - Cadmium pigments have been used in plastics, enamels, ceramics, paints, and
      possible other materials, although the use in paints and dyes may be obsolete today.
23.   Plating - Plating of iron, steel or other materials with coatings of cadmium or cadmium alloys
      is used for applications requiring a high degree of safety or durability in aerospace, industrial
      fasteners, electrical parts, automotive systems, military equipment and marine/offshore
      installations.
24.   Stabilizers - Organic cadmium compounds, generally cadmium laurates or stearates, used in
      combination with barium sulphate, have historically been widely used as a stabilizer in PVC
      and other polymers or copolymers of vinyl chloride.
25.   Alloy uses - The use of cadmium in alloys includes: soldering alloys, alloys with zinc
      (sacrificial anodes for corrosion protection of iron and steel), alloys with lead and copper (lead
      cable sheaths, copper wires etc.), alloys with a low melting point for fire alarm systems and
      safety circuit breakers, alloys for switch contacts where arching occurs, such as high current
      relays made of silver-cadmium oxide, and silver-cadmium alloys as a partial replacement for
      silver (jewellery). The consumption in alloys has decreased significantly and is included in
      "other" applications accounting for about 0.5 percent of the total global consumption in 2005.
26.   Other uses - Other uses include cadmium semiconductors that can have opto-electronic
      effects, which means their electrical properties are responsive to light.
27.   Cadmium is also found unintentionally (as an impurity) in other products such as non-ferrous
      metals (zinc, lead and copper), iron and steel, fossil fuels, coal, oil, gas peat, wood, cement and
      phosphate fertilizers. Fertilizers produced from phosphate ores may constitute a major source
      of cadmium pollution in soil. In Australia, for example, phosphate fertilizers have been a major
      source of cadmium additions to agricultural soil. This could also be the case in African
      countries which use phosphate fertilizers though specific examples are not included in this
      report.

2.2      Lead and products containing lead

2.2.1 General characteristics and occurrence of lead
28.   Lead (Pb) in its elemental form is silvery-white and turns blue-grey when exposed to air. It
      belongs to Group IVA of the Periodic Table. Its properties include, among others, a low
      melting point, high density, ease of casting, low strength, ease of fabrication, acid resistance,
      corrosion resistance, electrochemical reaction with sulphuric acid and the ability to attenuate
      sound waves, ionizing radiation and mechanical vibration. It is soft enough to be scratched



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      with a fingernail. It is hardened by alloying it with small amounts of other metals such as
      arsenic, copper and antimony. Other characteristics include:


              Oxidation state     1.8
              Atomic number       82
              Atomic mass         207.2 g.mol -1
              Density             11.34 g.cm-3 at 20°C
              Melting point       327 °C
              Boiling point       1755 °C

      Because of these properties, lead has been one of the most widely used metals in the history of
      mankind in manufacturing various products10.

29.   Pure lead is rare in nature. Currently lead is usually found in ore with zinc, silver and copper
      and it is extracted together with these metals. The main lead mineral is galena (PbS) and there
      are also deposits of cerrussite and anglesite which are mined. Galena is mined in Australia,
      which produces 19 percent of the world's new lead, followed by the United States of America,
      China, Peru and Canada. Some is also mined in Mexico and West Germany. World production
      of new lead is about 6 million tonnes a year and total workable reserves are estimated at 85
      million tonnes.
30.   Lead is chemically stable in air, water and soil. In the atmosphere, lead will deposit on surfaces
      or exist as a component of atmospheric particles. In the atmosphere, lead exists primarily as
      lead compounds. The residence time and transport of atmospheric lead ranges from hours to
      weeks, thus linked to the characteristics of aerosols11.
31.   In the aquatic environment, lead can occur in ionic form (highly mobile and bio-available),
      organic complexes with dissolved humus materials (binding is rather strong and limits
      availability), attached to colloidal particles such as iron oxide (strongly bound and less mobile
      when available in this form than as free ions) or attached to solid particles of clay or dead
      remains of organisms (very limited mobility and availability)12.
32.   The speciation of lead in water is controlled by a number of factors including pH, salinity,
      sorption and biotransformation processes13. In fresh water, lead primarily exists as the divalent
      cation (Pb2+) under acidic conditions, and forms PbCO3 and Pb(OH)2 under alkaline
      conditions. Lead speciation in seawater is a function of chloride concentration and the primary
      species are PbCl3 - > PbCO3 > PbCl2 > PbCl+ > and Pb(OH)+. In surface waters, average
      residence times of biological particles containing lead have been estimated at two to five years.
33.   In soil, lead is generally not very mobile14. The downward movement of elemental lead and
      inorganic lead compounds from soil to groundwater by leaching is very slow under most
      natural conditions. Clays, silts, iron and manganese oxides, and soil organic matter can bind
      lead and other metals electrostatically (cation exchange) as well as chemically (specific
10
    Ibid
11
   Ibid
12
   Ibid
13
   Ibid
14
   Ibid

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       adsorption). Soil pH, content of humic acids and amount of organic matter influence the
       content and mobility of lead in soils. Though lead is not very mobile in soil, lead may enter
       surface waters as a result of erosion of lead-containing soil particles.



2.2.2 Common products containing lead
34.    Lead is mainly used in the production of batteries which accounts for 78 percent of the
       reported global consumption in 200315. Other applications of lead are in lead compounds (8
       percent), lead sheets for roofing and flashing (5 percent), ammunition such as lead shot for
       shotguns (2 percent), metal alloys (2 percent) and cable sheathing (1.2 percent), and petrol
       additives and others 9.2 percent. Figure 2.2-a shows the intentional lead consumption by end-
       uses in 2003.


                                                Petrol additives
                                                                    Miscellaneous

                                       Lead compounds
                                       Alloys
                                Ammunition


                       Rolled/extruded lead

                             Cable sheathing




                                                                               Batteries

       Figure 2.2-a:    Intentional lead consumption by end-uses in 2003 as reported by member countries
                        of the International Lead and Zinc Study group (ILZSG) representing about 86
                        percent of the total global consumption of lead. (ILZSG, 2006)

35.    The major types of lead batteries include starter batteries for vehicles, traction batteries for
       electric trucks, and stationary batteries for back-up power supply.
36.    Lead compounds are mainly used in the production of red lead for corrosion resistance,
       pigments, cathode ray tubes, crystal glass, PVC stabilizers, ceramics and enamels (glazing),
       and petrol additives. Figure 2.2-b below shows the consumption of lead compounds by end
       uses in 2001.
37.    Lead and its compounds are also used in various products including, among others, traditional
       base metal for organ pipes, solders for electronics, electrodes for electrolysis, glass for




15
     Ibid

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      computer and television screens, and in X-ray rooms where it shields the viewer from
      radiation16.


                                               Paints        Ceramics


                                      Glazes

                                                                                Cathode ray
                                                                                  tubes



                           Plastic
                          additives




                                       Light bulbs                      Crystal glass
                                                          Speciality
                                                        glass/optical
                                                            glass
Figure 2.2-b: Consumption of lead compounds by end uses in 2001 as reported by "Western World"
                   member countries of the International Lead and Zinc Study group (ILZSG, 2005). Blue
                   colours indicate the use of lead in glass. (Lead compounds in batteries and petrol
                   additives are not included).


2.3         Mercury and products containing mercury

2.3.1 General characteristic and occurrence of mercury
38.   Elemental mercury is shiny, silver white metal that is a liquid at room temperature. It belongs
      to Group IIB of the Periodic Table. Other characteristics include the following:
           Oxidation state:          1.2
           Atomic weight:             200.5g
           Atomic number:             80
           Boiling point:             3570C
           Melting point:            38.40C
           Density:                  13.6 at 200C

39.   Mercury is mined as mercuric sulphide (cinnabar ore). Through history deposits of cinnabar
      have been the source of ores for commercial mining of metallic mercury. The metallic mercury
      is recovered by heating the ore at a temperature of 5400C. The vaporized mercury in the ore is
      then captured and cooled to form liquid mercury17.
40.   Mercury is rarely found in nature as the pure, liquid metal but rather as compounds and in
      organic salts.



16
     Ibid
17
     UNEP Global Mercury Assessment Report, December 2002

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41.   There are several forms of mercury occurring naturally in the environment. The most common
      natural forms found in the environment are metallic mercury, mercuric sulphide, mercuric
      chloride, and methyl mercury. Some micro-organism and natural processes can change the
      mercury in the environment from one form to another.
42.   The main sources of release of mercury to the atmosphere are divided into four categories,
      namely;

         Natural sources – release due to natural mobilization of naturally occurring mercury from
          the earth crust, such as volcanic activity and weathering of rock.
         Current anthropogenic (associated with human activity) releases from the mobilization of
          mercury impurities, in raw materials such as fossil fuels particularly coal, and to a lesser
          extent gas and oil and other extracted, treated and recycled minerals.
         Current anthropogenic release resulting from mercury used intentionally in products and
          processes, releases during manufacturing, leaks, and disposal or in incineration of spent
          products etc.
         Re-mobilization of historic anthropogenic mercury releases previously deposited in soils
          sediments, water bodies, land fills and waste/tailing piles.


2.3.2 Common products containing mercury
43.   Mercury is used in many domestic and office appliances. The major source categories of
      products containing mercury include batteries, measuring and control devices (mainly in the
      medical sector), electric and electronic switches, lighting and cosmetics. Typical products
      containing mercury include thermometers, thermostats, energy efficient lamps, high intensity
      discharge lamps, and button batteries. Other products are electric switches and relays, flame
      sensors, and dental amalgam.
44.   Statistics have shown that in 2005 mercury uses in products (PVC, batteries, measuring
      devices, switches/relays, lighting and dental use) comprised almost two thirds of the total
      global mercury demand while one third of it was for industrial processes as shown in the
      diagram below (Figure 2.3).




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                                  Global mercury demand
                                                      ( 2005)
                                                        Other        Batteries
                                             PVC
                                                                              Measuring
                                                                                evi
                                                                               D ces
                                                                               Switches/
                                                                                  el
                                                                                 R ays
                                                                               Lighting

                                                                              Dental
                              Small-scale
                                     i
                              gol d m ni ng
                                                                   Chloro-
                                                                     l
                                                                    A kal i



     Figure 2.3: Global mercury demand (2005)18




18
     UNEP: Summary of Supply, Trade and Demand Information on Mercury, Nov. 2006

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3.0 OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
AND THE ENVIRONMENT FROM PRODUCTS CONTAINING
CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY


3.1        Cadmium and products containing cadmium


3.1.2 Potential effects of cadmium and products containing cadmium
      on the environment
45.    Cadmium levels in the environmental media (air, water and soil) vary widely. Cadmium
       emissions to the environment are normally migrating continually in the three main
       environmental media as explained further below:


Cadmium in the atmosphere
46. The lifetime of cadmium in the atmosphere is relatively short compared to other substances
    such as mercury or persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Most of the cadmium in air is bound
    to small-size particulate matter of below 1m. In the atmosphere the particulate matter
    increases in size due to interaction between particles of different sizes, condensation of water
    vapour and other gases. Elemental cadmium and many of its compounds have relatively low
    vapour pressure, and thus are not particularly volatile. However, high heat processes can
    volatize cadmium which is then emitted as a vapour. Cadmium vapours quickly condense on
    aerosols as they exit the stacks and enter the environment. Thus, most cadmium in the
    atmosphere is in the form of particulate matter; which may consist of very small particles
    especially if it is produced by combustion processes19.
47.    A study on the occurrence of cadmium species in ambient aerosols have shown that cadmium
       chloride, cadmium sulphate and cadmium oxide appear to be the predominant species in
       ambient air and its atmospheric transport is governed by aerosol transport mechanism20.
48.    There are three distinct sources of human exposure to cadmium in the atmosphere:

          cadmium in ambient air;
          cadmium in occupational exposure; and
          cadmium in air from the smoking of tobacco.

49.    Cadmium in ambient air represents, by far the majority of total air borne cadmium. Input from
       all three categories may affect human cadmium intake and human health, but the level and the
       transfer mechanism to human are substantially different for the three categories. Where as
       cadmium from occupational environments and cadmium from cigarette smoke are transferred

19
     UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, version of November 2008
20
     Ibid

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      directly to human, cadmium in ambient air is generally, deposited into water or soil, then
      eventually transferred to plants and animals and finally enters the human body through the
      food chain.
Cadmium in water
50. Cadmium is a natural minor constituent of surface and ground water. It may exist in water as
    hydrated ion; inorganic complexes such as carbonates, hydroxides, chlorides or sulphates; or as
    organic complexes with harmonic acids. Cadmium may enter aquatic system through
    weathering and erosion of soils and bedrock atmospheric deposition; direct discharge from
    industrial operations; leakage from landfills and contaminated sites; and the dispersive use of
    sludge and fertilizers in agriculture. Most cadmium entering fresh water from industrial
    sources may be rapidly adsorbed by particulate matters and thus sediments may be significant
    sinks for cadmium emitted to the aquatic environment.
51.   Rivers containing excess cadmium can contaminate surrounding land, either through irrigation
      for agricultural purposes, dumping of dredged sediments or flooding. It has also been
      demonstrated that rivers can transport cadmium for considerable distances up to 50km from
      the source. Nonetheless, studies of cadmium contamination in major river systems over the
      past twenty to thirty years have conclusively demonstrated that cadmium levels in these rivers
      have decreased significantly since 1960’s and 1970’s.
52.   The average cadmium in the world’s oceans has variously been reported to be as low as
      5.20mg/l. High cadmium levels have been noted around certain coastal areas and cadmium
      levels vary with ocean depths, presumably due to pattern of nutrient concentrations.
Cadmium in soil
53. Cadmium in soil originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural source
    includes underlying bedrocks or transported parent material such as glacial till and alluvium.
    Anthropogenic input of cadmium to soil occurs by carried deposition and sewage sludge,
    manure and phosphate fertilizer application. Cadmium is less mobile in soil than in air and
    water. The major factors governing cadmium speciation, adsorption and distribution in soil are
    pH, contents of soluble organic matter, hydrous metal oxide, clay, and type of organic and
    inorganic matter present as well as competition from other metal ions. The use of cadmium
    containing fertilizer and sewerages sludge is often quoted as the primary reason for the
    increase of cadmium content in soil.
54.   The average level of cadmium in soil has been reported between 0.1 – 0.5 ppm, but much
      higher and lower levels have been reported depending on a large number of factors. Igneous
      and metamorphic rocks tend to show lower values from 0.02 to 0.2 ppm where as sedimentary
      rocks have much higher value from 0.1 – 25 ppm. Zinc, lead and copper ores, which are
      mainly sulphides and oxides, contain even higher levels of 200-14,000 ppm for zinc ores; and
      around 500 ppm for typical lead and copper ores.
55.   Cadmium in soil must be distinctly classified in three separate areas with regard to their
      relative effects on human health and the environment, namely:

        agricultural soils;
        non-agricultural soils; and
        controlled land fills.


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56.   Cadmium in controlled land fills is virtually immobile and is unlikely to have any effect on
      human health or the environment simply because it is so well contained. Cadmium in non-
      agricultural soil will generally not affect human heath as it does not enter the food chain
      readily or may do so only indirectly by transfer from non-agricultural soil to agricultural soils
      via air bone or water transport. Cadmium in agricultural soil is relatively immobile under
      normal conditions, but could become more mobile under certain conditions such as increased
      soil acidity. Cadmium levels may be enhanced by the usage of phosphate fertilizer, manure or
      sewage sludge.
57.   Cadmium occurs naturally in all soils and is taken up in all food stuffs and therefore all
      humans are exposed to natural level of cadmium. Although much attention has been focused
      upon the cadmium content in agricultural soils, it is important to recognize that the cadmium
      content in food items varies more as a function of the nature of the crop grown, atmospheric
      cadmium deposition from natural or anthropogenic source and the agricultural practices in the
      particular area such as use of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge and manure application.
58.   In plants, cadmium accumulates mainly in the leaves. For plants grown in the same soil,
      cadmium accumulation decreases in the order of leafy vegetables > root vegetable > grain
      crops. Leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach and certain staples such as potatoes and
      grain food exhibit relatively high values from 30-150 ppb. Peanuts, soya beans and sunflower
      seeds also exhibit naturally high values of cadmium with seemingly no adverse heath effects.
59.   Meat and fish normally contain lower cadmium contents, from 5-40 ppb. Animal offal such as
      kidney and liver can exhibit extraordinarily high cadmium value up to 1,000 ppb as these are
      the organs in animals where cadmium concentrates.
60.   In terrestrial ecosystems, soil micro-organisms and plants are more sensitive to cadmium than
      soil invertebrates. However, both invertebrates and plants can accumulate cadmium. Predators
      feeding on such soil invertebrates can introduce cadmium into the food which leads to
      secondary poisoning through the food chain. The accumulation of cadmium by plants results
      in this contaminant entering the human food chain.

3.1.2 Potential effect of cadmium and products containing cadmium on
      human health
61.   Cadmium is not an essential element for plants or animals life. It is toxic to plants, animals
      and micro-organisms. However, as explained above, cadmium bio-accumulates in the liver
      and kidneys of vertebrates and also accumulates in all levels of food chain. The accumulation
      of cadmium has been reported in food crops and grasses, earthworms, domestic animals such
      as poultry, cattle and horses as well as in wild animals. Thus food is the major source of
      cadmium exposure to humans.
62.   Humans normally absorb cadmium into the body either by ingestion or inhalation. Dermal
      exposure is generally not regarded to be of significance. It is widely accepted that
      approximately 2 to 6 percent of the cadmium ingested is actually taken up into the body.
      Factors influencing cadmium absorption in the body are the forms in which cadmium is
      present in the food and the iron status of the exposed individual.



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63.   It has been estimated that 98 percent of the ingested cadmium come from terrestrial foods (i.e.
      from plants grown in soil or meat from animals which have ingested plants grown in soil
      containing cadmium), while only 1 percent come from aquatic food such as fish, and 1 percent
      from drinking water.
64.   The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a provisional tolerable weekly intake
      (PTWI) for cadmium at 7 g/kg of body weight21.
65.   Tobacco is another source of cadmium uptake in smokers which my equal or exceed that from
      food. The cadmium concentrations in cigarettes vary in different brands depending mainly on
      the origin of the tobacco, and may range from 0.19 to 3.0 microgram per gram of dry weight.
      The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 g cadmium
      has been estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 g, which corresponds to about 10 percent of the total
      content in the cigarette22 .
66.   It has been well established that excess cadmium exposure produces adverse health effects on
      human beings. The primary effects of high cadmium in the body include kidney damage and
      lung emphysema23. The population at highest risk comprises women with nutritional
      deficiencies or low iron content, people with kidney disorders, as well as fetuses and children
      with low body iron stores. Maternal exposure of cadmium is associated with low birth weight
      and spontaneous abortion24.



3.2      Lead and products containing lead


3.2.1 Potential effects of lead, and products containing lead on the
      environment

67.   Lead occurs naturally in the environment. However, most lead concentrations that are found in
      the environment are a result of human activities such as mining, industrial processes and
      energy generation.
68.   Due to the use of lead in gasoline an unnatural lead-cycle has been established. In car engines
      lead is heated, resulting in lead salts (chlorines, bromines, and oxides). These lead salts enter
      the environment through car exhausts. The larger particles will drop to the ground immediately
      and pollute soils or surface waters, while the smaller particles will travel long distances
      through air and remain in the atmosphere. Some of this lead will be deposited when it rains.
      This lead-cycle caused by human production is much more extended than the natural lead-
      cycle. It has caused lead pollution to be a worldwide issue.




21
   UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, version of November 2008
22
   Ibid
23
   Ibid
24
   Ibid

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Lead in the atmosphere
69. The major natural sources of emissions of lead to air are volcanoes, airborne soil particles, sea
    spray, biogenic material and forest fires. Human activities significantly influence the global
    cycle of lead. In 2004, an estimated 3.15 million tonnes of lead were extracted from the earth's
    crust by humans and brought into circulation. Besides this, a significant amount of lead ended
    up in metal extraction residues or was mobilized as impurity by extraction of other minerals
    like coal and lime. Lead release into air is mainly through industrial emissions, smelters and
    metal/oil refineries.
70.    With the introduction of unleaded gasoline in many developed countries, lead concentrations
       in the air have declined significantly25.
Lead in water
71. The major natural sources for mobilizations of lead from the Earth's lithosphere to the
    biosphere are volcanoes and weathering of rocks. In addition, insignificant amounts of lead
    enter the biosphere by meteoritic dust. The weathering of rocks from volcanic eruptions
    releases lead to soils and aquatic systems. This process plays a significant role in the global
    lead cycle, but estimates of the total amount released by weathering of rocks have not been
    available.

Lead in soil
72. The major source of direct lead releases to soil is through the use of products containing lead
    such as ammunition, paints with lead pigments, lead balancing weights for vehicles, lead
    sheathing of cables left in the ground and lead batteries (loss by breakage and recycling). Lead
    in soil can also originate from the air or from erosion of lead-bearing rocks.
73.    Lead dust can be found in our homes, especially homes that used lead-based paints or lead
       solder or carried indoors as dust from air. Dust and soil can be significant lead exposure
       sources at home, especially for young children.
74.    Studies from Denmark and the Netherlands indicate that about 10 percent of the total flow of
       products containing lead ends up in landfills26. Since lead compounds (which in most
       countries are hardly recycled) account for about 10 percent of the total global lead
       consumption, it is highly probable that at least 10 percent of consumption is accumulated in
       landfills. The concern in some countries in this regard is the potential fate of the disposed lead
       over the long term. If not managed in an environmentally sound fashion, the large amounts of
       lead ending up in tailings and other residues from mining and base metal production represent
       a substantial threat to local water resources and soil and hence potential health risks to humans.




25
      US Environmental Protection Agency:           Technology      Transfer    Network     Air   Toxics    website
        http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/

26
     UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on lead, version of November 2008

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3.2.2 Potential effects of lead and products containing lead on human
      health

75.   Lead is toxic at very low exposure levels and has acute and chronic effects on human health. It
      is a multi-organ system toxicant that can cause neurological, cardiovascular, renal,
      gastrointestinal, haematological and reproductive effects. The type and severity of effects
      depend on the level, duration and timing of exposure. Everyone is exposed to trace amounts of
      lead through air, soil, household dust, food, drinking water and various consumer products27 .
      It is estimated that 65 percent of lead entering human body is through uptake of food, whereas
      through water is 20 percent and air 15 percent.
76.   Short-term exposure to high levels of lead can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsions, coma or
      even death. However, even small amounts of lead can be harmful, especially to infants, young
      children and pregnant women. Symptoms of long-term exposure to lower lead levels may be
      less noticeable but are still serious. Anaemia is common and damage to the nervous system
      may cause impaired mental function. Other symptoms are appetite loss, abdominal pain,
      constipation, fatigue, sleeplessness, irritability and headache. Continued excessive exposure, as
      in an industrial setting, can affect the kidneys28 .
77.   Long-term (chronic) exposure to lead in humans results in effects on the blood, central nervous
      system (CNS), blood pressure, kidneys, and Vitamin D metabolism. Children are particularly
      sensitive to the chronic effects of lead leading to among others slowed cognitive development
      and reduced growth. Reproductive effects, such as decreased sperm count in men and
      spontaneous abortions in women, have been associated with high lead exposure. The
      developing fetus is at particularly high risk from maternal lead exposure, with low birth weight
      and slowed postnatal neurobehavioral development noted. Human studies regarding lead
      exposure and cancer are still inconclusive29 .
78.   Lead exposure is most serious for young children because they absorb lead more easily than
      adults and are more susceptible to its harmful effects. Even low level exposure may harm the
      intellectual development, behaviour, size and hearing of infants. During pregnancy, especially
      in the last trimester, lead can cross the placenta and affect the unborn child. Female workers
      exposed to high levels of lead have experienced more miscarriages and stillbirths.
79.   Exposure to lead can occur from breathing contaminated workplace air or house dust, eating
      lead-based paint chips or contaminated dirt. Dust and soil can be significant lead exposure
      sources, especially for young children. Lead dust can also be generated within the home,
      especially older homes that used lead-based paints or lead solder. Lead dust is especially
      dangerous for babies and young children, because they tend to put things in their mouths and
      their breathing zone is closer to floor level.
80.   Lead is a well-documented neurotoxicant and lead exposure in children is linked to a lowering
      of their intelligence quotient (IQ). Epidemiological studies consistently find adverse effects in


27
   Health Canada-www.hc.sc.gc.ca
28
   Ibid
29
   EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) website : www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/lead.


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       children at blood lead levels down to 10 μg/dl30. Recent studies reported lead-induced IQ
       decrements in children with blood lead levels below 10 μg/dl31. There is presently no known
       threshold for the effect of lead. A growing number of studies suggest that exposure to lead may
       cause behavioural deficits and lower functional skills during childhood and later in life32. Other
       vulnerable population groups include socially and economically disadvantaged populations
       and the malnourished, whose diets are deficient in proteins and calcium.
81.    Lead exposures occur in almost all countries of the world33. Available data suggest that, on the
       global scale, the highest blood lead levels occur in Latin America, the Middle East, Asia, parts
       of Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Available data indicate a
       substantial falling trend in environmental lead exposure in many developed countries mainly
       due to the elimination of lead from petrol, but also to reductions in other sources of exposure
       (e.g., lead in paint, lead in drinking water and lead in soldered cans).
82.    Lead remains an environmental health problem. A growing number of countries (mainly
       developing countries and countries with economies in transition) are recognizing and reporting
       the problem of environmental lead exposure in some population groups. For instance in Cape
       Peninsula, South Africa, epidemiological studies for children recorded blood levels of 0.836g/l
       of lead in the 1980’s and 90’s and down to 10mg/l in 2002 after banning leaded petrol. The IQ
       in children of same age also recorded tremendous improvements.34
83.    In many parts of the world, for many decades, there was very little public awareness of and
       policies relating to the potential of lead contamination and its public health effects. As a result
       of its health effects and impact on development, lead may cause significant economic losses
       for society.



3.3         Mercury and products containing mercury
3.3.1 Potential effects of mercury and products containing mercury on
      the environment

84.    Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment in different chemical forms.
       The pure form, elemental mercury, is liquid at room temperature and slowly forms a vapour in
       the air. Forms more commonly found in nature are inorganic mercury such as mercuric
       sulphide, mercury oxide, mercury chloride and organic mercury such as dimethyl mercury,
       phenyl mercury, ethyl mercury and methyl-mercury. However, the most common organic
       mercury compound in the environmental is methyl-mercury.
85.    Natural events (e.g. volcanic activity and weathering of rocks), human activities (e.g. mining,
       processes and use of fossil fuels and products) can cause mercury release into the environment.


30
   UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on lead, version of November 2008
31
   Ibid
32
   Ibid
33
     Ibid
34
     Ibid

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       Once released it can move easily between air, water and land. Natural processes can even
       change mercury from one form to another.
86.    Human activity is now the main source of mercury being released into the environment. Much
       is released unintentionally from processes where mercury is unwanted impurity. Emission into
       the air mainly from fossil fuel (petrol, gas and coal power plant and incinerator), are expected
       to increase unless other energy sources are used or emissions better controlled.
87.    Today’s emissions of mercury from soil and water surface are composed of both natural source
       and re-emission of previous deposition of mercury from both anthropogenic and natural
       resources. This makes it very difficult to determine the actual natural mercury emission.
88.    On average, around the globe there are indications that anthropogenic emission of mercury
       have resulted in deposition rates today that are 1.5 to 3 times higher than those during pre-
       industrial times. In and around industrial areas the deposition rates have increased by 2 to 10
       times during the last 200 years.35
89.    A good percent of mercury in the environment is from anthropogenic emission though it’s
       difficult to estimate.
90.    Highly contaminated industrial sites and abandoned mining operations continue to release
       mercury. Also, land, water and resource management activities such as forestry and
       agricultural practices and flooding can make mercury more bioavailable.
91.    In addition, frequent extreme weather event can contribute to release of mercury through
       flooding and soil erosion.



3.3.2 Potential effects of mercury and products containing mercury on
      human health

92.    Mercury and its compounds are highly toxic to humans and the environment. Large amounts
       can be fatal to humans, but even relatively low doses can seriously affect developing nervous
       systems. The toxicity to humans and other organism depends on the chemical form, the
       amount, the pathway of exposure and the vulnerability of the person exposed.
93.    Mercury can change in the environment into a more complex and harmful compound called
       methyl-mercury. Methyl-mercury passes both the placental barrier and the blood brain barrier,
       and so can inhibit children potential mental development even before birth. Studies have
       shown that methyl mercury in pregnant women’s diets can have subtle, persistent adverse
       effects on children development as observed at about the start of school age. Moreover, some
       studies suggest that small increases in methyl mercury exposure may cause adverse effects on
       the cardiovascular system. Many people (and wildlife) are currently exposed at the levels that
       pose these risks, and possibly other adverse effects36 .


35
     UNEP Global Mercury Assessment report, December 2002
36
     Ibid

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94.    Some populations are especially susceptible and vulnerable to mercury exposure, most notably
       the fetus, the new-born, and young children because of the sensitivity of the developing
       nervous system. Thus parents, pregnant women, and women who might become pregnant,
       should particularly be aware of the potential harm of methyl mercury.
95.    However, moderate consumption of fish (with low mercury levels) is not likely to result in
       exposures of concern. On the other hand, indigenous populations and others who consume
       high amounts of contaminated fish or marine mammals, as well as workers who are exposed to
       mercury such as small scale gold and silver mining, may be highly exposed to mercury and are
       therefore at risk.
96.    There are also ecosystems and wildlife populations which are particularly vulnerable to methyl
       mercury. These include top predators in aquatic food webs (such as fish eating birds and
       mammals), artic ecosystem, wetlands, tropical ecosystems and soil microbial communities37.
97.    Recent evidence suggest that mercury is responsible for reduction of micro-biological activity
       vital to the terrestrial human food chain in soil over large part of Europe and potentially in
       many other places in the world with similar soils characteristics. Preliminary critical limits to
       prevent ecological effect due to mercury in organic soil have been set at 0.07 -0.3 mg/kg for
       total mercury in the soils.
98.    Rising water levels associated with global climate changes may also have implication for the
       methylation of mercury and its accumulation in fish.38




37
      Ibid
38
     Ibid

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4.0 KEY ORGANIZATIONS AND DATABASES DEALING WITH
TRADE STATISTICS OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM,
LEAD AND MERCURY

99.   This section provides description of the main key organizations and databases dealing with
      trade statistics of products containing cadmium, lead and mercury. Also other sub-topics are
      included in this section describing the commodity classification and codes and the limitations
      of the trade data.
100. Key   organizations collecting and maintaining databases of commercial statistics on trade of
      products are available. These include, among others, the UN Comtrade, Eurostat, United
      States (US) International Trade Commission, Trade Analysis and Information System
      (TRAINS) database and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB/CTS) databases.
101. This    report focuses mainly on the commodity statistics available through the UN Comtrade
      database, since it is the most comprehensive and easily accessible. Hence a brief description
      of it is given below.



4.1 UN Comtrade and commodity classifications and codes for
products containing cadmium, lead and mercury

102. UN    Comtrade is an acronym for “United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database,”
      maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). The data which is kept in a
      standard format provides information on trade transaction for each country for a specified
      commodity and code, a partner country, value of trade, net weight or number of items for a
      specific year. For many countries the data coverage starts as far back as 1962 and goes up to
      the most recent completed year 2007.
103. Commodities    are classified primarily according to SITC (Rev.1 from 1962, Rev.2 from 1976
      and Rev.3 from 1988) and the Harmonized System (HS from 1988 with revisions in 1996 and
      2002), as well as some more specialised systems. Currently most data are reported according
      to HS-2002, and automatically converted and stored in all of the other classifications.
104. This   report has used information on commodities specified by the more commonly used
      classification codes which are:
         Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)
         Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS).
105. The selected  commodities and their codes are shown in Table 4.1 to Table 4.3. However, in the
      cause of extracting data from the databases, it was found that some codes had missing data,
      some had different names for the same group categories and others were repeated. Therefore
      the data downloaded and analyzed in this study was from the codes give in Table 4.4 only.


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   Table 4.1: Commodity codes for products containing cadmium
     CODE                   PRODUCT DECRIPTION
     HS02- 283030           Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
     SITC3-53313            Pigments and preparations based on cadmium compounds
     HS 92- 850730          Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
     SITC3 -68982           Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and scrap; powders
     HS96 -381230           Anti-oxidizing preps. & other compound stabilizers for rubber/plastics
     SITC4 -5622            Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic
     SITC1-5612             Phosphatic fertilizers and materials
                            Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture                   of    iron/steel)   containing
     HS07-262091
                            antimony/beryllium/cadmium/chromium/their mixtures

  Table 4.2: Commodity codes for products containing lead
    CODE              PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
     HS1992-850710          Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)
     HS1992-850720          Lead-acid electric accumulators except for vehicles
     HS96-26070             Lead Ore& concentrate
     HS96 - 262020          Ash or residues containing mainly lead
     HS92 - 2824            Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
     HS92 - 282410          Lead monoxide (litharge, massicot)
     HS96- 381111           Anti-knock preparations based on lead comps.
     HS96-7801              Lead and Lead alloys unwrought
     HS96-7802              Lead waste and scraps
     HS96-7803              Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
     HS96-7804              Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders and flakes.
     HS92-7805              Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (for example, couplings, elbows, sleeves).
     HS96-7806              Articles of Lead
     HS02-960920            Pencils lead, black/coloured
     SITC 3-6852            Lead and lead alloys, worked
     SITC 3 - 52375         Lead carbonates
     SITC 1 - 71421         Electronic computers

    Table 4.3: Commodity codes for mercury and products containing mercury
     CODE              PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
     HS92 -853931           Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
     HS92-9025              Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
     HS02-853932            Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultraviolet lamps), mercury/sodium vapour ...
     HS02-850630            Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric oxide
     SITC3-772              Electric switch relay/circuit
                            Input/output units (of auto. data processing machines), whether or not cont. storage units
     HS02-847160            in the same housing
     HS92-8525              Radio and TV transmitters, television cameras
                            Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl. video monitor cathode-ray tubes, black &
     H02-854012             white/other. monochrome
     HS96-8540              Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes
     SITC.2-51551 and
                            Organo- mercury compounds
     SITC.1-51283



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    Table 4.4: Commodity codes for the analyzed data

     Products containing cadmium
     Code                     Description
     HS02- 283030             Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
     SITC3-53313              Pigments and preparations based on cadmium compounds
     HS 92- 850730            Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
     SITC3 -68982             Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and scrap; powders
     HS96 -381230             Anti-oxidizing preps. & other compound stabilizers for rubber/plastics
     SITC1-5612               Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic/ phosphatic fertilizers and materials

     Products containing lead
     Code                 Description
     HS1992-850710        Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)
     HS1992-850720        Lead-acid electric accumulators except for vehicles
     HS96-260700          Lead ore& concentrate
     HS96-381111          Anti-knock preparations based on lead comps.
     HS96-7801            Lead and Lead alloys unwrought
     HS96-7802            Lead waste and scraps
     HS96-7803            Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
     HS96-7804            Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders and flakes.
     HS92-7805            Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (for example, couplings, elbows,
                              sleeves)
     HS96-7806            Articles of Lead, not elsewhere specified (nes)
     HS02-9606            Pencils lead, black/coloured
     HS 02-8471           Automatic data processing machines (Computers)
     HS92 - 2824          Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
     SITC 3-6852          Lead and lead alloys, worked
     SITC 3 - 52375       Lead carbonates
     HS96 - 262020        Ash or residues containing mainly lead

     Products containing mercury
     Code                Description
     HS92 -853931        Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
     HS92-9025           Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
     HS02-853932              Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultraviolet lamps), mercury/sodium vapour ...
     HS02-850630              Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric oxide
     SITC3-772                Electric switch relay/circuit
     HS92-8525                Radio and TV transmitters, television cameras
                              Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl. video monitor cathode-ray tubes,
     H02-854012/               black & white/other. monochrome
                              Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum or
     SITC.4-776/HS96-         vapour or gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc rectifying valves and tubes,
        8540                  cathode-ray tubes, television camera tubes); diodes, transistor.s




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                            Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture of iron/steel) cont. mainly
     HS02-262060
                            arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mix.
                            Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum or vapour or
     SITC.4-776             gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc rectifying valves and tubes, cathode-ray tubes,
                            television camera tubes); diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices.



4.2 Limitations and challenges associated with trade data statistics
and data analysis.

106. Some of the data provided in the UN Comtrade database, particularly the net weight of traded
    commodities, are estimated. Data analyzed was that downloaded from the database where in
    most cases many countries have not reported the trade transactions. For example, where one
    country will indicated that it has imported from a certain country in a certain year or certain
    amount, at the same time that certain country will not show that particular trade transaction.
    The data does not tally between countries that have traded as partners. This created difficulties
    in deciding which data to include/take for the analysis. A very prominent example is the data
    for Unwrought Lead where Namibia showed in the year 2004 to have imported from South
    Africa almost 99 percent of the total import of the product for the period 2000-2006, while in
    the same year the data from South Africa did not show any export of such product to Namibia.
    The same for lead alloys and Data processing machines (computers). The assumption is that
    import data is more likely to be correct than export data since it is tied up with import taxes.
107. Many  countries have not reported trade transactions. This is shown in most cases when one
    country has exported or imported from a certain country while that country does not show any
    such trade transactions. Therefore the data becomes unreliable.
108. Another limitation and challenge of the trade data statistics is the unavailability of data for
    second hand products containing cadmium, lead and mercury. The trade data available in the
    databases does not show whether it includes second hand products or not. It is well known
    that the trade of second hand computers, TVs, radios, cell phones and other electrical and
    electronic products containing cadmium, lead and mercury are a booming business in Africa.
    Thus the actual figures on the trade of electrical and electronic products could be more than
    what has been presented in this report.




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5.0 PRODUCTION AND TRADE PATTERN OF PRODUCTS
CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY
109. This section provides the global production and the trade flow of the most traded products
    containing cadmium, lead and mercury to the African countries for the period covering 2000-
    2006. The information has been derived from the data collected from UN Comtrade and UN
    Database websites. However, in gathering the data several gaps were experienced which will
    be mentioned herewith. Data analysis was done bearing in mind the gaps identified and the
    data available.
110. Responses  for the questionnaires in respect of the study were received from governments,
    intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The
    relevant responses to the questions which were included in the questionnaire are compiled in
    Annex 5A. The countries which responded are Australia, Burkina Faso, Chad, Czech Republic,
    Finland, Jamaica, Mexico, Norway, Togo, United Kingdom, United States of America,
    Sweden, and Switzerland while the IGOs include the European Commission and the World
    Health Organization (WHO). The only NGO which responded to the questionnaires is Toxic
    Link.
111. The trade pattern described here looks at the trade flow of imports and exports in terms of
    volume /weight (kg) of the products to and from the African countries based on the records of
    the UN Comtrade. Data analysis using tables and charts have been used to provide information
    to address the following:

     The major products containing cadmium, lead and mercury imported into and exported from
      the African countries.
     The major importing and exporting countries and their partners.
     The trend of importation and exportation of these products.

    These aspects are covered in details below:


5.1     Products containing cadmium

5.1.1 Global production
112. Cadmium   is produced mainly as a by – product of mining, smelting and refining of zinc and, to
    a lesser degree as a by – product of lead and copper production. It is therefore primarily a
    function of zinc production rather than cadmium demand. Global cadmium production almost
    doubled between 1950 and 1990. Since 1990 global consumption has remained constant, at
    about 20,000 tonnes per year, although many changes have occurred with the geographical
    distribution of this production. Until 1997, production in Europe, the Americas and Asia
    remained constant. Since 1997, however, production in Asia has increased sharply; whereas
    the production in Europe has decreased.
113. Depending on world production of zinc, the production of cadmium has been estimated and are
    given in Table 5.1-a below.

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        Table 5.1-a: Global cadmium production

                     Country                               Quantity
                                                           (tonnes)
                     United States                         90,000
                     Australia                             53,000
                     Canada                                55,000
                     China                                 90,000
                     India                                 3,000
                     Japan                                 10,000
                     Kazakhstan                            50,000
                     Mexico                                35,000
                     Peru                                  12,000
                     Russia                                16,000
                     Other countries                       120,000
                     World Total                           540,000

                Source: U.S Geological survey, mineral commodity summaries January 2007


5.1.2 Sources and supply of cadmium
114. There   are two main sources of cadmium namely primary cadmium recovered from smelting of
      Zinc and secondary cadmium derived from recycling of Nickel-Cadmium batteries, Copper-
      Cadmium alloys, and other iron – ferrous alloys, as well as Cadmium – containing dust from
      the recycling of iron and recycled (secondary) cadmium. In 2004 recycled cadmium accounted
      for 3,500 tonnes corresponding to about 17.5 percent of a total global supply of about 20,000
      tonnes39.
115. There    are three major industry programs in the world which organize and promote the
      collection and recycling of NiCd batteries i.e. Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation
      (RBRC) in the United States of America and Canada, Battery Association of Japan (BAJ) in
      Japan and RECHARGE in Europe.
116. The  leading producers of primary cadmium from 2003 – 2006 and their production are
      summarized in Table 5.1-b.
117. Worldwide     primary cadmium production continues to originate predominantly from Asia
      (China, Japan and Korea) and the Americas (Canada and Mexico) with only small production
      from Europe and Australia. Cadmium production in Africa which was always quite small has
      virtually disappeared.




39
     Cadmium Markets and Trends September 2005

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           Table 5.1-b: Leading producers of primary cadmium metal (in tonnes)

           Country                                            Quantity (tonnes)
                                       2003                 2004            2005                       2006
           Korea                       2379                 2633            2782                       3450
           China                       2705                 2900            3000                       3000
           Japan                       2490                 2222            2297                       2289
           Canada                      1759                 1881            1727                       2094
           Mexico                      1606                 1590            1627                       1397
           Kazakhstan                   930                 2358            1624                       1140
           United States                700                 1010            1070                        892
           Russia                       650                  650             650                        650
           Germany                      640                  640             640                        640
           Netherlands                  495                  572             570                        570
           India                        477                  489             409                        457
           Peru                         529                  532             409                        416
           Australia                    673                  469             429                        425
       Source: Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, UNEP, version of November 2008




5.1.3 Global cadmium trade
118. Many     products in which cadmium is used intentionally are traded globally. This is the case in
       particular for its use in NiCd batteries which commands 82 percent of consumption, but also
       for many applications in alloys, plastics, pigments, plating and in electronic and electrical
       equipment. In this context, as consequence of international trade, products containing cadmium
       will be spread to consumers in countries worldwide.
119. The    general trend in global cadmium consumption over the last two decades has been a steep
       increase in the use of cadmium for batteries and a decrease in the use for nearly all other
       applications.
120. In   1980 cadmium pigment and plating were the main application areas followed by batteries
       which accounted for 23 percent of total global consumption and stabiliser in polymers for 12
       percent of the estimated world consumption. In 2005, batteries (NiCd batteries) accounted for
       about 82 percent of the estimated world consumption40. Other major uses of refined cadmium
       are: pigments for plastics, ceramics and enamels; stabilizers for plastics; plating on iron and
       steel; and as an alloying element of some lead, copper and tin alloys. Since 1990, consumption
       for pigments, stabilizers, alloys and other uses has decreased significantly.




40
     UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on cadmium, version of November 2008

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Trade patterns in Africa

Major traded products containing cadmium in Africa
121. The major traded (imported/exported) products containing cadmium in Africa include
     phosphatic fertilizers, plastic/rubber stabilizers/anti-oxidizing agents, NiCd electric
     accumulators, pigments, cadmium sulphide, cadmium unwrought/cadmium waste and anti-
     oxidizing agents. The total volume of imported and exported products to/from Africa during
     the period 2000 – 2005 is shown in Table 5.1c.
          Table 5.1-c: Imports and exports volumes of products containing cadmium to and from
          Africa: 2000-2005

          Product                                                 Import/Kg                Export/Kg
          Phosphatic fertilizer and materials                     700,537,761             9,174,381,922
          Plastic/Rubber stabilizers/anti oxidizing                69,911,734               27,256,763
          agents.
          NiCd electric accumulators                               4,455,116                36,597,974
          Pigments                                                 2,094,786                  147,057

          Cadmium sulphide                                           44,233                    1,988
          Cadmium unwrought/waste                                     4,875                    47,611
          Total                                                   777,048,505             9,238,433,315

122. Itcan be noted from Table 5.1-c that the most leading traded product containing cadmium in
     Africa is phosphatic fertilizer followed by plastic and rubber stabilizers, NiCd batteries and
     pigments. Other products include cadmium sulphide and cadmium wrought. The import
     market shares of each product are illustrated in Figure 5.1-a and Figure 5.1-b while exports
     are shown in Figures 5.1-c and Figure 5.1-d.


          Table 5.1-d: Annual volumes of imports and export of products containing cadmium to
          and from Africa: 2000-2005.

                            Year                Imports (Kg)                Export (Kg)
                            2000                  71,740,686               1,724,492,235
                            2001                  85,773,851               1,532,551,507
                            2002                 111,370,384               1,457,090,938
                            2003                 130,499,182               1,209,498,412
                            2004                 196,455,714               1,687,057,531
                            2005                 181,208,688               1,627,742,692
                            Total                777,048,505               9,238,433,315




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Table   5.1-e:             Import       volumes          of      products      containing      cadmium         into       Africa:
2000-2005.(Kg)

     Imports             2000             2001                2002            2003           2004            2005              Total
Phosphatic
fertilizer             64,518,712      57,423,267        100,660,564      121,385,027     186,662,934     169,887,257      700,537,761
materials

Plastic/rubber
stabilizers/anti
oxidizing              6,300,085       27,567,423         9,597,841         7,932,872      8,487,659      10,025,854         69,911,737
agents/anti
oxidizing preps

Cadmium nickel
                        783,644         457,677           834,655           525,616         858,950        994,574           4,455,116
accumulators
Cadmium
                        137,755         323,444           276,044           654,780         403,349        299,414           2,094,786
    pigments
Cadmium
                                                               849            504           42,154           726              44,233
    sulphide
Cadmium
                          490            2,040                 431            383            668             863               4,875
unwrought
     TOTAL             71,740,686      85,773,851        111,370,384      130,499,182     196,455,714     181,208,688      777,048,505



Table   5.1-f:         Export       volumes         of         products      containing       cadmium        from         Africa:
2000-2005 (Kg)


     Exports            2000             2001                 2002            2003            2004            2005              TOTAL
  Phosphatic
  fertilizer        1,718,363,973   1,525,691,389    1,450,534,210        1,205,908,957   1,676,362,646   1,597,520,747      9.174,381,922
  materials
  NiCd Electric
                      2,006,203       2,786,657          2,802,289           642,087        7,443,579       20,917,159        36,597,974
  accumulators
  Plastic/rubber
  stabilizer/anti     4,096,935       4,020,198          3,748,902          2,921,608       3,241,823       9,227,297         27,256,763
  oxidizing
  Pigments             24,461           53,263                5,424           4,057          3,692            56,160            147,057
  Cadmium
                        663                                    51            20,000          5,791            21,106            47,611
  unwrought
  Cadmium
                                                               62             1,703                            223                  1,988
  sulphide
        TOTAL       1,724,492,235   1,532,551,507    1,457,090,938        1,209,498,412   1,687,057,531   1,627,742,692      9,238,433,315




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                               Import of cadmium products including phopshatic fertilizers, 2000-2005

                                                                      NiCd electric
                                         Pigments                     accumulators
                                            0%                            1%                          Cadmium sulphide.
                                                                                                            0%




                                Plastic/rubber
                                 stabilizers.
                                     9%
                                                                                             Phosphatic fertilizer
                                                                                                   90%




             Figure 5.1-a: Volume of products containing cadmium imported into Africa

                                       Import of cadmium products excluding phosphatic fertilizers, 2000-2005

                                                      Pigments                           Cadmium sulphide.
                                                         3%                                    0%

                       NiCd electric
                       accumulators                                                                                  Cadmium unwrought
                           6%                                                                                               0%




                                                                                                   Plastic/rubber
                                                                                                    stabilizers.
                                                                                                       91%




             Figure 5.1-b:      Volume of products containing cadmium (excluding phosphatic
             fertilizer) imported to Africa




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .




                     Export of cadmium products including phosphatic fertilizers 2000-2006
                                                   Plastic/rubber
                                                    stabilizers.
                                                        0%                               Cadmium
                      NiCd electric
                                                                                      unwrought/waste
                      accumulators
                                                                                            0%
                          0%




                                                           ,




                                                                      Phosphatic fertilizer
                                                                            100%




  Figure 5.1-c: Volume of products containing cadmium (including phosphatic fertilizer/
  materials) exported from Africa


                 Export of cadmium products excluding phosphatic fertilizers, 2000-2005
                                                     Cadmium sulphide.
                                                           0%
                               Pigments
                                  0%                                                         Cadmium
                                                                                          unwrought/waste
                                                                                                0%




                                                                                               Plastic/rubber
                                                                                                stabilizers.
                     NiCd electric                                                                 43%
                     accumulators
                         57%




    Figure 5.1-d: Volume of products containing cadmium (excluding phosphatic fertilizer/
    materials) exported from Africa



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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


123.    The general trade trend of products containing cadmium in Africa is increasing. The total
       imports of products containing cadmium have increased from about 73,000 tons in 2000 to
       about 192,000 tons in 2005 while reported exports decreased from about 1,779,000 tons in
       2000 to about 752,000 tons in 2005 as shown in Table 5.1-d. The high volume in exports is
       mainly contributed by phosphatic fertilizers which are exported from Tunisia and Morocco.
       The import and export trends of products containing cadmium during the period 2000 to 2005
       are further illustrated in Figures 5.1-e and Figure 5.1-f respectively while details on the
       import/export data of each cadmium product for the same period are given in Table 5.1-e and
       Table 5.1-f.




                                     Import trend for cadmium, 2000-2005


                    250000000


                    200000000


                    150000000
               Kg




                    100000000


                     50000000


                            0
                                  2000         2001        2002          2003       2004        2005
                                                                  Year

          Figure 5.1-e : Import trend of products containing cadmium during 2000 to 2005




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .



                                  Export trend for cadmium, 2000-2005


                2,000,000,000
                1,800,000,000
                1,600,000,000
                1,400,000,000
                1,200,000,000
           Kg




                1,000,000,000
                 800,000,000
                 600,000,000
                 400,000,000
                 200,000,000
                            0
                                   2000         2001        2002          2003       2004        2005
                                                                   Year

           Figure 5.1-f: Export trend of products containing cadmium during 2000 to 2005

124. The   import and export trends of major products containing cadmium including their partners is
      given in Table 5.1-g and Table 5.1-h respectively while Map 5.1-a and Map 5.1-b illustrate the
      trade movements of the same products.


Table 5.1-g: Major products containing cadmium imported to Africa, major importers and partners:
2000-2005

S/N        Product         Quantity         %       Major                         Major
             name          (tonnes)               importers                      partners
1       Phosphatic         700,537        90.15% Morocco                  22% Portugal                       35%
        fertilizer                                                            Italy                          20%
        materials                                                             Egypt                          16%
                                                    Algeria               15% Turkey                         18%
                                                                              France                         17%
                                                                              Bulgaria                       15%

                                                    Corte                 14.% USA                           44%
                                                    d’Ivoire                   Bulgaria                      18%
                                                                               Morocco                       17%

2       Cadmium anti        69,911        9.00%     Mozambique            29% Portugal                      100%
        oxidizing
        preps                                       South Africa          19% Italy                          26%
                                                                              Germany                        21%
                                                                              Malaysia                       16%
                                                    Morocco               15% Belgium                        27%
                                                                              Spain                          24%
                                                                              Italy                          15%



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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .



3.       NiCd                4,455       0.57%      South Africa          26% China                          26%
.        electronic                                                           Japan                          13%
         accumulators                                                         Sweden                          8%
                                                    Algeria               18% France                         45%
                                                                              Spain                          42%
                                                                              UK                              3%
                                                    Swaziland             11% South Africa                  100%
4        Cadmium             2,094       0.27%      Egypt                 31% S. Arabia                     52.%
         Pigments                                                             China                          25%
                                                                              USA                            13%
                                                    South Africa          30% UK                             55%
                                                                              France                         17%
                                                                              Brazil                         12%
                                                    United Rep            17% India                          83%
                                                    Tanzania                  South Africa                    9%
                                                                              Iran                            7%
5.       Cadmium             44.23       0.01%      South Africa          98% Italy                          98%
         sulphide                                                             China                           2%

                                                    Namibia                2% South Africa                  100%
6        Cadmium              4.8        <0.001     Kenya                 57% Areas nes*                     57%
         unwrought                                                            Indonesia                      25%
                                                    Algeria               31% UK                             98%


*
    Areas not elsewhere specified




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                           .



Table 5.1 – h: Major exported products containing cadmium, major exporters and partners:
2000-2005


S/N      Name of Product           Quantity      % Total            Major               Major partners       %
                                    (tones)         Cd          exporters %
                                                 products
1.     Phosphatic fertilizer      9,1743.81       99.31%      Tunisia       52.%      Brazil                  19%
       materials                                                                      Iran                    17%
                                                                                      UK                     0.4%
                                                              Morocco        35%      Iran                    28%
                                                                                      Brazil                  22%
                                                                                      UK                      18%
                                                              South          35%      Netherlands             44%
                                                              Africa                  India                   29%
                                                                                      Japan                    6%
2.     NiCd electric                36.597        0.40%       Sudan          54%      India                   58%
       accumulators                                                                   Indonesia               13%
                                                                                      Vietnam                  6%
                                                              Tunisia         18%     Jordan                  42%
                                                                                      Philippines             24%
                                                                                      China Hong               8%
                                                                                      Kong
                                                              Botswana   7%           South Africa          100%
3.     Plastic/rubber               27,256        0.30%       South    99%            Germany                22%
       stabizer/antioxidizing                                 Africa                  Belgium                15%
                                                                                      India                  11%
                                                              Tunisia      0.40%      Angola                 37%
                                                                                      Ghana                  37%
                                                                                      Libya                  25%
4.     Pigments                     147.05        <0.10%      Zimbabwe                South Africa          100%
                                                              38%
                                                              Zambia     20%          Zimbabwe              100%
                                                              South Africa 19%        Angola                 39%
                                                                                      Zimbabwe               23%
5.     Cadmium unwrought             47.61        <0.01%      South Africa 53%        China                  79%
                                                                                      USA                    18%
                                                              Ghana       44%         Rep.of Korea          100%
                                                              United Rep 3%           Dem Rep of            100%
                                                              Of Tanzania             Congo
7.     Cadmium sulphide               1.98        <0.01%      Namibia 96%             South Africa          100%
                                                              South                   Zimbabwe               70%
                                                              Africa 45%              Areas nes              18%
                                                                                      Uganda                 11%




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Map 5.1-a: Import flow of major products containing cadmium into Africa




                Phosphatic fertilizers                                  Anti oxidizing agents
                Ni Cd Accumulators                                      Cadmium pigments

Map 5.1-b: Export flow of major products containing cadmium from Africa




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125. Basedon Table 5.1-g and Table 5.1-h, further description on the trade trend of each product is
    given below:


NiCd electric accumulators

126. NiCd electric accumulators are the 3rd largest cadmium product traded in Africa. The major
    importer is South Africa commanding 26 percent of the market share and the main partners
    being China/Hong Kong, Japan and Sweden. The second importer of NiCd batteries is Algeria
    with 18 percent of the market share importing from France and Spain. The third importer is
    Swaziland importing only from South Africa
127. On the other hand the major exporter of NiCd batteries is Sudan with 55 percent of the market
    share exporting to India with 58 percent share, followed by Indonesia and Vietnam with 13
    percent and 6 percent respectively. The second major exporter is Tunisia with 19 percent
    market share exporting to Jordan 42 percent and Philippines 24 percent share. Botswana is the
    next exporter exporting only to South Africa
128. The import trend was increasing almost from year 2001-2005 with a slight drop in 2003, while
    the export was constant from year 2000 to 2003 when it started to pick up sharply to maximum
    figure in 2005 as indicated in Figure 5.1-g and Figure 5.1-h below.


                                  Import trend NiCd accumulators, 2000-2005


                   1,200,000

                   1,000,000

                    800,000
              Kg




                    600,000

                    400,000

                    200,000

                           0
                                 2000         2001        2002          2003       2004         2005
                                                                 Year

            Figure 5.1- g: Import trend of NiCd electric accumulators




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                          Export trend for NiCd accumulators, 2000-2005


             25,000,000


             20,000,000


             15,000,000
        Kg




             10,000,000


              5,000,000


                      0
                             2000        2001        2002          2003      2004        2005
                                                            Year

    Figure 5.1-h: Export trend of NiCd electric accumulators



Pigment

129. Pigment is the fourth largest cadmium product traded in Africa. The main importer is Egypt
    commanding 31 percent of the market share importing 52 percent of it supplies from Saudi
    Arabia. And China with 25 percent share. South Africa is second major importer commanding
    30 percent of the market share mainly importing from United Kingdom (55percent) followed
    by France with 17percent. United Republic of Tanzania is the next major importer mainly from
    India with 82 percent market share. The main exporter of pigments was noted to be Zimbabwe
    commanding 38 percent of the market share mainly exporting to South Africa, followed by
    Zambia with 31 percent of the market share exporting only to Zimbabwe. South Africa is the
    next major exporter with 18% market share exporting to Angola (39 percent) and Zimbabwe
    (23 percent)

130. The import trend was fluctuating and the maximum import and export volumes were achieved
    in 2003. Import s continued to decrease but exports have been increasing since 2004 as shown
    in Figure 5.1- i and Figure 5.1-j.




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                                Import trend for cadmium pigment, 2000-2005


             700,000

             600,000

             500,000

             400,000
        Kg




             300,000

             200,000

             100,000

                     0
                           2000          2001          2002          2003          2004          2005
                                                              Year

    Figure 5.1-i: Import trend of cadmium pigments




                             Export trend for cadmium pigments, 2000-2005


             25000


             20000


             15000
        Kg




             10000


             5000


                 0
                         2000          2001          2002          2003           2004          2005
                                                            Year

    Figure 5.1-j: Export trend of cadmium pigments




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Cadmium sulphide

131. Cadmium     sulphide is fairly traded product in Africa compared to heavy industrialized
    countries. The main importer of this product was South Africa commanding 98 percent of the
    market share importing 98 percent of this product from Italy. The main exporter was Namibia
    commanding 96 percent of the market share exporting to South Africa. Import picked up in
    2003 to 2004 and declined again in 200 while export trend was minimal. Figures 5.1-k and
    5.1-l illustrate the import and export trend of cadmium sulphide respectively, for the period
    2000 to 2005.

                         Import trend for cadmium sulphide, 2002-2005


             45000
             40000
             35000
             30000
             25000
        Kg




             20000
             15000
             10000
              5000
                 0
                           2002               2003               2004               2,005
                                                        Year

    Figure 5.1- k: Import trend of cadmium sulphide for the period 2000 to 2005


                          Export trend for cadmium sulphide, 2002-2005


             1800
             1600
             1400
             1200
             1000
        Kg




             800
             600
             400
             200
                0
                          2002                2003                2004                2005
                                                        Year

    Figure 5.1- l: Export trend of cadmium sulphide for the period 2000 to 2005

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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Plastic/rubber stabilizers.

132. Thisproduct is widely traded in Africa. The major importers include Mozambique with 29
    percent, South Africa 19 percent and Morocco 15 per cent. The major importing partners
    include Portugal for Mozambique, Italy, Germany and Malaysia for South Africa and Belgium,
    Spain and Italy for Morocco. The main exporter is South Africa commanding 99 percent of the
    market share exporting mainly to Germany, Belgium and India. It is not clear why South
    Africa has to import from Germany and export the same product percentage to Germany.

133. The general trade trend of this product is decreasing in Africa. Reported import and export
    volumes have been decreasing since 2001. However exports started to increase again sharply
    since 2004 (see Figures 5.1- m and Figure 4.1-n)



                Import trend for cadmium rubber and plastic stabilizers, 2000-2005


             30,000,000
             25,000,000
             20,000,000
        Kg




             15,000,000
             10,000,000
              5,000,000
                       0
                              2000         2001         2002          2003        2004         2005
                                                               Year


     Figure 5.1-m: Export/Import Trend of Plastic/Rubber Stabilizer




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                Export trend of cadmium rubber and plastic stabilizers, 2000-2005


             60,000

             50,000

             40,000
        Kg




             30,000

             20,000

             10,000

                  0
                          2000         2001          2002          2003        2004          2005
                                                            Year

    Figure 5.1-n: Export/Import Trend of Plastic/Rubber Stabilizer


Phosphatic fertilizer materials

134. Thisis the most traded product in Africa, commanding 90 percent of the market share of
    products containing cadmium imported in Africa and 99 percent of products exported from
    Africa.

135. Themajor importer is Morocco commanding 22 percent of the market share importing from
    Portugal, Italy and Egypt followed by Algeria with 15 percent importing from Turkey, France
    and Bulgaria. Similarly Corte d’Ivoire commands 15 percent market share importing form
    USA, Bulgaria and Morocco. The major exporter is Tunisia commanding 52 percent of the
    market share exporting mainly to Brazil and Iran followed by Morocco with 35 percent share
    exporting also to Brazil and Iran. South Africa is also a major exporter of this product also
    with 35 percent market share exporting to Netherlands, India and Bangladesh.

136. Importtrend has increased by over 160 percent between year 2000 and 2005 while exports
    have decreased by 59 percent during the same period. Figures 5.1-o and Figure 5.1-p below
    show the import and export trend of phosphatic fertilizers and materials respectively.




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                                Import trend for phosphatic fertilizers, 2000-2005


                  200,000,000
                  180,000,000
                  160,000,000
                  140,000,000
                  120,000,000
             Kg




                  100,000,000
                   80,000,000
                   60,000,000
                   40,000,000
                   20,000,000
                            0
                                   2000         2001         2002          2003       2004          2005
                                                                    Year

        Figure 5.1-o: Import trend of phosphatic fertilizers and materials




                                 Export trend for phosphatic fertilizers 2000-2005


           2,000,000,000
           1,800,000,000
           1,600,000,000
           1,400,000,000
           1,200,000,000
           Kg




           1,000,000,000
             800,000,000
                600,000,000
                400,000,000
                200,000,000
                          0
                                2000          2001         2002          2003         2004         2005
                                                                  Year

        Figure 5.1-p: Export trend of phosphatic fertilizers and materials




                                                                                                                  42
Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



5.2        Lead and products containing lead

5.2.1. Global source and production
137. Lead-rich   minerals most often occur together with other metals, particularly silver, zinc,
       copper and sometimes gold. Thus, lead is also a co-product of zinc, copper and silver
       production, making the extraction of lead more economical than if it occurred in isolation.
       About two-thirds of worldwide lead output is obtained from mixed lead-zinc ore41
138. After   mining, the lead-rich ore (typically 3-8 percent lead) is separated from the other minerals
       to form ore-concentrate. The ore concentrate is converted into metallic lead with impurities by
       a smelting process, and the impurities are subsequently removed by pyrometallurgical or
       electrolytic refining. The different steps often take place in different countries, and there is
       extensive trade of intermediary raw products.
139. Globally,    lead is mined in more than 40 countries, the major producers being China and
       Australia, which represent 30 percent and 22 percent of global lead mining production,
       respectively. The production and reserves by country in 2004 are shown in Table 5.2-a.
         Table 5.2-a: Mine production of lead and reserves by country in 2004 (USGS, 2006)42
                 Country            Mine production           Percentage of global              Reserves 1)
                                         2004                     production                      2004
                                    1000 tonnes Pb                                            1000 tonnes Pb
            China                         950                           30                       11,000
            Australia                       678                         22                        15,000
            United States                   445                         14                         8,100
            Peru                            271                          9                         2,000
            Mexico                          139                          4                         1,500
            Canada                          77                           2                         2,000
            Morocco                         65                           2                          500
            Ireland                         65                           2                          NA
            Kazakhstan                      40                          1.3                        5,000
            India                           40                          1.3                         NA
            South Africa                    37                          1.2                         400
            Sweden                          34                          1.1                         500
            Other countries                 275                          9                        19,000
            World total                    3,150                       100                        67,000
            (rounded)
1)
  Reserves are defined by the USGS as that part of the resources which could be economically extracted or produced
at the time of determination. Reserves include only recoverable materials. NA: not available


41
     UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on lead, version of November 2008
42
     Ibid

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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


140. China    is also a leading world producer of refined lead producing 27 percent of the global
       production followed by United States of America and Germany producing 23 and 5 percent
       respectively (Table 5.2-b)
141. The    total global mine production of lead has decreased slightly during the last thirty years,
       from 3,600,000 tonnes in 1975 to 3,100,000 tonnes in 2004. During the same period, global
       refined lead production and metal consumption have increased from about 4,700,000 tonnes to
       about 7,100,000 tonnes.43
142. South    Africa and Morocco are the two major countries from Africa continent which produce,
       mine and refine lead. Between the years 2000-2005 both countries have produced one percent
       each of the total world production of the refined lead. The annual production of refined lead
       for South Africa has been increasing between the years 2000-2005 (Table 5.2-b) while for
       Morocco it has been decreasing. At the same time the production of mine lead had been
       decreasing for both countries (Morocco and South Africa) between the years 1998 and 2002
       and 2004 as indicated in Table 5.2-c below. The table also indicates that in the year 2004
       Morocco and South Africa produced 2 percent and 1.2 percent of the global production of
       mine lead compared to the leading world producer China which produced 30 percent of the
       total global production44. At the same time there has been a general increase of use of lead by
       the African countries, the major users being South Africa and Algeria (see table 5.2-d). On the
       other hand data available show that the recovery of the recycled lead has been increasing
       during the period 1998 to 2002 as shown in Table 5.2-e.

Table 5.2-b Global production of refined lead per country for the years 2000-2005 (in 1000
            tonnes)
                                                    Year
                                                                                                 Percent of
 Country            2000       2001       2002       2003        2004       2005   Total           total

 China            1113.4     1195.4     1324.7      1542.6     1973.6     2394.1     9543.8          27

 USA                1420       1340       1330       1370        1250       1270       7980          23

 Germany           284.4     268.48     278.28      266.22     321.02     318.82     1737.2           5

 UK                  236        366         370        320        243                  1535           4
 Korea,
 republic of         171        162         180        169        174     180.78     1036.8           3

 Canada           284.33     230.93     251.82      169.66      241.4                1178.1           3
 Australia          235        215        276         267         182                 1175            3

 Kazakhstan       185.81     158.72     162.18      133.18     157.02                796.91           2
 Peru              116.4       121.2      119.6      112.3      118.6      122.1     710.12           2
 Japan            239.38     236.04                                                  475.42           1
 Morocco           117.4       110.9       87.4      64.47         25                405.13           1
 India               77.9       96.4       89.2      11.28                 51.76     326.54           1


43
     Ibid
44
     Ibid

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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                           .



 Russia               59        67.5       60.35         66        66                  318.85           1
 Sweden               56            48       45          48        50      55.49       302.49           1
 South Africa      54.41       57.66         61         64.9      61.5                 299.47           1
 France                                   138.11      134.13                           272.24           1

 Belgium              81       63.02       52.43         51                            247.45           1

 Malaysia            35.2           42       40          57        54                   228.3           1

 Poland                         21.5        44.8        50.5       51      54.75       222.55           1

 Argentina         35.67       35.43       43.57       41.31       43                  198.98           1

 Thailand            27.2           30       30          47        58                   192.2           1
 Other
 countries        965.91      973.23      947.04      947.25    963.13   845.08       5641.65           16
 Total           5795.51     5839.41     5931.48      5932.8   6032.27   5292.88      34824.2
Source: UNdata website, 2008
Table 5.2-c: Mine production of lead by country in Africa from 1998-2002 (1000 tonnes)
Country               1998     1999            2000            2001            2002             2004*
Morocco               80       80              82              77              73               65
Namibia               14       12              12              12              12
South Africa          84       80              75              51              50               37
Other Africa          4        8               8               8               7
Total Africa          182      179             178             149             142

Source : CANADIAN MINERALS YEARBOOK, 2002 * Source : Draft final review of scientific information on lead,
UNEP, version of November 2008

Table 5.2-d: Refined lead use by country in Africa (1000 tonnes):1998-2002
Country                                                        Quantity/Year
                             1998             1999               2000                 2001                   2002
Algeria                        21              21                 21                    20                    21
Egypt                          8               8                   9                    9                     9
South Africa                   74              67                 59                    59                    71
Other Africa                   32              37                 41                    35                    42
Total Africa                  135             133                 130                  123                   143
Source : CANADIAN MINERALS YEARBOOK, 2002
Table 5.2-e: Recovery of recycled lead (1000 tonnes) in Africa; 1998-2002
Country                                                        Quantity/Year
                             1998             1999               2000                 2001                   2002
Algeria                       6                6                  6                    6                      6
Morocco                       4                6                  4                    4                      4
South Africa                  50               52                 46                   49                     61
Other Africa                  9                7                  6                    5                      5
Total Africa                  69               71                 62                   64                     76
Source : CANADIAN MINERALS YEARBOOK, 2002




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


     5.2 2 Global trade of lead
143. Lead    is mainly used in the production of batteries which accounts for 78 percent of the
       reported global consumption in 200345. Other applications of lead are in lead compounds (8
       percent), lead sheets for roofing and flashing (5 percent), ammunition such as lead shot for
       shotguns (2 percent), metal alloys (2 percent) and cable sheathing (1.2 percent), and Petrol
       additives and others 9.2 percent.


Trade Patterns in Africa

Major traded products containing lead in Africa
144. The import and export quantities of products containing lead in Africa is shown in Table 5.2-f.
     The major imported products including the importing countries and their partners are
     summarized in Table 5.2-g while the major exported products and their partners are given in
     Table 5.2-h.


Table 5.2-f: Import and export volume of products containing lead to Africa region 2000-2006
            Product                                                    Total Import/Kg       Total Export/Kg
            Lead oxides                                                  20,159,919            13,245,518
            Lead Acid Electric Accumulators for Vehicles
            ( Lead Batteries)                                           205,579,273            128,320,613
            Lead Batteries -Others                                       53,990,248            37,057,441
            Lead alloys worked                                            7,698,722             7,596,685
            Lead Carbonate                                                 256,699                8,038
            Antiknock Preparations                                       54,215,799              513,982
            Articles of Lead (Sheets, Scraps, Bars                       15,209,628            20,689,408
            Lead Ore & Concentrate                                      167,987,858           1,204,891,617
            Ash Residue                                                    978,297              1,438,435
            Unwrought Lead                                             1,002,008,975           338,349,441
            Glasses of Lead Crystal                                       5,429,387              700,578
            Automatic Data Processing Machines (Computers)              344,141,872           1,701,333,727
            Lead pencils                                                243,865,242            17,515,995
            Total                                                      2,121,520,919         3,471,661,478



145. It   can be noted from the tables that the major product containing lead which was imported into
       Africa during the period 2000 – 2006 is unwrought lead which accounted for about 56 percent
       of the total imported products. More than 70 percent of this product was imported by Namibia
       from South Africa and the highest imported figure was reported in the year 2004 which
       accounted for almost 95 percent of the total imports of that product in the same year. However,
       the correctness of the data reported by Namibia in year 2004 could not be verified as the data
       was not reported by the importing partner, namely South Africa in the same year. South Africa
       is the second major importer of unwrought lead importing mainly from Australia and China.

45
     Ibid

                                                                                                                  46
Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                                .


146. Other major lead containing products imported into Africa during the period 2000 – 2006
    include automatic data processing machines (computers) (17 percent); lead acid accumulators
    for vehicles (10 percent); Pencils (6 percent); lead ores and concentrates (8 percent); and lead
    acid accumulators other than for vehicles (3 percent); and antiknock preparations (3 percent).
    Figure 5.2-a shows the major imported products and their percentage market shares during the
    period 2000 – 2006.

147. The major product containing lead that was exported from Africa during the period 2000 –
    2006 is automatic data processing machines (computers) which accounted for about 53 percent
    of the exported products containing lead. The major exporter of this product during the same
    period was Namibia exporting to South Africa (50 percent) and Angola (50 percent).

148. Othermajor exported products include lead ores and concentrate; unwrought lead and lead
    acid accumulators. Figure 5.2-b shows the market share of the different exported products
    during the period 2000 – 2006.



                     Market share of imports of products containing Lead into Africa:
                                                2000-2006
                                                                Others (Alloys w orked,
                                      Lead Acid Electric        lead carbonate, ash or
                                    Accumulators-Vehicles           residues, glass
                                                                                        Lead oxides (HS 2824)
                                        (HS 850710)                     crystals
                                                                                                 1%
                                            10%                           1%
                                                                                             Lead Batteries -Others
                                                                                                 (HS 850720)
                         Lead pencils (HS 9609)                                                       3%
                                 11%
                                                                                                Antiknock Preparations
                                                                                                     (HS 381111)
                           Automatic Data                                                                3%
                        Processing Machines
                                                                                                   Articles of Lead
                        (Computers) HS 8471
                                                                                               (Sheets, Scraps, Bars,
                               16%
                                                                                                 etc)- HS 7802 - 06)
                                                                               Lead Ore &                 1%
                                                                             Concentrate (HS
                                                                                260700)
                                                  Unw rought Lead (HS
                                                                                  8%
                                                         7801)
                                                          46%




Figure 5.2a- Import market share of products containing lead into Africa: 2000-2006




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


                     Exports of products containing Lead from Africa: 2000 - 2006

                                            lead alloys w orked,          Lead Acid Electric
                                           lead carbonate, Anti-          Accumulators for
                                               knock, Ash or                  Vehicles
                                              resduue, glass                    4%
                                            crystal, lead oxides
                                                     1%                    Lead Batteries -
                            Lead pencils                                       Others
                                1%                                               1%

                                                                              Articles of Lead
                       Automatic Data                                      (Sheets, Scraps, Bars
                    Processing Machines                                              1%
                        (Computers)
                            48%                                              Lead Ore &
                                                                             Concentrate
                                                                                34%
                                                        Unw rought Lead
                                                              10%




Figure 5.2-b: Export market share of product containing lead from Africa: 200-2006


149.    The import and export trends of major products containing lead including their partners is
       given in Table 5.2-g and Table5.2-h respectively while Map 5.2-a and Map 5.2-b illustrate the
       trade movements of the same products.




                                                                                                                  48
 Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
 cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Table 5.2-g: Major products containing lead imported to Africa and major importers and
     partners:2000-2006

     Product Name              Quantity           Percent    Importer         %        Partner of trade    %
                               (tones)            of total   (country)
  1 Unwrought Lead             1,002,009          46         Namibia          76%      South Africa        100%
    HS96- 7801                                               South Africa     11%      Australia           71%
                                                                                       China               23%
                                                             Tunisia          4%       Morocco             52%
                                                                                       China               17 %
                                                                                       Canada              9%
                                                                                       Belgium             9%
  2 Automatic Data             344,142            16         South Africa     22%      China               29%
    processing                                                                         United Kingdom      9%
    machines ( computers)                                                              Ireland             8%
    HS02-8471                                                                          USA                 8%
                                                                                       Germany             6%

                                                             Algeria          14%      China               47%
                                                                                       France              9%
                                                                                       Indonesia           8%
                                                                                       Germany             6%
                                                                                       Malaysia            4%

                                                             Morocco          12%      China               26%
                                                                                       USA                 19%
                                                                                       France              12%
                                                                                       Germany             6%
                                                                                       Japan               5%
  3 Lead Acid electric         205,579            10         Algeria          14%      France              40%
    Accumulators for                                                                   China               24%
    vehicles HS96-850710                                                               Tajikistan          5%
                                                                                       Thailand            3%
                                                                                       Italy               3%

                                                             South Africa     11%      France              20%%
                                                                                       Rep. of Korea       19%
                                                                                       Germany             17%
                                                                                       China               12%
                                                                                       USA                 7%
                                                             Ghana            10%      China               30%
                                                                                        Indonesia          26%
                                                                                       Rep.of Korea        12%
                                                                                       Thailand            9%
                                                                                       China, Hong         5%
                                                                                       Kong
  4 Lead Ores &                167,988            8          Morocco          100%     Ireland             59%
        Concentrate                                                                    Brazil              15%
    HS96-260700                                                                        Poland              14%
                                                                                       Tunisia             6%




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



    Product Name                Quantity     Perce    Importer                   Partner of trade
                                (tones)      nt of    (country)
                                             total
 5 Pencils (ordinary)           243,865      11       Mozambique        28%      United Arab            10%
   HS92- 9609                                                                    Emirates
                                                                                 Denmark                4%
                                                                                 Pakistan               1%
                                                                                 Rep. of Korea          1%
                                                      South Africa      16%      China                  62%
                                                                                 Thailand               9%
                                                                                 Germany                5%
                                                                                 Malaysia               3%
                                                                                 Rep. of Korea          3%
                                                      Algeria           9%       France                 52%
                                                                                 China                  26%
                                                                                 Syria                  7%
                                                                                 Rep.of Korea           4%
                                                      Namibia           9%       South Africa           100%
 6 Lead Acid Electric           53,990       3        South Africa      52%      China                  24%
   accumulators-Others                                                           France                 23%
   HS96-850720                                                                   USA                    11%
                                                                                 United Kingdom         8%
                                                                                 Italy                  7%

                                                      Nigeria           9%       China                  44%
                                                                                 Germany                32%
                                                                                 Other Asia             6%
                                                                                 China, Hong Kong       3%
                                                                                 United Kingdom
                                                                                                        3%
                                                      Morocco           4%       France                 40%
                                                                                 United Kingdom         19%
                                                                                 China                  12%
                                                                                 Greece                 9%
                                                                                 Germany                5%
 7 Antiknock preparations       54,216       3        South Africa      70%      United Kingdom         89%
   based on Lead                                                                 Russia                 4%
   HS96- 381111                                                                  Germany                4%
                                                                                 Netherlands            2%
                                                                                 Switzerland            2%

                                                      Algeria           8%       United Kingdom         82%
                                                                                 France                 14%
                                                                                 Switzerland            1%
                                                                                 Egypt                  1%
                                                                                 Germany                1%
                                                      Kenya             3%       United Kingdom         56%
                                                                                 Australia              33%
                                                                                 France                 8%
                                                                                 Belgium                2%
 8 Articles of Lead (Bars,      15,210       1        See next table
   sheets, scraps, rods,
   pipes (HS 7802, 7803,
   7804, 7805,7806)



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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                           .


Articles of lead imported to Africa, major importers and partners:2000-2006

      Product Name                 Quantity   Percent of   Importer            %          Partner of Trade    %
                                   (tones)    Total        (country)
8.1   Articles of Lead, nes        4,880      <1           Zambia              27         South Africa        90
      (HS 7806)                                                                           Zimbabwe            10
                                                           South Africa        13         Zimbabwe            16
                                                                                          China               14
8.2   Lead plates, sheets, strip   4,419      <1           Zambia              53%        South Africa        98
      and foil; lead powders and                                                          Zimbabwe            2
      flakes (HS 7804)                                     Botswana            7%         South Africa        99
                                                                                          Zimbabwe            1
                                                           South Africa        6%         Mozambique          20
                                                                                          France              18
                                                                                          United Kingdom      18
8.3   Lead bars, rods, profiles    3,752      <1           Mozambique          29%        South Africa        95
      and wire (HS 780300)                                                                Portugal            2
                                                                                          Swaziland           2
                                                           Zambia              19%        South Africa        66
                                                                                          Zimbabwe            34
                                                           South Africa        17%        China               60
                                                                                          Australia           13
                                                                                          Germany             12
8.4   Lead tubes, pipes and tube   1,791      <1           Nigeria             24%        Spain               93
      or pipe fittings                                                                    China               5
      (HS 7805)                                                                           Germany             1
                                                           Zambia              22%        South Africa        66
                                                                                          United Kingdom      29
                                                                                          Kenya               5
                                                           Botswana            18         South Africa        100

8.5   Lead waste & scraps (HS      368        <1           Egypt               86%        United Arab         63
      780200)                                                                             Emirates
                                                                                          China               22
                                                                                          Other Asia          15
                                                           Botswana            14%        South Africa        100




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Table 5.2-h: Major exported products containing lead from Africa, major exporters and
partners: 2000 - 2006.

        Product Name and            Quantity       Percent of total    Major             %        Major           %
        Code                        ( tonnes)      products            Exporter                   partners of
                                                   containing lead                                Trade
 1      Data Processing             1,701,334      48                  Namibia           99%      South Africa    50%
        Machines
        ( computers)                                                                              Angola          50%
 2      Lead Ores &                 1,204,891      34                  South Africa      80%      China           61%
        Concentrates                                                                              Belgium         21%
        SITC96-260700                                                  Tunisia           5%       Morocco         27%
                                                                                                  Germany         22%
                                                                                                  Italy           14%
                                                                                                  China           10
                                                                       Morocco           10%      Bulgaria        38%
                                                                                                  Italy           24%
                                                                                                  Belgium         17%
 3      Unwrought lead              338,349        10                  Morocco           81%      Spain           50%
        HS 7801                                                                                   Belgium         10%
                                                                                                  Algeria         8%
                                                                                                  Turkey          7%
                                                                                                  Italy           7%
                                                                       South Africa      8%       Belgium         33%
                                                                                                  Zimbabwe        29%
                                                                                                  India           18%
                                                                                                  Zambia          4%
                                                                        Namibia          7%       Korea           73%
                                                                                                  China           26%

 4      Lead acid electric          128,321        4                   South Africa      56%      UK              54%
        accumulators for                                                                          Mozambique      11%
        vehicles                                                                                  Zambia          7%
        HS96-850710                                                    Tunisia           14%      Morocco         58%
                                                                                                  Senegal         14%
                                                                                                  Libya           6%
                                                                                                  Burkina Faso    6%
                                                                        Botswana         11%      South Africa    48%
                                                                                                  Zimbabwe        18%
                                                                                                  Namibia         17%
                                                                                                  Malawi          7%
 5      Lead acid accumulators      37,057         1                   Tunisia           54%      France          27%
        other than for vehicles                                                                   Morocco         24%
        HS 850720                                                                                 Libya           13%
                                                                                                  Iraq            12%
                                                                                                  Italy           12%
                                                                       South Africa      26%      UK              35%
                                                                                                  Nigeria         13%
                                                                                                  Australia       12%
                                                                                                   singapore      6%
                                                                       Kenya             6%       India           42%
                                                                                                  Singapore       18%
                                                                                                  Tanzania        11%




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



Articles of lead exported from Africa, major exporters and partners:2000-2006

      Product Name                Quantity   Percent       Exporter            %         Partner of         %
                                  (tones)    of Total                                    Trade
8.1   Lead waste & scraps         5028       <1            Cote d'Ivoire       5        India               61
      (HS 780200)                                                                       Belgium             20
                                                                                        Saudi Arabia        12

                                                           Botswana            4        South Africa        100
8.2   Lead bars, rods, profiles   3,120      <1            South Africa        32        Angola              50
      and wire (HS 780300)
                                                                                         Zimbabwe            23
                                                                                         Zambia              10
                                                                                         Mozambique          5
                                                           Morocco             29        United             48
                                                                                         Kingdom

                                                                                         Spain              48
                                                           Kenya               7         Ethiopia            39
                                                                                         India               26
                                                                                         Rwanda              18
8.3   Lead plates, sheets,        5,957      <1            South Africa        63        Zambia              77
      strip and foil; lead
      powders and flakes (HS                                                             France              10
      7804)                                                Zambia              13        South Africa        50
                                                                                         United              22
                                                                                             Kingdom
                                                                                         Bulgaria            22
                                                           Ethiopia            4         India               58
                                                                                         United Arab
                                                                                         Emirates            24

                                                                                         Sri Lanka           9
8.4   Lead tubes, pipes and       447        <1            South Africa        68        Zambia              84
      tube or pipe fittings
      (HS 7805)                                                                          Angola              7
                                                                                         Seychelles          2
                                                           Namibia             17        Angola              87
                                                                                         South Africa        13
                                                           Kenya               6         Equatorial Guinea 66
                                                                                         Tanzania            23
                                                                                         Uganda              9
8.5   Articles of Lead, nes       4,687      <1            South Africa        69        Zambia              76
      (HS 7806)
                                                                                         Mozambique          9
                                                           Ghana               9         Spain               29
                                                                                         United Kingdom      22




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Map 5.2a: Import flow of major products containing lead to Africa




Map 5.2b: Import flow of major products containing lead to Africa




Electric accumulators for vehicles        Pencils                     Data processing machines
Lead ore and concentrates          unwrought lead             Electric accumulators for non vehicles


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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Trade trend of products containing lead
150. The trend of import and export trade of products containing lead is shown in Table 5.2-i and
     Figure 5.2-c. The general trend seems to be increasing from the period 2000 to 2006 with the
     maximum trade transaction carried out in the year 2004. The sudden increase is mainly
     contributed by the major imports of unwrought lead carried out in the same year by Namibia
     from South Africa, and export of lead ore and concentrates in 2005 by South Africa to China,
     and automatic data processing machines (computers) by Namibia to South Africa in 2004 (see
     Table 5.2-h and Table 5.2-i).
151. Chinais increasingly capturing the import market share of products containing lead in Africa.
    For example the import market share of automatic data processing machines (computers) to
    South Africa by China in the year 2002 was 8 percent, in 2003 which went up to 35 percent in
    2006 taking over the market from United Kingdom with the market share reduced from 20
    percent in 2002 to 5 percent in 2006 . The same as the market share of the import of automatic
    data processing machines to Algeria which is the second importer of the product has been
    captured by China increasing yearly from 9 percent in 2002 to 30 percent in 2006 taking over
    the market from United Kingdom and France whose market share dropped from 12 percent in
    2000 to 5 percent in 2006 and 26 percent in 2000 to 10 in 2006 respectively.




        Table 5.2-i: Trade trend of total products containing lead in Africa

                       Year                Import/Kg                       Export/Kg
                       2000               107,366,644                      230,441,704
                       2001               199,558,742                      127,775,820
                       2002               173,022,338                      203,428,808
                       2003               201,663,885                      191,483,962
                       2004               978,688,738                     1,868,502,564
                       2005               284,498,234                      748,204,751
                       2006               176,722,338                      101,823,869
                       Total             2,121,520,919                   3,471,661,478




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                      Import and export trend of products containing
                                Lead in Africa: 2000 - 2006

                  2,000,000,000

                  1,500,000,000
    Weight (Kg)




                                                                                         Import/Kg
                  1,000,000,000
                                                                                         Export/Kg
                   500,000,000

                             0
                                  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                                                   Year



Figure 5.2-c: Import and export trend of products containing lead in Africa: 2000-2006



The trade trend and partners of specific products is further describes below:

Unwrought lead
152. Unwrought lead is shown as a major product imported into Africa and over 70 percent of this
     is imported by Namibia from South Africa. The major importation happened in the year 2004
     where almost 95 percent of the total amount was imported. However, the authenticity of this
     data which was collected from the UN Comtrade data base is uncertain as the data was shown
     only by Namibia as imports from South Africa however not shown by South Africa being the
     partner in the trade in the same year. South Africa is the second major importer of unwrought
     lead importing mainly from Australia and China.

153. The total imported amount of unwrought lead to Africa for the period 2000-2006 is indicated
    as about 50 percent of total volume of major products containing lead imported to Africa in the
    same period (Table 5.2g). Unwrought lead also takes a third place of the major products
    containing lead exported from Africa. Over 80 percent of which is exported by Morocco to
    many partners including Spain (50 percent), Belgium (10 percent), Algeria (8 percent) and
    Turkey (10 percent). South Africa also is the major exporter of this product taking 8 percent of
    the total market share of the export of the product from Africa mainly to Belgium (33 percent),
    Zimbabwe (29 percent) and India 20 percent. The product is also exported by Namibia taking 7
    percent of the market share and exporting to Korea (73 percent) and China (26 percent) (see
    Table 5.2-h).

154. The trend of import of unwrought lead to Africa is increasing and maximized in the year 2004.
    The export trend also increased during the period 2000 to 2006. The export trade is within the
    continent. Figures 5.2-d and 5.2-e show the import and export trends of unwrought lead
    respectively, during the period 2000 – 2006. Quantities of import and export of unwrought
    lead to and from Africa is given in Table 5.2-j.


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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



    Table 5.2-j: Quantities of import & export of unwrought lead to Africa: 2000-2006

                             Year              Import (Kg)                   Export (Kg)
                             2000               27,347,707                     4,003,313
                             2001               49,220,242                    25,448,893
                             2002               29,343,596                    8,0999,191
                             2003               35,145,949                    67,036,357
                             2004              800,695,056                    21,998,073
                             2005               36,251,461                    62,565,689
                             2006               24,004,964                    77,901,474
                             Total             1,002,008,795                 339,952,990




                            IMPORT TREND OF UNWROUGHT LEAD TO AFRICA 2000-2006

                        900000
                        800000
       WEIGHT /TONNES




                        700000
                        600000
                        500000
                        400000
                        300000
                        200000
                        100000
                             0
                                 2000   2001    2002       2003       2004        2005        2006
                                                          YEAR



  Figure: 5.2-d: Import trend of unwrought lead in Africa: 2000-2006




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .



                                  EXPORT TREND OF UNWROUGHT LEAD TO AFRICA 2000-
                                                      2006

                          90000
                          80000
          WEIGHT/TONNES




                          70000
                          60000
                          50000
                          40000
                          30000
                          20000
                          10000
                              0
                                    2000   2001   2002   2003      2004        2005       2006
                                                         YEAR


    Figure: 5.2-e: Export trend of unwrought lead in Africa: 2000-2006


Automatic data processing machines (Computers)
155. Automatic data processing machines (computers) with 16 percent of the imports are the second
     major imported products containing lead in Africa and South Africa being the major importer.
     The major import partners of South Africa include China (29 percent), United Kingdom (9
     percent), Ireland (8 percent), USA 8 percent and Germany (6 percent). Another major
     importer is Algeria (13 percent), major partners being China (47 percent), France (9 percent)
     and Germany (6 percent). Morocco (12 percent according to the data) is also major importer of
     Computers in Africa. Her major partners being China (26 percent), USA (19 percent) and
     France (12 percent).

156. At the same time, automatic data processing machines (computers) tops the list of the major
    exported products from Africa accounting for 53 percent of the total exports. The highest
    exported volume of this product was reported by Namibia in 2004. The reported data
    represents nearly 95 percent of the total exports of this product from Africa. 90 percent of the
    total export of this product was exported by Namibia to South Africa in the year 2004. This is
    basically trade within African countries. However the authenticity of the data could not be
    verified as there were no such records in the UN-Comtrade showing South Africa as having
    imported that huge amount of computers in the same year.

157. The general import and export trend data for processing machines (computers) for the period
    2000 to 2006 is increasing as shown in Figures 5.2-e and 5.2-f respectively. Imports tripled
    within this period, increasing from about 28,000 tons in 2000 to about 76,000 tons in 2006.
    However, exports from Africa are minimal increasing from about 1,000 tons in 2000 to about
    1,800 tons in 2006. Reported quantities of trade flow of data processing machines (computers)
    to and from Africa for the period 2000-2006 is shown in Table 5.2-k.




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


        Table 5.2-k: Quantities of import & export of data processing machine (computers) in
        Africa 2000-2006

                                 Year               Import/Kg                    Export /Kg
                                 2000                28,134,876                   1,156,689
                                 2001                18,804,107                    138,158
                                 2002                31,176,407                    435,327
                                 2003                36,257,396                    372,009
                                 2004                57,355,905                 1,695,554,311
                                 2005                96,504,128                   1,847,511
                                 2006                75,909,053                   1,829,722
                                 Total              344,141,872                 1,701,333,727




                                 IMPORT TREND OF DATA PROCESSING MACHINES TO AFRICA
                                                      2000-2006

                            1200000
                            1000000
            WEIGHT/TONNES




                            800000

                            600000                                                              IMPORT/TONNES

                            400000

                            200000

                                 0
                                      2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005     2006
                                                           YEAR

        Figure 5.2-f: Import trend of data processing machines (Computers) 2000-2006




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                                      EXPORT TREND OF DATA PROCESSING MACHINES FROM
                                                      AFRICA 2000-2006

                            1800000
                            1600000
            WEIGHT/TONNES



                            1400000
                            1200000
                            1000000
                             800000
                             600000
                             400000
                             200000
                                  0
                                      2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006
                                                           YEAR

        Figure 5.2-g: Export trend of data processing machines (Computers) 2000-2006


Lead acid electric accumulators for vehicle
158. Lead acid electric accumulators (batteries) for vehicle are the third major imported products
     containing lead to Africa which accounted for 10 percent of the total products containing lead.
     The major importers include Algeria (14 percent) importing mainly from France (40 percent)
     and China (24 percent). Another major importer is South Africa with 11 percent of the imports,
     major partners being France (20 percent), Republic of South Korea (19 percent) and China 17
     percent. Ghana accounts for 10 percent of the imports importing mainly from China (30
     percent) and Indonesia (26 percent).

159. The product is also the fourth among the major exported products from Africa and the major
    exporters being South Africa (56 percent) exporting to UK (54 percent) and Mozambique(11
    percent), Tunisia (14 percent) exporting to Morocco (58 percent) and Botswana (11 percent)
    exporting to South Africa (48 percent) Zimbabwe (18 percent) and Namibia (17 percent)

160. Importtrade of this product has been tremendously increasing over the years from 2000-2006
    while export has been decreasing as shown in Figure 5.2-h below. Reported data of import
    and export for this product during 2000 – 2006 is given in Table 5.2- l




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .




      Table 5.2-l: Quantities of import and export of lead acid electric accumulator for vehicles
      into and from Africa 2000-2006

                              Year                  Import (Kg)                         Export (Kg)
                              2000                       14,177,953                       9,364,847
                              2001                       16,490,227                       2,078,484
                              2002                       23,277,042                       1,928,336
                              2003                       33,044,866                       1,617,290
                              2004                       40,430,016                      15,195,846
                              2005                       51,255,714                      11,366,542
                              2006                       26,903,455                       2,485,668
                              Total                     205,579,273                      44,037,013




                             IMPORT AND EXPORT TREND OF LEAD BATTERRIES FOR
                                   VEHICLE TO AND FROM AFRICA 2000-2006

                        60000000

                        50000000
            WEIGHT/KG




                        40000000
                                                                                                EXPORT/ KG
                        30000000
                                                                                                IMPORT( KG)
                        20000000
                        10000000
                              0
                                   2000   2001   2002     2003   2004   2005     2006
                                                          YEAR

        Figure 5.2-h: Trade trend of import and export of lead acid electrical accumulators for
        vehicle 2000-2006




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                         .


Lead ores and concentrates
161. Lead ores and concentrates are the second most exported products from Africa and fourth most
     imported lead product. The major exporter of this product is South Africa exporting 80 percent
     of the total volume and exporting to China (61 percent) and Belgium (21 percent). Morocco
     exported 10 percent of the total volume of lead ore and concentrates to among others, Bulgaria
     (38 percent) and Italy 924 percent). Tunisia contributed 5 percent of the total exports of this
     product and its export partners included Morocco (27 percent) and Germany (22 percent). The
     three exporting countries are also the major producers of mine and refined lead in Africa. At
     the same time, the major importer of this product in Africa is Morocco importing almost 100
     percent of the total volume imported to Africa. The product is mainly imported from Ireland
     (59 percent), Brazil (15 percent) and Poland (14 percent).

162. Generally the trend of imports of this product is increasing every year while exports are almost
    constant except in year 2005 where-by a big increase in export was recorded. The increase
    was mainly due to reported data from South Africa in 2005. The figure accounted for almost
    (90 percent) of the total exported volume of this product from Africa within the period 2000 –
    2006. The export was mainly to China. However the data from China show a different figure
    of import from South Africa in the same year. South Africa reported in 2005 a total amount of
    536,000,000 Kg as exports to China while China reported only 27, 528,144 Kg as imports of
    that product from South Africa in the same year. The authenticity of the data could not be
    verified in this study. Figures 5.2-i and 5.2-j show the trade trend of import and export of lead
    ores and concentrates respectively during 2000 – 2006. The trade data is given in Table 5.2- m.

    Table 5.2-m: Quantities of export and import of lead ore & concentrate in Africa region
    2000-2006

                                Year                   Import (Kg)             Export (Kg)
                                2000                         10,369             120,607,488
                                2001                         91,599              88,361,643
                                2002                     47,710,623             111,407,647
                                2003                     57,874,484             113,767,964
                                2004                     21,325,765             119,996,933
                                2005                     40,974,638             651,646,832
                                2006                            380                  79,110
                                Total                   167,987,858           1,205,867,617




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                                        IMPORT QUANTITIES OF LEAD ORE
                                       &CONCETRATE TO AFRICA (2000-2006)

                                 70,000,000
             KILOGRAMME (KG)

                                 60,000,000
                AMOUNT IN




                                 50,000,000
                                 40,000,000
                                 30,000,000
                                 20,000,000
                                 10,000,000
                                          0
                                               2000   2001   2002   2003     2004       2005      2006
                                                                    YEAR

        Figure 5.2-i: Import trend of import of lead ore& concentrate to Africa



                                      EXPORT QUANTITIES OF LEAD ORE &
                                     CONCETRATE FROM AFRICA (2000-2006)

                                 700,000,000
             KILOGRAMMES ( KG)




                                 600,000,000
                 QUANTITY IN




                                 500,000,000
                                 400,000,000
                                 300,000,000
                                 200,000,000
                                 100,000,000
                                           0
                                               2000   2001   2002   2003     2004     2005      2006
                                                                    YEAR

        Figure 5.2-j: Export trend of export of lead ores & concentrates from Africa




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Lead pencils, crayons
163. Lead pencils and crayons is the product commonly used in almost all African countries. It is
     the fifth most imported product in Africa and the major importer of this product is
     Mozambique (28 percent) followed by South Africa (16 percent). Major import partners of
     Mozambique being United Arab Emirates (10 percent) and Denmark (4 percent). The product
     is mainly imported by South Africa from China (62 percent).

164. The import trend of this product to Africa has increased during the period 2000 to 2006 while
    exports have remained almost constant during the same period (see Figure 5.2-k and Figure
    5.2-l). 40 percent of the total imported volume of this product was reported in 2001. The
    quantities of this product imported into and exported from Africa are indicated in Table 5.2-n.

    Table 5.2-n: Quantities of import and export of lead pencils and crayons into Africa:
    2000-2006

                                      Year           Import/Kg             Export /Kg
                                      2000           14,628,593             1,520,259
                                      2001           96,299,521             2,055,945
                                      2002           20,952,984               975,565
                                      2003           21,223,815               903,440
                                      2004           36,311,143             1,188,322
                                      2005           30,202,600               911,778
                                      2006           24,246,586             1,203,798
                                      Total         243,865,242             8,759,106



                                   IMPORT TRADE TREND OF LEAD
                                    PENCILS TO AFRICA( 2000-2006)
              KILOGRAMMES(KG)




                                60000000
                                50000000
                  AMOUNT




                                40000000
                                30000000
                                20000000
                                10000000
                                       0
                                         00

                                         01

                                         02

                                         03

                                         04

                                         05

                                         06
                                      20

                                      20

                                      20

                                      20

                                      20

                                      20

                                      20




                                                         YEAR

           Figure 5.2-k: Import trend of lead pencils into Africa: 2000 - 2006




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                                   EXPORT TRADE TREND OF LEAD
                                   PENCILS FROM AFRICA 2000-2006

            KILOGRAMME (KG)   2500000
                              2000000
               AMOUNT IN



                              1500000
                              1000000

                              500000
                                   0
                                        2000   2001   2002       2003      2004      2005      2006
                                                                YEAR


           Figure 5.2-l: Export trade trend of Lead pencils from Africa


Lead acid electric accumulators other than for vehicles
165. Lead electric accumulators for other uses than for vehicle is the sixth most imported lead
     product to Africa taking 3 percent of the total imports volume of products containing lead into
     Africa. The product is imported mainly by South Africa (52 percent) importing from China 24
     percent, France 23 percent, United States of America11 percent and United Kingdom 8
     percent. The product is also imported by Nigeria 9 percent from China (44 percent) and
     Germany (32 percent).

166. The product is also the fifth most exported product from Africa taking 1 percent of the total
    exported volume of products containing lead. It is mainly exported from Tunisia which
    accounts for 54 percent of the total export volume of the product and South Africa takes 26
    percent of the market share. The major export partners of South Africa include United
    Kingdom which accounts for 35 percent of the market share, Nigeria (13 percent), Australia
    (12 percent) and Singapore (6 percent). Kenya also is exporting 6 percent of the total exports
    of this product from Africa and is exporting to India (42 percent), Singapore (18 percent) and
    Tanzania (11 percent). The trade trend has been increasing over the years for both export and
    import as indicated in Figure 5.2-m. The reported trade data is given in Table 5.2-o

    Table 5.2-o: Volume of lead acid electric accumulators other than for vehicles
               Year           Import (Kg)         Export (Kg)
               2000              7,304,471            6418922
               2001              3,466,845          2,406,056
               2002              2,682,259            2018495
               2003              4,332,174          2,597,477
               2004              8,917,512          7,110,919
               2005            12,542,108           9,984,017
               2006            14,743,879           6,521,525
               Total           53,989,248          37,057,441


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                            IMPORT AND EXPORT TREND OF LEAD BATTERIES OTHER THAN FOR
                                       VEHICLE TO AND FROM AFRICA 2000-2006

                 16000000
                 14000000
                 12000000
     WEIGHT/KG




                 10000000
                                                                                               IMPORT /KG
                  8000000
                                                                                               EXPORT /KG
                 6000000
                 4000000
                 2000000
                       0
                             2000    2001    2002    2003    2004      2005      2006
                                                    YEAR

Figure 5.2-m: Export and import trade trend of lead acid electric accumulators other than for
vehicle 2000-2006


Antiknock preparations based on lead

167. Antiknock preparations is the seventh most imported product in Africa taking 2 percent of the
    total imported volume of products containing lead into Africa. It is mainly imported by South
    Africa (70 percent) from United Kingdom (89 percent), Russia (4 percent), Germany (4
    percent) and the Netherlands (2 percent).

168. The trade trend of import of antiknock preparation to and from Africa has tremendously
    decreased over the recent years. This is because most of the countries are banning the use of
    leaded gasoline and the leaded antiknock preparations are slowly being replaced by other less
    harmful products to the environment. Figure 5.2-n below shows the import trend between year
    2000 and 2006.

    Table 5.2-p: Quantities of import and export of antiknock preparations into and from
    Africa: 2000-2006
                            Year          Import (Kg)       Export (Kg)
                            2000             11,900,480             1,707
                            2001              6,313,456            47,163
                            2002             10,848,630            69,274
                            2003              7,886,113            82,524
                            2004              9,417,480            53,924
                            2005              6,860,311            80,677
                            2006                989,329           178,713
                            Total            54,215,799           513,982

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                    Import trend of antiknock preparations into Africa:
                                         2000-2006

                  14,000,000
                  12,000,000
                  10,000,000
    Weight (Kg)




                   8,000,000
                   6,000,000
                   4,000,000
                   2,000,000
                          0
                               2000   2001       2002       2003       2004       2005       2006
                                                            Year

 Figure 5.2-n: Import trend of antiknock preparations into Africa 2000-2006


Articles of lead ( bars, scrap, steel products )

            of products containing lead including lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders
169. Articles
    and flakes, lead bars, rods, profiles and wire; lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings; and
    lead waste and scraps are mainly used for construction purposes. Zambia and Mozambique
    were the biggest importers mostly from South Africa, whereby about 15,900 tonnes were
    imported. Main exporters include Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa, their major export partners
    being United Kingdom and other African countries..

170. The trend of imports and exports over the period 2000-2006 is increasing as shown in Table
    5.2-q and Figure 5.2-o. A total of about 15,000 tones were imported while the total exports
    were more than 20,000 tones.




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      Table 5.2-q: Volume of export and import of articles of lead for Africa 2000-2006

                                      Year           Imports (Kg)        Export (Kg)
                                      2000                  903,069            863,055
                                      2001                2,466,811          1,401,461
                                      2002                2,156,502          2,712,347
                                      2003                1,419,336          2,305,763
                                      2004                1,552,508          2,688,445
                                      2005                2,590,030          3,685,398
                                      2006                4,121,372          7,032,939

                                      Total              15,209,628        20,689,408




                        Import and Export trend of Articles of Lead in
                                    Africa: 2000 - 2006

                  8,000,000
                  7,000,000
                  6,000,000
   Weight (Kg)




                  5,000,000
                                                                                              Imports
                  4,000,000
                                                                                              Exports
                  3,000,000
                  2,000,000
                  1,000,000
                           0
                               2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                                                  Year

                 Figure 5.2-o: Trade trend of articles of lead in Africa 2000-2006




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5.3       Products containing mercury

5.3.1 Global production
171. Mercury  is a natural component of the earth, with an average abundance of approximately
    0.05mg/kg in the Earth’s crust, with significant local variations. Mercury ores that are mined
    generally contain about one percent mercury, although the deposits in Spain typically contain
    up to 12 -14 percent mercury. While about 25 principal mercury minerals are known, virtually
    the only deposits that have been harvested for the extraction of mercury are cinnabar.
172. Mercury is also present at very low levels through the biosphere. Its absorption by plant may
    account for the presence of mercury within fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, since these fuels
    are conventionally thought to be formed from geological transformation of organic residue.
173. Mercury production world-wide is summarized in Table 5.3a. Between year 2000 and 2003,
    Algeria, Spain and Kyrgyzstan mined more than 90 percent of global mined mercury. Both
    Algeria and Spain closed down the mercury plants in 2003 and are not expected to reopen.


Table 5.3-a:     Mercury produced from worldwide mining operations in metric tonnes.
   Country/Region                        Primary mercury (Virgin)                        Secondary mercury
                                                                                               Year 2000
                                     2000                2002              2003
Algeria                               240                 307               250
China                                 200
Finland                                                                                             45
Peru                                                                                                48
Spain                                 236                 727               745
Kyrgyzstan                            554                 530               530
Tajikistan                            40                                                            50
Rusia/Siberia
Other                                                      50               50                     415
Total                                1270                1614              1575                    558




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5.3.2 Source and supply of mercury
174. The    mercury available on the world market is supplied from a number of different sources
       including:

      Mine production of primary mercury;
      Recovered primary mercury from refining of natural gas;
      Reprocessing or secondary mining of historic mine tailings containing mercury;
      Recycled mercury recovered from spent products and waste from industrial production
       processes;
      Mercury from government reserve stock or inventories; and
      Private stocks (such as mercury in use in chlor - alkali and other industries some of which may
       later be returned to the market
                                .

175. The   key players in the international mercury trade include, among others, Kyrgyzstan, China,
       South America, European Union as well as Algeria in Africa. Kyrgyzstan and China are the
       two countries that continue to mine virgin mercury, and only Kyrgyzstan mines for export,
       China uses all its virgin mercury for its own production. Both countries mine are all
       government – sponsored or – owned and are heavily subsidized.
176. The   European Union supplies approximately 30 percent of the global mercury stock pile and is
       involved in more than half the global trade in mercury, even though it accounts for only 10
       percent of the world’s demand for mercury annually. China’s principal use of mercury is
       thought to be in vinyl – chloride and battery manufacturing. India’s heaviest use is for her
       mercury – based chlor – alkali plants. African and South American countries also use a large
       and still growing amount of mercury in small – scale gold mining process in which mercury is
       heated and released nearly in its entirety to the atmosphere.
177. Recycled    mercury has played an important role on the global market in recent decades. In
       1982, the OECD estimated that the secondary production could be as much as 40 percent of
       the primary production. Masters (1997)46 stated that 700 – 900 metric tonnes of mercury are
       recycled globally every year, of which some 200 – 400 metric tonnes originate from spent
       mercury containing products, and the rest come mainly from chlor – alkali facilities47. Among
       the major recyclers include U.S.A, German, Denmark and Netherlands.



5.3.3 Global mercury trade
178. Following     the trail of mercury across multiple boarders can be difficult. A quantity of mercury
       might be recovered from a Western European Mercury – cell chlor – alkali plant, sold to a
       Spanish mercury mining and trading company, shipped to Germany for conversion into
       mercuric oxide, and sold to mainland China for the manufacture of button – cell batteries. The
       batteries could then be exported to Hong Kong for incorporation into mass – produced watches
       that are then shipped to the United States of America or the European Union. This sort of

46
     Masters, H. B. (1997): Metals & Minerals Annual review – 1997, Mercury, Mining Journal Ltd
47
     UNEP Global Mercury Assessment Report, December 2002


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       globetrotting traffic in mercury greatly diminishes the positive impact of rules that a developed
       country may have put in place to eliminate source of mercury pollution within its boarders.
       Existing methods for tracking mercury trade are inadequate, sometimes failing to provide
       adequate or consistent data48
179. Among      the major mercury containing products traded globally includes batteries consuming
       about 300 – 600 tonnes per year, measuring and control (largely medical sector) consuming
       150-350 tonnes per year, electric and electronic switches consuming 150 -300 tonnes per year,
       lighting consuming 100- 150 tonnes per year and cosmetics49 .


Trade patterns in Africa

Major traded products in Africa.
180. Among the major products containing mercury traded in Africa which were analyzed in this
     study includes primary cells, elemental mercury, electric discharge lamps,
     hydrometers/thermometers/barometers, fluorescent lamps, mercury/sodium discharge lamps,
     thermionic cold cathode valves and tubes, electrical switches/ relays, radio and television
     transmitters and organo mercury compounds.
181. In   the course of analyzing the data, it was noted that organo mercury compounds are no longer
       traded in Africa as the products were last imported by Cape Verde in 1994; hence the product
       was eliminated from the study list.
182. Table   5.3-b shows the ranking of the major imported products, the major importers as well as
       the trade partners while Table 5.3-c shows the major exported products including the
       importers, exporters and their partners. Map 5e and Map 5f illustrate the trade movements of
       the same products.
183. The import    volume of products containing mercury in Africa (excluding switches/relay) for the
       period of 2000-2005 is shown in Figure 5.3-a while Figure 5.3-b shows the market share of
       the imports (including switches/relays) during the same period. Figure 5.3-c shows the market
       share of exports during the same period.




48
     Issues: International issues, last revision
49
     UNEP, An overview of products containing lead, cadmium and mercury, August 2007


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Table 5.3-b: Major products containing mercury imported into Africa with major importers and
Partners


    Product Name             Weight          % total   Importer          %       Partner                  %
                             (Kgs)
1   Electric switch/relay   11,309,086,167   **        Kenya             88%     Denmark                  86%
    (SITC 772)                                                                   Germany                  10%
                                                                                 Belgium                  1%
                                                       Mozambique        6%      China                    39%
                                                                                 Japan                    28%
                                                                                 Swaziland                27%
2   Radio/TV                71,759,845       46        South Africa      22%     Finland                  16%
    transmitters.                                                                Rep. of Korea            14%
    (HS92-8525)                                                                  Germany                  14%

                                                       Morocco           15%     France                   22%
                                                                                 Sweden                   18%
                                                                                 China                    11%
                                                                                 Finland                  11%
                                                       Nigeria           11%     United Kingdom           34%
                                                                                 USA
                                                                                 Germany                  22%
                                                                                                          8%
                                                       Tunisia           11%     France                   33%
                                                                                 Sweden                   17%
                                                                                 Japan                    14%
3   Florescent lamps        48,552,281       31        Sudan             19%     China                    97%
    (HS92- 853931)                                                               Indonesia                2%

                                                       South Africa      13%     China                    39%
                                                                                 Germany                  16%
                                                                                 USA                      9%
                                                       Morocco           12%     China                    55%
                                                                                 Hungary                  14%
                                                                                 Poland                   13%
4   Thermionic       cold   26,214,694       16        Tunisia           59%     China                    28%
    cathode                                                                      Poland                   17%
    (HS96- 8540)                                                                 Turkey                   16%
                                                       Algeria           24%     China                    56%
                                                                                 France                   16%
                                                                                 Rep.of Korea             11%
                                                       South Africa      13%     Rep. of Korea            49%
                                                                                 China, Hong Kong
                                                                                 Brazil                   24%

                                                                                                          24%
5   Mercury/                5,561,210        3         Ethiopia          41%     India                    99%
    sodium lamps                                       Algeria           25%     China                    55%
    (HS92- 853932)                                                               Germany                  19%
                                                                                 Hungary                  12%
                                                       South Africa      9%      China                    25%
                                                                                 Japan                    21%
                                                                                 Germany                  18%



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6     Hydrometer/            5,094,747         3        South Africa         15%    Germany                 29%
      thermometer                                                                   Belgium                 22%
      barometers                                                                    USA                     11%
      (HS92 – 9025).                                    Algeria              14%    France                  24%
                                                                                    China                   24%
                                                                                    Italy                   14%
                                                        Nigeria              10%    China                   21%
                                                                                    Germany                 17%
                                                                                    United Kingdom          16%
7     Primary cells.         1,420,793         1        Namibia              52%    South Africa            97%
      (HS02- 850630)                                                                China                   2%
                                                        Ethiopia             16%    China                   100%
                                                        Zambia               7%     China                   50%
                                                                                    South Africa            29%
                                                                                    Other Asia              19%
8     Elemental Mercury      629,710           0        Botswana             43%    South Africa            100%
      (HS02- 280540)                                    Mozambique           13%    Germany                 100%
                                                        South Africa         12%    Spain                   28%
                                                                                    Finland                 27%
                                                                                    Kyrgyzstan              17%
** Excluded in the calculations


Table 5.3-c: Major products containing mercury exported from Africa, major exporters and
partners

S/N     Name of product.         Weight (Kgs)      % total   Exporter         %        Partner              %

1       Electric switch/relays   124,890,004       **        Tunisia          49%      France               51%
        (SITC 772)                                                                     Italy                23%
                                                                                       Germany              16%
                                                             South            26%      Mozambique           15%
                                                             Africa                    Zambia               14%
                                                                                       Zimbabwe             7%
                                                             Morocco          20%      France               67%
                                                                                       Germany              7%
                                                                                       Switzerland          7%
2       Radio/TV                 4,131,578         55        Mauritius        30%      United        Arab   64%
        transmitters.                                                                       Emirates
        (HS92-8525)                                                                    Italy                18%
                                                                                       France               4%
                                                             South.           25%      Australia            18%
                                                             Africa                    Denmark              7%
                                                                                       USA                  6%
                                                             Cote        d    24%      France               99%
                                                             Ivoire
3       Fluorescent lamps        1,410,572         19        South            18%      Zimbabwe             41%
        (HS92- 853931)                                       Africa                    Mozambique           21%
                                                                                       USA                  9%
                                                             Egypt            4%       Syria                63%
                                                                                       Iraq                 16%
                                                                                       Zambia               7%


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4     Mercury                  1,242,981         16         Algeria        83%       Belgium               49%
      (HS02- 280540)                                                                 India                 21%
                                                                                     Netherlands           13%
                                                            South          8%        Saudi Arabia          47%
                                                            Africa                   Zimbabwe              22%
                                                                                     Netherlands           21%
                                                            Swaziland      4%        South Africa          100%

5     Thermionic        cold   328,172           4          Tunisia        55%       Algeria               80%
      cathode                                                                        Rep. of Korea         14%
      (HS96- 8540).                                                                  France                3%
                                                            South          19%       Zambia                53%
                                                            Africa                   Zimbabwe              14%
                                                                                     Mozambique            5%
                                                            Zimbabwe       13%       United        Arab    73%
                                                                                         Emirates
                                                                                     Turkey                19%
                                                                                     South Africa          7%
6     Mercury or sodium        181,697           2          Tunisia        91%       Libya                 88%
      vapour lamps                                                                   Areas nes             5%
      (HS92- 853932)                                                                 France                4%

                                                            South          5%        Zambia                22%
                                                            Africa                   Angola                13%
                                                                                     Zimbabwe              12%
7     Primary cells.           173,746           2          Namibia        84%       Angola                99%
      (HS02- 850630)
                                                            Kenya          14%       Tanzania              98%
                                                                                     Sudan                 2%
                                                            Togo           2%        France                100%

8     Hydrometers/             146,368           2          South          22%       Tanzania              17%
      thermometer                                           Africa                   Zimbabwe              12%
      /Barometers                                                                    Mozambique            11%
      (HS92 – 9025).
                                                            Nigeria        15%       Areas nes             91%
                                                                                     Angola                9%
                                                            Mauritius      12%       Italy                 83%
                                                                                     Hungary               14%
                                                                                     Belgium               1%

** Excluded in the calculations




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    Table 5.3-d: Import/ export volume products containing mercury into and from Africa:
    2000-2005

                                                                        Total Imports            Total Exports
 Product                                                                       (Kg)                    (Kg)
 Electric switch relay circuit (SITC 772)                               11,309,086,167            124,890,004
 Radio and TV transmitters, television cameras
 (HS 8525)                                                                 71,759,845               4,131,578
 Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode (HS 853931)                                48,552,281               1,410,572
 Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes                                                        328,172
 (HS 8540)                                                                 26,214,694
 Sodium or vapour lamps (HS 853932)                                         5,561,210                181,697
 Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers (HS 9025)                            5,094,747                146,368
 Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric oxide (HS                                               173,746
 850630)                                                                    1,420,793
 Mercury (HS 280540)                                                         629,710                1,242,981

 Ash or residues (excl. from mfr. of iron/steel) containing
 mainly arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mixtures (HS
 262060)                                                                    4,077                     7,461
 Total                                                                  11,468,323,524             132,512,579



                     Imports of products containing mercury into Africa: 2000 - 2005
                                       (excluding switch relays)

                     Hydrometers, etc.
                                                      Primary cells, etc
                        (HS 9025)
                                                         (HS 850630)
                           3%
                                                             1%
                                                                                    Mercury
        Sodium or vapour                                                          (HS 280540)
           lamps (HS                                                                  0%
             853932)
               3%



           Thermionic and
            cold cathode                                                                  Radio and TV
           valves & tubes                                                               transmitters, etc.
             (HS 8540)                                                                      (HS 8525)
                16%                                                                           46%


                                       Fluorescent
                                     lamps, etc. (HS
                                         853931)
                                          31%




     Figure 5.3-a: Imports of products containing mercury (excluding switches) into Africa:
    2000 - 2005

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                  Imports of products containing mercury into Africa:
                       2000 - 20005 (including switches/relays)

                                           Others (Radio & TV
                                              transmitters,
                                           Fluorescent lamps,
                                                  etc.)
                                                   1%




                                               Electric switch
                                                relay circuit
                                                    99%



     Figure 5.3-b: Imports of products containing mercury (including switches) into Africa:
    2000 - 2005
                 Exports of products containing mercury from Africa (including
                               electric switch/relays): 2000 - 2005

                                                Mercury
                    Fluorescent                  1%
                       lam ps
                         1%                                      Others
                                                                  1%
             Radio and TV
             transm itters
                 3%




                                                   Electric switch
                                                    relay circuit
                                                        94%


Figure 5.3-c: Exports of products containing mercury (including switches) from Africa:
2000 – 2005



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                        Exports of products containing mercury from Africa:
                                2000 - 2005 (excluding switch relay)

                                               Primary cells &       Hydrometers,
                        Sodium or vapour      primary batteries,    thermometers,
                             lamps             mercuric oxide         barometers
                               2%                    2%                   2%
           Thermionic and cold
                                                                      Ash or residues (HS
            cathode valves and
                                                                            262060)
                  tubes
                                                                               0%
                   4%

              Mercury
               16%
                                                                                          Radio and TV
                                                                                          transmitters,
                                                                                       television cameras
         Fluorescent lamps,                                                                    55%
             hot cathode
                 19%




Figure 5.3-d: Exports of products containing mercury (excluding switches) from Africa:
2000 - 2005


Map 5e: Trade flow of major mercury products imported into Africa, importers and their
partners




            Electric switch/ relays                                      Thermionic cold cathode
            Radio/TV transmitters                                        Hydrometre/Thermometres
            Fluorescent lamps                                            Mercury

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Map 5f: Trade flow of major mercury products exported from Africa, exporters and
their partners




            Electric switch/ relays                                      Thermionic cold cathode
            Radio/TV transmitters                                        Hydrometre/Thermometres
            Fluorescent lamps                                            Mercury



Trade trend of products containing mercury in Africa
184. The general trade trend for products containing mercury in Africa from year 2000-2005 is
     increasing. The imports reported in 2005 have increased by over 70 percent as compared to the
     quantities reported in 2000 while exports in 2005 have almost doubled compared to those
     reported in the year 2000. Table 5.3-e below shows the reported trade quantities of products
     containing mercury in Africa while Figures 5.3-e and 5.3-f show the import and export trends
     respectively, during the period 2000 and 2005.

                Table 5.3-e. Trade trend of products containing mercury: 2000 - 2005.

                        Year                  Imports (Kg)                Exports (Kg)
                        2000                   113,109,636                 15,559,780
                        2001                   708,944,991                 16,995,114
                        2002                  9,168,217,286                19,475,283
                        2003                  1,076,383,999                22,965,753
                        2004                   203,726,132                 27,167,926
                        2005                   197,941,480                 30,348,723
                        Total                11,468,323,524               132,512,579

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                                  Imports of products containing mercury into
                                               Africa: 2000 - 2005

                            10,000,000,000

                             8,000,000,000
              Weight (kg)




                             6,000,000,000

                             4,000,000,000

                             2,000,000,000

                                         0
                                                2000     2001     2002         2003     2004       2005
                                                                        Year

          Figure 5.3-e: Import trend of products containing mercury: 2000 - 2005



                                 Exports of products containing mercury from
                                              Africa: 2000 - 2005

                            35,000,000
                            30,000,000
              Weight (Kg)




                            25,000,000
                            20,000,000
                            15,000,000
                            10,000,000
                             5,000,000
                                    0
                                             2000      2001     2002          2003     2004        2005
                                                                       Year

        Figure 5.3-f: Export trend of products containing mercury: 2000 - 2005




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  185. Table    5.3-e and Figure 5.3-e show that import of products containing mercury picked up to
         maximum point in 2002. This was mainly due to very large amount of reported imports of
         electrical switches by Kenya from Denmark in the same year. However, the correctness of this
         data in the UN Comtrade could not be verified beyond reasonable doubts since the importing
         partner (Denmark) did not report the same figure in 2002.

  186. Generally   the exports of products containing mercury into Africa were minimal but growing
         throughout the period of 2000-2005. Import and export quantities of major products containing
         mercury in Africa are shown in Table 5.3-f and Table 5.3-g respectively.


  Table 5.3-f: Import quantities of products containing mercury : 2000-2005 (Kg)
      IMPORT                 2000          2001          2002            2003            2004          2005          TOTAL
 Electrical switch/rela   87,938,874    691,501,126   9,143,644,723   1,054,850,866   173,026,808   158,123,770    11,309,086,167
 Radio/TV transmitter     11,334,193     6,963,940     5,717,941       11,742,979     14,225,178    21,775,614      71,759,845
 Fluorescent lamps         5,711,115     4,435,829     14,977,865      6,134,232       6,300,496    10,992,744      48,552,281
 Themionic cold cath       6,807,510     4,517,139     2,371,397       2,056,787       5,848,611     4,613,250      26,214,694
 Mercury/Sodium lam         467,258      482,068        497,817         586,288        2,877,686     650,093         5,561,210
 Hydrometers, etc           654,525      865,558        675,704         698,791        1,019,901     1,180,268       5,094,747
 Primary Cells                 0            0           248,184         272,855        342,048       557,706         1,420,793
 Mercury                    196,161      179,331         83,655          41,201         85,403        43,959          629,710
 Ash or residues               0            0              0               0              1            4,076           4,077
  TOTAL                   113,109,636   708,944,991   9,168,217,286   1,076,383,999   203,726,132   197,941,480    11,468,323,524



  Table 5.3-g: Export quantities of products containing mercury:2000-2005 (Kg)
     EXPORT                 2000           2001          2002            2003           2004            2005         TOTAL
Electrical switch/rela    14,544,004    16,423,113     18,579,248     22,073,317      25,907,656     27,362,666     124,890,004
Radio/TV
     transmitter           573,769        73,997        137,824         292,776        648,686        2,404,526      4,131,578
Fluorescent lamps          115,212        86,683        284,960         277,731        336,835         309,151       1,410,572
Themionic cold cath        127,856        58,414         11,503          5,698          94,387          30,314        328,172
Mercury/Sodium
     lam                     7,523         26,108        1,236          34,280          10,942        101,608         181,697
Hydrometers, etc            17,471         14,131        10,171         27,479          17,790         59,326         146,368
Primary Cells                  0             0           55,595         42,167          50,754         25,230         173,746
Mercury                    173,945        312,668       393,740        211,573          99,442         51,613        1,242,981
Ash or residues                0             0           1,006           732             1,434          4,289          7,461
TOTAL                     15,559,780     16,995,114     19,475,283     22,965,753      27,167,926     30,348,723    132,512,579


  187.   Description on the trade trend and movements of each major product containing mercury in
         Africa including the major importers/exporters and their partners are further given below:




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Primary cells
188. The share of primary cells compared to other mercury products is minimal 1-2 percent.
     Primary cells are mainly imported into Africa by Namibia which accounted for 52 percent of
     the market, the major importing partner being South Africa which contributed almost 97
     percent of the imports. On the other hand, Namibia commands 84 percent of the exports of this
     product mainly trading with Angola 99 percent.

189. Reporteddata show that imports increased gradually between 2000 and 2005 while exports
    decreased by 50 percent in 2005 as compared to 2001 (see Figures 5.3-g and 5.3h).



                         Import trend of Primary cells, ect (HS 850630) into
                                         Africa: 2000 - 2005

                       600000
                       500000
         Weight (Kg)




                       400000
                       300000
                       200000
                       100000
                           0
                                2000      2001          2002          2003          2004          2005
                                                               Year


    Figure 5.3-g: Import trend of primary cells: 2000 - 2005




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                             Export trend of Primary cells, etc (HS 850630)
                                        from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                         60000
                         50000
           Weight (Kg)




                         40000
                         30000
                         20000
                         10000
                            0
                                 2000     2001          2002           2003          2004           2005
                                                                Year


    Figure 5.3-h: Export trend of primary cells: 2000 - 2005

Mercury
186. The largest amount of elemental mercury imported into Africa during 2000 – 2005 was
     reported by Botswana which accounted for 43 percent of the import market, importing mainly
     from South Africa (100 percent) between 2000 and 2002. Reported import data from Botswana
     between 2003 and 2005 is negligible. Other countries which reported import of mercury
     between 2000 and 2005 include Kenya (9 percent), Morocco (1.4 percent), Mozambique (12.7
     percent), South Africa (11.9 percent), Swaziland (7 percent), Togo (8.1 percent), United
     Republic of Tanzania (0.96 percent) and Zimbabwe (3.5 percent). Quantities of imports and
     exports of mercury between 2000 and 2005 are shown above in Table 5.3f and Table 5.3g
     respectively.

187. Exportof elemental mercury during the same period was dominated by Algeria (which has
    mercury mines) commanding 83 percent of the market and the major export partners being
    Belgium (49 percent) and India (21 percent).

188. The market share of exported mercury compared to other products is 16 percent. The general
    trade (import/export) trend of mercury into Africa is declining throughout the reviewed period
    as shown in Figures 5.3-i and 5.3-j.




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                          Import trend of Mercury (HS 280540) into Africa:
                                            2000 - 2005

                       250000

                       200000
         Weight (Kg)




                       150000

                       100000

                       50000

                           0
                                2000     2001          2002          2003         2004          2005
                                                              Year

    Figure 5.3-i: Trend of imports of elemental mercury into Africa: 2000 - 2005.



                         Export trend of Mercury (HS 280540) from Africa:
                                           2000 - 2005

                       500000

                       400000
         Weight (Kg)




                       300000

                       200000

                       100000

                           0
                                2000     2001          2002          2003         2004          2005
                                                              Year

    Figure 5.3-j: Trend of exports of elemental mercury from Africa: 2000 - 2005.




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Hydrometers/Thermometers/Barometers
189. Hydrometer/thermometer/barometers, compared to other products containing mercury
     command 3 percent of the market share. The main importer is South Africa accounting to 15
     percent of the market share importing from Germany (29 percent), Belgium (22 percent) and,
     USA (11 percent). Another major importer of this product is Algeria commanding 14 percent
     importing from France (24 percent), China (24 percent) and Italy (14 percent).

190. The main exporter of measuring instruments containing mercury was South Africa which
    accounted for 22 percent of the market share. The major export partners include Tanzania (17
    percent), Zimbabwe (12 percent) and Mozambique (11 percent).

191. The general trade (import/export) trend of the product over the period 2000 – 2005 is
    increasing as shown in Figures 5.3-k and Figure 5.3-l.




                            Import trend of Hydrometers,etc. (HS 9025) into
                                           Africa: 2000 - 2005

                         1400000
                         1200000
           Weight (Kg)




                         1000000
                         800000
                         600000
                         400000
                         200000
                              0
                                   2000      2001          2002          2003           2004          2005
                                                                  Year


    Figure 5.3-k: Import trend of hydrometers/thermometers/barometers: 2000-2005




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                         Export trend of Hydrometers,etc. (HS 9025) from
                                        Africa: 2000 - 2005

                      70000
                      60000
                      50000
        Weight (Kg)




                      40000
                      30000
                      20000
                      10000
                         0
                              2000      2001          2002          2003          2004          2005
                                                             Year


    Figure 5.3-l: Export trend of hydrometers/thermometers/barometers: 2000-2005



Fluorescent lamps
194. Fluorescent lamps are among the major products containing mercury imported into Africa.
     This product accounts for 31 percent of the market share, the major importer being Sudan
     commanding 19 percent of the imports and the major exporting partner being China (97
     percent). The second major importer of fluorescent lamps in Africa is South Africa which
     takes 13 percent of the imports, also importing mainly from China (39 percent).

195. Themajor exporter on the other hand is South Africa with 18 percent of the market exporting
    mainly to Zimbabwe (41 percent) and Mozambique (21 percent).

196. The trade trend of this product over the period 2000 – 2005 was generally increasing although
    the export quantities were minimal compared to imports as shown in Figures 5.3-m and Figure
    5.3-n.




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                           Import trend of Fluorescent lamps (HS 853931)
                                       into Africa: 2000 - 2005

                        16000000
                        14000000
                        12000000
        Weight (Kg)




                        10000000
                         8000000
                         6000000
                         4000000
                         2000000
                               0
                                     2000     2001          2002          2003          2004          2005
                                                                   Year

     Figure 5.3-m: Import trend of fluorescent lamps: 2000 - 2005



                           Export trend of Fluorescent lamps (HS 853931)
                                      from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                        400000
                        350000
                        300000
          Weight (Kg)




                        250000
                        200000
                        150000
                        100000
                         50000
                             0
                                   2000     2001         2002          2003           2004          2005
                                                                Year

    Figure 5.3-n: Export trend of fluorescent lamps: 2000 - 2005




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Mercury/Sodium lamp
197. This product is least traded in Africa. It only accounted for 3 percent of the market share. The
     main importer of this product is Ethiopia with 41 percent of the market share and mainly
     importing from India 99 percent). The second major importer was noted to be Algeria
     accounting for 25 percent of the imports and importing mainly from China (55 percent).

198. Tunisiaalso appeared to be the main exporter commanding 91 percent of the market and
    exporting mainly to Libya (88 percent).

199. Thetrade (import/export) trend show a general gradual increase over the period 2000 to 2005
    except in 2004 when it picked to a maximum (see Figure 5.3-o). The sharp increase in 2004
    was mainly due to reported import data from South Africa, the major partners in that year
    being China (about 35 percent), Japan (about 17 percent), Germany (about 16 percent),
    Belgium (about 10 percent) and Hungary about 9 percent). The export trend was almost
    constant throughout the period.




                        Import trend of mercury or sodium vapour lamps
                              (HS 853932) into Africa: 2000 - 2005

                      3500000
                      3000000
        Weight (Kg)




                      2500000
                      2000000
                      1500000
                      1000000
                      500000
                           0
                                2000         2001          2002          2003           2004          2005
                                                                  Year


    Figure 5.3-o: Import trend of mercury/sodium lamp: 2000 – 2005




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                        Export trend of mercury or sodium vapour lamps
                              (HS 853932) from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                      120000
                      100000
        Weight (Kg)




                      80000
                      60000
                      40000
                      20000
                          0
                               2000       2001          2002          2003          2004          2005
                                                               Year

    Fig 5.3-p: Export trend of mercury/sodium lamp: 2000 - 2005


Thermionic cold cathode valves and tubes
200. The main importer of the product was noted to be Tunisia commanding 59 percent, importing
     from China (28 percent) and Poland (17 percent) followed by Algeria which accounted for 24
     percent of the market and importing 56 percent of it from China. On the other hand data
     showed that Tunisia is the major exporter of this product with 55 percent of the market share
     and the major exporting partners being Algeria (80 percent) and Republic of Korea (14
     percent).

201. The imports in 2005 declined to almost half the volume reported in 2000 (see Figure 5.3-q),
    while exports on the other hand were minimal and decreasing during the same period as shown
    in Figure 5.3-r.




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                               Import trend of Thermionic cold cathod valves
                                and tubes (HS 8540) into Africa: 2000 - 2005

                          8000000
                          7000000
                          6000000
            Weight (Kg)




                          5000000
                          4000000
                          3000000
                          2000000
                          1000000
                                0
                                    2000      2001         2002           2003        2004         2005
                                                                   Year



        Figure 5.3-q: Import trend of thermionic cold cathode valves and tubes: 2000-2005



                             Export trend of Thermionic cold cathode valves
                              and tubes (HS 8540) from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                          140000
                          120000
                          100000
            Weight (Kg)




                           80000
                           60000
                           40000
                           20000
                               0
                                    2000      2001          2002          2003         2004         2005
                                                                   Year


        Figure 5.3-r: Export trend of thermionic cold cathode valves and tubes: 2000-2005




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Electric switches/Relays
202. This is the most traded product in Africa. The major import of the product was Kenya
     commanding 88 percent of the imports, importing from Denmark (86 percent).

203. The main exporter was Tunisia commanding 49 percent exporting to France (51 percent) and
    Italy (23 percent). The second major imported was noted to be South Africa which accounted
    for 26 percent exporting to Mozambique (15 percent) and Zambia (14 percent). The general
    trend of imports increased during the period 2000 to 2005. The highest volume of imports
    occurred in 2002 due to reported data from Kenya. However, as pointed out earlier there could
    be an error in posting figures of imports made by Kenya in year 2002 since the other partner
    (Denmark) did not report the same figure.

204. The exports though minimal compared to the imports also increased from about 14,500 tons in
    2000 to about 27,000 tons in 2005 (see Table 5.3-f and Table 5.3-g). Figures 5.3-s and Figure
    5.3-t below shows the import and export trends of electric switches and relays into and from
    Africa during the period 2000 – 2005 respectively.


                           Import trend of electric switch/relay circuits
                               (SITC 772) into Africa: 2000 - 2005

                      10000000000

                       8000000000
        Weight (Kg)




                       6000000000

                       4000000000

                       2000000000

                               0
                                     2000         2001         2002          2003        2004          2005
                                                                      Year



Figure 5.3-s: Import trend of electric switches/relays: 2000-2005




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                            Export trend of electric switch/relay circuits
                               (SITC 772) from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                       30000000
                       25000000
         Weight (Kg)




                       20000000
                       15000000
                       10000000
                        5000000
                             0
                                  2000       2001          2002          2003         2004          2005
                                                                  Year


Figure 5.3-t: Export trend of electrical switches/relays: 2000-2005

Radio/ TV transmitters
205. This is another well traded product in Africa. The major importer of the product is South
     Africa accounting for 22 percent of the market. The major importing partners include Finland
     (16 percent) and Republic of Korea (14 percent). Other major importers include Morocco,
     Nigeria and Tunisia which imported mainly from France, United Kingdom, and Sweden.

206. Mauritius took the lion’s share in exports commanding 30 percent and major export partner
    being United Arab Emirates (64 percent). South Africa (26 percent) took the second position in
    exports of this product and exported mainly to Australia.

207. Both the import and export of this product showed an increasing trend between 2000 and 2005
    (see Figures 5.3-u and 5.3-v).




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                    Import trend of Radio & TV transmitters (HS 8525)
                                 into Africa: 2000 - 2005

                   25000000

                   20000000
     Weight (Kg)




                   15000000

                   10000000

                    5000000

                             0
                                  2000       2001          2002          2003           2004          2005
                                                                  Year

  Figure 5.3 u: Import trend of radio/ TV transmitters: 2000 – 2005



                    Export trend of Radio & TV transmitters (HS 8525)
                                 from Africa: 2000 - 2005

                   3000000
                   2500000
     Weight (Kg)




                   2000000
                   1500000
                   1000000
                   500000
                        0
                                 2000     2001           2002          2003          2004           2005
                                                                Year

 Figure 5.3 v: Export trend of radio/ TV transmitters: 2000 - 2005




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6.0 ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND INITIATIVES FOR
COLLECTION, RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL OF USED
PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY IN
AFRICA
208. This   section provides examples of existing environmentally sound management strategies and
      practices put in place by the different African governments for the environmentally sound
      collection, recycling and disposal of used products containing cadmium, lead and mercury.
      The section focuses on existing country policies, legislations and programmes for prevention
      and control of wastes containing cadmium, lead and mercury. It also provides information on
      local, international, regional and sub-regional initiatives taken by governments and other
      stakeholders that are geared towards the prevention and control of waste containing cadmium,
      lead and mercury.



6.1       National Initiatives

209. General   overviews of the different types of environmental management measures implemented
      by various States in the world to control the effects of cadmium, lead and mercury in the entire
      life-cycle (i.e. production, use and disposal) are documented in the UNEP Draft final reviews
      of scientific information on lead and cadmium50 while initiatives for the control of the effects
      of mercury are provided in the Global Mercury Assessment Report 51. These prevention and
      control measures and the States in which they are being implemented are reproduced in Table
      6.1




50
     UNEP Review of Scientific Information on Lead and Cadmium
51
     Global Mercury Assessment Report, December 2002

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Table 6.1: Overview of implemented measures related to cadmium, lead and mercury


TYPE AND AIM OF MEASURE                                                 STATE OF IMPLEMENTATION
Production and Use Phase of Life-Cycle
POINT           Apply emission control technologies to limit            Implemented in most countries
   SOURCES emissions of cadmium, lead or mercury from
                combustion of fossil fuels and processing of
                mineral materials.
                Prevent or limit the release of cadmium, lead or        Implemented in many countries
                mercury from industrial processes to the waste
                treatment system and the environment
                Prevent or limit the intentional use of mercury in      General bans implemented in very few countries
                processes
                Require use of best available technology to reduce      Implemented in some countries, especially
                or prevent cadmium, lead or mercury releases            OECD countries
PRODUCTS        Prevent or limit products containing cadmium,           General bans implemented in a few countries
                lead or mercury from being marketed nationally          only. Bans or limits on specific products are
                                                                        more widespread, such as batteries, lighting and
                                                                        clinical thermometers for mercury products:
                                                                        some types of cadmium products including
                                                                        pigments; and gasoline and paints for lead
                                                                        products. In EU the use of lead has been
                                                                        restricted or prohibited for use in electric and
                                                                        electronic equipment as well as in vehicles.
                   Prevent products containing mercury from being       Only implemented in a few countries
                   exported
                    Prevent the use of already purchased mercury and    Only implemented in a few countries
                    mercury containing products
                    Limit the allowable content of cadmium or           Only implemented in a few countries
                    mercury present as impurities in high volume
                    materials – e.g. in phosphate fertilizers
                    Limit the allowed contents of cadmium, lead or      Implemented in some countries, especially
                    mercury in commercial foodstuffs and feed.          OECD countries. WHO guidelines are used by
                                                                        some countries.

TYPE AND AIM OF MEASURE                                               STATE OF IMPLEMENTATION
Disposal Phase of Life-Cycle
Prevent cadmium, lead or mercury in products (especially batteries in Implemented in many countries, especially
cadmium and lead products) and process waste from being released OECD countries
directly to the environment, by efficient waste collection
Prevent cadmium, lead or mercury in products and process waste from Implemented in many countries, especially
being mixed with less hazardous waste in the general waste stream, by OECD countries
separate collection and treatment
Prevent or limit cadmium, lead or mercury releases to the Implemented or implementation is on-going in
environment from treatment (e.g. incineration) of household waste, many countries
hazardous waste and medical waste by emission control technologies
Set limit values for allowable cadmium, lead or mercury contents in Implemented in many countries
sewage sludge and other organic waste products used for land
application
Set limit values for cadmium, lead or mercury in solid incineration Implemented in few OECD countries
residues used in road-building, construction and other applications
Prevent the re-marketing of used, recycled mercury                    Implemented only in a few countries
Source: UNEP Draft final scientific reviews on cadmium and Lead; UNEP Global Mercury Assessment Report.




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210. The   overall objective of these initiatives is to reduce or prevent the release of cadmium, lead or
       mercury to the environment and avoid direct or indirect impact on human health and the
       environment. The initiatives are grouped into four general groups:
     a)    Environmental quality standards or guidelines, specifying maximum acceptable
           concentration of cadmium, lead or mercury for different concentrations (such as drinking
           water, surface water, air, soil, and for food stuffs and feeds);
     b)    Environmental source actions and regulations that control cadmium, lead or mercury
           release available technologies into the environment, including limits on air and water point
           sources and promoting use of best available technologies and waste treatment and waste
           disposal restrictions;
     c)    Product control actions and regulations for products containing cadmium, lead or
           mercury; and
     d)    Other standards, actions and programmes, such as regulations or guidance on exposure
           to lead in the workplace, requirements for information and reporting on use and releases of
           cadmium, lead or mercury in industry and consumer safety measures.

211. Available    information has shown that no country has developed a comprehensive legislation
       covering the whole life-cycle stages of cadmium, lead or mercury. Many countries,
       particularly the OECD countries, have a number of actions and regulations covering specific
       uses and releases. In most countries, legislations on releases and disposal of waste products
       are often more general. They normally include other heavy metals, particulate matter (PM)
       and/or specific inorganic and organic pollutants and not specific to cadmium, lead or mercury
       containing products.
212. On     the other hand very few African countries have reported initiatives and future plans aiming
       at the prevention or control of emissions of cadmium, lead and mercury to the environment and
       its effects to human health and the environment. The following section describes some of the
       existing initiatives reported by African countries. Most of these initiatives have been extracted
       from the Appendices of the UNEP Draft final reviews of scientific information on lead and
       cadmium; Global Mercury Assessment Report as well as the information submitted for this
       study report. Responses submitted for this study have been summarized and provided in Annex
       5A.



6.1.1 Environmental quality standards/guidelines
213. A     number of African countries have established standards setting maximum acceptable
       concentration limits for heavy metals (including cadmium, lead and mercury) in a number of
       media, such as water, air, soil and foodstuffs. Among these countries include, Ghana,
       Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, and Nigeria. The limits vary from country to country52 as shown
       in the Table 6.2.




52
     UNEP Draft final scientific reviews on lead and cadmium – Appendices - , version of November 2008

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Table 6.2: Maximum acceptable concentration limits for cadmium and lead in different media


Country          Maximum acceptable concentration for different media
                 Water            Effluent                        Air                 Food / beverages
Niger            Drinking water:
                 Pb: 0.05mg/l
                 Cd: 0.005mg/l
Nigeria                                                                               Max. contaminant level:
                                                                                      Pb: 0.015 mg/l (set by US EPA)
                                                                                      Cd: 0.005 mg/L (set by US EPA)
Morocco          Drinking water:
                 Pb: 0.05mg/l
                 Cd: 0.005mg/l

                 Moroccan
                 Mediterranean
                 Coastal water –
                 Pb: 200 µg/l.
                 Cd: 500 µg/l.
Mauritius        Drinking water:       Effluent discharge standard:     Ambient
                 Pb: 0.01mg/l          Pb: 0.05 mg/l.                   air: 1.5
                 Cd: 0.003mg/l         Cd: 0.01mg/l                     µg/m3 (3-
                                                                        month
                 Coastal water:        Standards for effluent           average).
                 Pb: 0.05 mg/l         discharge into the ocean:
                 Cd: 0.02mg/l          Pb: 2 mg/l.
                                       Cd: 0.02 mg/L
                 Inland surface
                 water:                Standards of effluent for use
                 Pb: 1.3 µg/l.         in irrigation:
                 Cd: 0.7 µg/l          Pb: 2 mg/l.
                                       Cd: 0.01 mg/l
                 Irrigation water:
                  Pb: 2.0 mg/l.      Standards for discharge of
                 Cd: 0.01 mg/l.      industrial effluent into a
                                     waste water system:
                                     Pb: 1 mg/l
                                     Cd: 0.05 mg/l.
Ghana                                Effluent discharges into
                                     natural water bodies or
                                     water courses:
                                     Pb: 0.1mg/l
                                     Cd: <0.1mg/l
Source: UNEP Interim Scientific Reviews on Cadmium and Lead – Appendices




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6.1.2 Environmental source control actions and regulations
214. In   Africa, only Mauritius, Morocco and Niger have reported to have regulations prescribing
       maximum allowable releases of heavy metals and other pollutants from various types of point
       sources to air, water and soil as follows;.
215. Mauritius.    Existing regulations include the Promulgation of the Road Traffic (control of
       vehicle emissions) Regulations of November 2002 (GN No. 198 of 2002, and its amendments
       of 2003 (GN No. 35 of 2003) which provide for registration of only petrol driven motor
       vehicles capable of running on unleaded petrol. In order to monitor air pollution and content
       of lead in the air, the ministry of Environment in Mauritius procured in March 2001 two
       ambient air quality monitoring stations for their two Monitoring stations, one permanent and
       one mobile.
216. Morocco.     Existing relevant regulations include the Law 03-03 on the prevention of air
       pollution. The decree concerning the traffic defines arrangement for the prevention of
       pollution due to transport. Revision of the characteristics-octane petrol was limited to 0.15g/l.
       The reduction of lead and sulfur content in fuels for motor vehicles has contributed to the
       reduction of some emissions of movable sources.
217. Niger.    Existing relevant regulations include the Law No. 98-56 of 29/12/1998 which supports
       the framework law relating to environmental management; Order no. 89-24 of 8/12/1989
       covers the ban on the import of industrial and toxic nuclear waste; and Order no.
       140/MSP/LCE/DGSP/DS of 27/09/2004 establishes the standards for waste disposal in the
       natural environment (maximum concentration of lead in effluent containing heavy metals and
       other toxic metals at 0.5 mg/L).



6.1.3 Actions and regulations on products containing cadmium, lead or
mercury
218. Very    few African countries have reported to have actions or regulations that limit or prevent
       the use of products containing heavy metals including cadmium, lead and mercury. However
       few countries have started to phase-out the use of lead in petrol including, among others,
       Burkina Faso, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Niger, and Togo53. Below are some of the
       actions taken by some of the countries to regulate products containing cadmium, lead and
       mercury as extracted from the Draft final reviews of scientific information on lead and
       cadmium, and Global Mercury Assessment report:
219. Mauritius     has reported to have stopped the use of mercury in paints54.
220. Burundi     has prohibited import and use of mercury and mercury compound as pesticides in
       agriculture and has applied proposed norm for mercury in air.
221. Cameroon     has banned through the inter-ministerial order No 19 AI-MSP-SP-DMPHP-SHP of
       27th July 1989 the importation, commercialization and use of cosmetic products containing


53
     UNEP Draft final scientific reviews on lead and cadmium – Appendices - , version of November 2008
54
     Global Mercury Assessment Report, December 2002

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    more than 2% of mercury. The country has also put in place a system where fertilizers
    containing cadmium must be registered by the Committee for pesticide registration.
222. Gambia     banned since 1997 the importation of mercury into Gambia.
223. Ghana   has in 1989 enacted a law, PNDC law 217 which restricts the importation and
    distribution of Mercury. A phase out strategy plan has been implemented since January 2004
    to ensure a smooth change from the use of the leaded gasoline to unleaded gasoline. The
    country has also put in place a system where-by samples of specific imported raw materials
    such as granules fertilizers and meat products are analysed regularly for levels of heavy metal.
224. Guinea. Two regulations prohibiting the production, import and all forms of use of mercury
    and mercury compounds within industry and agriculture are being finalised one at the ministry
    of Environment and the other at the Ministry of Agriculture.
225. Kenya has banned the importation, production and use of any cosmetic products containing
    mercury and the total amount of heavy metals in finished products shall not exceed 3% and
    mercury is no longer used in paint manufacture. Since 1986 no pesticide containing mercury
    has been imported in the country. The Kenya Bureau of Standards have been given a full time
    involvement by the laws of Kenya to ensure products evaluation and testing surveillance of
    imported products at points of entry and conducts regular market survey sampling.
226. Lesotho    has phased out the use of mercury based pesticides
227. Madagascar has      decree No 8913/2002/MEM the national phase out of leaded gasoline by end
    of 2005.
228. InMauritius reduction of lead content in petrol from 0.84 g/l to a maximum of 0.4 g/l was
    passed on 1992. From Sept 2002, Mauritius introduced the use of unleaded petrol. The
    country has also phased out mercury batteries replacing them with Cd/Ni batteries and
    launched a sensitization programme for collection of mercury buttons until a policy decision is
    taken regarding their safe disposal. Mercury is no longer used in paints and banned the use of
    pesticides containing mercury.
            No mercury batteries are allowed. Mercury Iodide is banned in cosmetics and the
229. Nigeria.
    allowed mercury in dental amalgam capsule is 0.3g.
230. The  Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) with its secretariat at UNEP has
    continued to support countries to eliminate the use of leaded gasoline, reduce sulphur levels in
    fuels concurrent with the adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies. At the beginning of 2008,
    19 countries worldwide were still using leaded gasoline. Within the year four countries
    namely, Jordan, Palestine, Laos PDR and Mongolia have stopped the use of leaded gasoline
    and an additional three countries – Afghanistan, Morocco and Tunisia are expected to stop
    using leaded gasoline at the end of 2008, while Egypt is expected to stop using leaded gasoline
    by the end of 2010. Through sub-regional and national events, countries have been assisted to
    set timelines and strategies to stop the use of leaded gasoline. The goal of the PCFV is the
    global elimination of leaded gasoline.
231. South Africa is also one of the countries which have a strategy to deal with e-waste. Though
    there are no specific legislations that deal with e-waste in South Africa, various legislations


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      can be considered to impact on e-waste. A sustainable approach to waste management in
      general, echoed in both the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) of South Africa
      and the Polokwane Declaration 43, moves towards reducing the waste stream. The NWMS
      was initiated in 1997 by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and
      the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), with financial support from the
      Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED). Also, for the last four
      years the Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group (E&PSE) have
      been conducting a study on e-waste use in South Africa. It is hoped that, this imitative would
      provide a good starting point for finding a useful way of handling e-wastes in the region E-
      waste is both valuable as source for secondary raw material, and toxic if treated and discarded
      improperly.
232. Rwanda     has passed a law relating to the protection of environment. This law came into force
      on May 1st 2005. The application of this law will mainly be implemented through the
      Rwandese Environmental Management Bureau which has been created in order to offer the
      framework for the management of all environmental problems, including problems inherent to
      the emissions of lead and cadmium (and mercury). Rwanda has regularly participated in all
      the sensitization conferences and workshops on the gradual elimination of leaded fuel both at
      sub regional and regional levels. A sensitisation programme is now being implemented at the
      national level with the financial support of the United Nations Environment Programme
      (UNEP).
233. Tanzania     has enacted the Environmental Management Act of 2004 (EMA, 2004), which
      among other issues, provides for the management of hazardous waste and chemicals 55. Other
      relevant legislations in Tanzania include the Industrial and Consumer Chemicals (Management
      and Control ) Act of 2003.
234. Generally   most of the countries, including developed countries, do not have comprehensive
      systems in place to register the intended use of products containing lead, cadmium or mercury
      before import/export/re-export. Finland however has a register for chemical products on the
      market, and a common Nordic database (SPIN) based on the publicly available data; although
      these do not cover all other technical products, articles and materials containing heavy metals.
      SPIN is a database for substances in products in the Nordic Countries. The database is based
      on data from the Product Registries of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland . The database
      is financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, Chemical group. The direct internet address to
      the Nordic on-line database is http://195.215.251.229/DotNetNuke/default.aspx

6.1.4 Other standards and waste management programmes
235. Lead  batteries recycling facilities have been established in few African countries, especially in
      West Africa including Cameroon and Senegal. For instance, CREPD (Centre de Recherches et
      d'Education pour le Développement) in Cameroon has taken an initiative to collect and recycle
      used batteries in the main cities of Cameroon. Although lead recycling facilities exist in
      Cameroon, the country does not have any specific regulations to control and manage hazardous
      waste such as waste of products containing lead. The impact of these recycling facilities to
      human health and the environment has been a major concern in many of the respective
      countries due to poor environmental management practices.

55
     Environmental Management Act, No 20 of 2004

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236. InKenya, an NGO called Computers For Schools Kenya (CFSK) has opened East Africa's first
    e-waste management plant in Embakasi, Kenya, to handle the region's electronic recycling
    needs. The project, undertaken in collaboration with the Nairobi City Council and the local
    Embakasi community, will dismantle and separate electronic waste from Kenya and eventually
    from Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. The workers will be properly equipped and
    educated on how to handle and separate metals such as aluminium and copper, which can be
    recycled locally, while motherboards will be shipped to Asia and Europe for disposal. Apart
    from training, the workers will be provided with heavy duty gloves, goggles and dust masks to
    protect them from injury. For the monitors that are considered toxic, CFSK will be shipping
    them to Norway for recycling. The Norwegian government supports recycling of 50,000
    tonnes of monitors from CFSK every year. The monitors are sent to Fair International, which
    has the expensive equipment required to dispose of the monitors. CFSK is scheduled to visit
    companies in the U.S. to learn how they handle the recycling of motherboards and monitors in
    order to replicate the processes in the Embakasi plant.
237. CFSK  has been promoting local innovation by recycling cathode ray tube (CRT) computer
    monitors and converting them to affordable TV sets. The organization has signed a
    memorandum of cooperation with the Kenya National Environmental Management Authority
    (NEMA), to develop sustainable models for the management of electronic waste. NEMA is yet
    to develop a law governing e-waste management in Kenya.
238. Other  programmes include the National Cleaner Production Centres in several African
    countries which promote and build capacity in cleaner production concept in the respective
    countries. Countries which have established National Cleaner Production Centres include
    Ethiopia, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Tanzania.
    The major activities of NCPCs include awareness creation, capacity building, assessments and
    policy advice in cleaner production. Cleaner production concept strives for optimal efficiency
    at every stage of the product life while preventing pollution at source and protecting the human
    health.

6.2       International agreements and instruments

239. Thereare a number of international agreements and instruments that contain provisions to
    manage and control releases, limit use and exposures of hazardous chemicals including
    cadmium, lead and mercury. The relevant international agreements relevant to cadmium, lead
    and mercury in which most of the African countries are Parties to include the Basel
    Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.

6.2.1 Basel Convention
240. Basel Convention on the Control of Tranboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their
    Disposal which was adopted in March 1989 and came into force in 1992 provides a global
    legal framework for controlling the Tranboundary movements of hazardous wastes and
    establishes obligations for its Parties to ensure that such wastes are minimized and disposed of
    in an environmentally sound manner. The main objectives of the Basel Convention are to
    control and reduce transboundary movements of hazardous wastes; prevent and minimize their
    generation at source; support the environmentally sound management of such wastes; and
    actively promote the transfer and use of cleaner technologies. The Convention covers all toxic


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     wastes including cadmium, lead and mercury. The Basel Convention currently has 170 Parties
     including most of the African countries56.
241. The  Convention requires Parties to cooperate in developing technical guidelines to improve
     and achieve environmentally sound management of wastes. The Convention is also promoting
     development of partnerships and programmes of activities on the environmentally sound
     management of e-waste, including wastes from mobile phones, computers and other sources.
     One of the challenges facing this process is how to distinguish between waste and non-waste
     as some of these e-wastes may be traded as used products. More information about the Basel
     Convention, its activities and achievements is found on the Secretariat’s website
     http://www.basel.int/ .
Basel Convention Ban Amendment
                                    57
242. The Basel Ban Amendment , adopted by the third Conference of the Parties to the Basel
     Convention in September 1995, bans hazardous wastes exports for final disposal and recycling
     from what are known as Annex VII countries (Basel Convention Parties that are members of
     the EU, OECD, Liechtenstein) to non-Annex VII countries (all other Parties to the
     Convention). The Ban Amendment has to be ratified by three-fourths of the Parties who
     accepted it in order to enter into force. The Basel Ban has not entered into force.

6.2.2 Rotterdam Convention

243. TheRotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous
     Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade of September 1998 has two objectives:

      To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international
     trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment
     from potential harm; and
      To contribute to the environmentally sound use of those chemicals by facilitating
     information exchange about their characteristics, providing for a national decision-making
     process on their import and export, and disseminating these decisions to Parties58.

244. The  Convention establishes a specific procedure to identify and include chemicals in the
     Convention based on actions taken by Parties to ban or severely restrict the use of a pesticide
     or industrial chemical or a Party is experiencing problems with a severely hazardous pesticide
     formulation under condition of use. Certain banned or severely restricted chemicals and
     severely hazardous pesticide formulations appear in Annex III of the Convention known as the
     “The PIC List”. Among these chemicals include 24 pesticides, 11 industrial chemicals and 4
     pesticide formulations.
245. The Rotterdam Convention currently has 119 Parties including most of the African countries59.
     According to the Convention, Parties may export listed substances to other Parties only if the
     prospective importing Party first provides its informed consent. Exporting Parties are obliged

56
   Basel Convention, http/www.basel.int/ratif/convention.htm
57
   The Basel Ban Amendment, http://www.basel.int/pub/baselban.html
58
   Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides
in International Trade (1998), http://www.pic.int/ConventionText/
59
   Rotterdam Convention, “Ratifications”, http://www.pic.int/home.php?type=t&id=63&sid=17

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       to provide importing Parties with an export notification that includes specified information
       when they (or an entity in their territory) wish to export a chemical that is banned or severely
       restricted in their territory, but not yet included in Annex III. The Convention provides for
       importing Parties to require additional information about the chemical related to occupational
       safety or environmental impact or human health.
246. Tetraethyl  lead and tetramethyl lead, the two anti-knocking agents for gasoline (petrol) are
       covered by the Rotterdam Convention. Cadmium is not listed in the “PIC List” and hence not
       covered by the Convention. Inorganic and organic mercury compounds used as pesticides are
       covered by the Convention and hence subjected to PIC procedure.

6.2.3 Other agreements
247. Other    existing agreements relevant to subject issue include the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy
       Metals. The Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals is one of the eight protocols to the United
       Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long - Range
       Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)60. The Aarhus Protocol adopted in June 1998 entered
       into force in December 2003. The Protocol targets three harmful metals namely cadmium,
       lead and mercury. According to one of the basic obligations, Parties will have to reduce their
       emissions for these three metals below their levels in 1990 (or an alternative year between
       1985 and 1995).
248. The    Protocol aims to cut emissions from several sources including industrial sources (iron and
       steel industry, non-ferrous metal industry), combustion processes (power generation, road
       transport) and waste incineration. It lays down stringent limit values for emissions from
       stationary sources and suggests best available techniques (BAT) for these sources, such as
       special filters or scrubbers for combustion sources or mercury-free processes. The Protocol
       requires Parties to phase out leaded petrol. It also introduces measures to lower heavy metal
       emissions from other products, such as mercury in batteries, and proposes the introduction of
       management measures for other mercury-containing products, such as electrical components
       (thermostats, switches), measuring devices (thermometers, manometers, barometers),
       fluorescent lamps, dental amalgam, pesticides and paints61.
249. Although      any State may ratify the LRTAP and the Aarhus Protocol, none of the African
       countries are Parties to these agreements. Only States in the UNECE region are currently
       Parties to the LRTAP and the Aarhus Protocol.

6.2.4 SAICM
250. The    Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) is a policy
       framework to foster the sound management of chemicals62.



60
     The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/

61
     The 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals, http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/hm_h1.htm


62
     SAICM, http://www.saicm.org/index.php?ql=h&content=home

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251. SAICM   was developed by a multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral Preparatory Committee and
    supports the achievement of the goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on
    Sustainable Development of ensuring that, by the year 2020, chemicals are produced and used
    in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health.

6.3       International organizations and programmes
252. There are a number of international organizations and programmes which have activities in
    Africa and other parts of the world aiming at addressing the adverse impacts of cadmium, lead
    and mercury on human health and the environment. Among these include the International
    Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Labour Organization (ILO), and
    International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization (WHO),
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Industrial Development
    Organization (UNIDO) and the World Bank (WB). Other relevant programmes include the
    Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the Inter-Organization Programme
    for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). An overview of the type of activities for
    some of the organizations and programmes related to cadmium, lead and mercury is given in
    Table 6.3. General descriptions of each organization or programme and their relevance to
    cadmium, lead and mercury are provided in the UNEP Draft final review of scientific
    information on lead and cadmium as well as the Global Mercury Assessment report.

Table 6.3: Overview of international organizations and programmes with activities addressing
the adverse impacts of cadmium, lead and mercury on human health and the environment.

  Name       Geographic                            Relevancy                            Type of Activities addressing
              Coverage                                                                   cadmium, lead or mercury
 WHO         Global         Addresses issues of health including effects of cadmium,    Assessments/evaluations      of
                            lead and mercury in products.                               health risks of individual
                                                                                        chemicals,         information
                                                                                        dissemination,          setting
                                                                                        standards and guidelines.
 ILO         Global         Addresses occupational health and safety issues             Information,        guidelines,
                            associated with the use of chemicals including small-       capacity building
                            scale mining activities and mercury
 IARC        Global         Addresses the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of            Evaluations on individual
                            chemicals including cadmium, lead and mercury, to           chemicals,        information,
                            humans                                                      guidelines
 IPCS        Global         Addresses health and environmental aspects of chemicals     Information (risk evaluations,
                            including cadmium, lead and mercury                         scientific      data       and
                                                                                        precautionary information)
 OECD        OECD           Addresses among other things issues related to cadmium,     Information, recommendation
             member         lead and mercury containing products and their wastes.
             States
 UNEP -      Global         Addresses heavy metals (including cadmium, lead and         Goal definition, guidelines
 GPA                        mercury)
 UNEP -      Global         Addresses issues of clean fuels in vehicles                 Information,        awareness,
 PCFV                                                                                   capacity building
 UNIDO       Global         Addresses sustainable industrial management including       Information,        guidelines,
                            prevention, monitoring, treatment, recycling and disposal   capacity building
                            of toxic and hazardous chemical wastes and remediation
                            of contaminated sites
 WB          Global         Addresses environmentally sustainable industrial            Information,        guidelines,
                            activities including artisanal mining                       capacity building

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6.4        Sub-regional and regional initiatives
6.4.1 Bamako Convention
253. One  of the regional initiatives in Africa relevant to this study is the Bamako Convention on the
     ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous
     Wastes within Africa which was adopted in Bamako, Mali, on 30 January 1991 and came into
     force on 10 March 1999 63. The objective of the Bamako Convention is to protect human health
     and the environment from dangers posed by hazardous wastes by reducing their generation to a
     minimum in terms of quantity and/or hazard potential. Only States which are members of the
     African Union (AU) can become a Party to the Bamako Convention.
254. All  Parties are obliged to prohibit the import of all hazardous wastes, for any reason, into
     Africa from non-Contracting Parties (article 4.1). The categories of wastes listed in Annex I of
     the Bamako Convention include among others, wastes containing cadmium, lead and mercury.
     The Convention states that the dumping of radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, sewage and
     sewage sludge is prohibited. The Bamako Convention places the duty on the Parties to monitor
     their respective waterways to ensure that no dumping occurs. The Convention prohibits or
     bans the dumping at sea of hazardous wastes, including their incineration at sea and their
     disposal in the seabed and sub-seabed. Each State Party must report annually to the Secretariat
     all the hazardous wastes generated each year.
255. There   are also other initiatives which address general issues of environment including
     pollution caused by hazardous chemicals such as cadmium, lead and mercury. Among these is
     the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN), the New Partnership for
     Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and sub regional cooperation groups such as the East African
     Community (EAC), ECOWAS, etc.
256. Other activities dealing with hazardous chemicals and wastes of products containing hazardous
     chemicals are carried out under the Basel Convention Regional Centres (BCRCs) in Africa as
     well as the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM).

6.4.2 The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN)
257. 257. The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) is a permanent forum
     where African ministers of the environment discuss mainly matters of relevance to the
     environment of the continent64.
258. 258. AMCEN was established in 1985 when African ministers met in Egypt and adopted the
     Cairo Programme for African co-operation. The Conference is convened every second year.
     The objective of AMCEN is to halt environmental degradation and promote sustainable
     development in Africa by enhancing inter-governmental co-operation among African
     countries.



63
   Bamako Convention on the ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement of
Hazardous Wastes within Africa (1991), http://www.imo.org/Safety/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1514&doc_id=7607
64
   AMCEN, http://www.unep.org/roa/Amcen.

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6.4.3 The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
259. The    New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is a vision and strategic framework
       for Africa’s renewal. NEPAD is designed to address the current challenges facing the African
       continent including escalating poverty levels, underdevelopment and the continued
       marginalisation of Africa. The primary objectives of NEPAD are to eradicate poverty; to place
       African countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and
       development; to halt the marginalisation of Africa in the globalisation process and enhance its
       full and beneficial integration into the global economy; and to accelerate the empowerment of
       women. Environment is one of the priority areas of NEPAD65.

6.4.4 East African Community (EAC)
260. The    East African Community (EAC) is the regional intergovernmental organisation of the
       Republics of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Burundi and
       Republic of Rwanda with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania66. EAC aims at widening and
       deepening co-operation among the Partner States in, among others, political, economic and
       social fields for their mutual benefit. Environment is also a priority among the Partner States.

6.4.5 Clean Air Initiative in Sub-Saharan African Cities
261. The    objective of the Clean Air Initiative in Sub-Saharan African Cities (CAI-SSA), launched
       in 1998, is to improve air quality through the reduction of air pollution originating in particular
       from motorized transport.67

6.4.6 The African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and
Production (ARSCP)
262. ARSCP      is a non-governmental, not for profit regional association of sustainable consumption
       and production (SCP) practitioners in Africa. The pioneers of the association are the National
       Cleaner Production Centres. Current membership comprises individuals and institutions
       engaged in SCP activities. The mission of ARSCP is to promote the development of national
       and regional capacities for the effective promotion and implementation of principles of
       sustainable consumption and production principles and to serve as the regional clearinghouse
       for these issues. Currently, it is implementing the African Ten Year Framework of
       Programmes on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP on SCP) which incorporates
       sound management of chemicals.




65
     NEPAD, http://www.nepad.org/2005/files/inbrief.php

66
     EAC, http://www.eac.int/


67
     UNEP Draft final review of scientific information on lead, version of November 2008

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7.0 LABORATORY ANALYSES RESULTS OF SELECTED
PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY


7.1         Sampling procedure
263. Arange of products for the laboratory tests were purchased in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where
    operates a free market environment under an elected civilian Government. Each lot consisted
    of 5 samples which were tested for presence of any quantity of the heavy metals under
    consideration.
264. Criteriafor selecting a product was based on track record of that particular type of product
    with respect to these heavy metals. During product purchase, samples were randomly picked
    from same and/or different shops depending on the availability of the product. Five samples
    were randomly picked for each type of product. Imported products were given preference over
    locally produced goods. For locally produced goods only those manufactured from imported
    raw materials were selected. In total 13 different consumer products were procured as shown
    in Table 7.1 below. All together some 35 tests were carried out.
265. Soilsamples from ‘’Tabata Dumpo’’ also in Dar es Salaam were also sent for testing. This is
    an area of vehicles and batteries repair workshops which is on a hill which descends to a river.
    Soil samples were collected within the facility from 20m, 50m, 100m and 250m from one
    battery repair shop along a descending slope which ends up at the river. Soil samples from the
    river bed, about 500m away from the battery shop was also tested.



7.2         Analysis of samples in various samples at SEAMIC Laboratory

Sample preparation
266. The method of sample preparation used depended entirely on the type of the material.

     Petrol, lipstick, and skin lightening creams
    These were dissolved/diluted with petroleum spirit and the organic solution was made to a 10
    ml ready for analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES).

     Fertilizer and soil sample from recycling site/dump
    An accurately weighed material was taken and digested by aqua regia (3:1 HCl:
    HNO3) and then diluted to 20 ml ready for analysis by the ICP-OES machine.

     Medicated Soaps
    Samples were cut into fine pieces
    A known mass was weighed and dissolved in de-ionised water, then diluted to 50 mls ready for
    analysis by ICP-OES


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Equipment used
267. ULTIMA2 Manufactured and serviced by HORIBA JY, France. Fully automated with user
     friendly auto sampler.
268. Principle:ICP, abbreviation for Inductively Coupled Plasma, is one method of optical
    emission spectrometry. When plasma energy is given to an analysis sample from outside, the
    component elements (atoms) are excited. When the excited atoms return to low energy
    position, emission rays (spectrum rays) are released and the emission rays that correspond to
    the photon wavelength are measured. The element type is determined based on the position of
    the photon rays, and the content of each element is determined based on the rays’ intensity.
269. Special   Features of ICP

  a. Simultaneous, sequential analysis of multiple elements possible
  b. Wide linear region of analytical curve
  c. Few chemical interference or ionization interference, making analysis of high-matrix
     samples possible
  d. High sensitivity (low limit of detection for majority of elements is 10ppb or lower)
  e. High number of measurable elements - elements that are difficult to analyze in atomic
     absorption spectrometry such as Zr, Ta, rare earth, P and B can be easily analyzed
  f. Stable



7.3     Laboratory results
270. The  laboratory results are given in Table 7.1 below. As will be noted from the table, all the
    tested samples have cadmium, lead or mercury content within the acceptable levels. Results for
    soil samples were compared with soil quality standards of few countries (given in Table 7.2).




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Table 7.1: Sample results of products tested for presence of cadmium, lead and mercury
S/N     Type of       Corporate            Brand    Manufacturer/          No of        Heavy Metal Concentration
        sample        Name/Mark                     Country of origin      Samples
                                                                           Tested
                                                                                            Cd           Pb        Hg
                                                                                          (ppm)        (ppm)      (ppb)
1       Car paint     Master Paint,                 National Paints            5          <0.01        <0.01
                      Synthetic/ Enamel Gloss 1,    Factories Co .Ltd,
                      670 vermilion,                UAE

2.      Household     Goldstar                      Goldstar Tanzania          5          <0.01        <0.01
        paint         Kiboko water paint            Kiboko Industries          1          <0.01        <0.01
3.      Gasoline      Kobil                         Middle East                1          <0.01        <0.01
                      Camel                         Middle East                1          <0.01        <0.01
                      Oilcom                        Middle East                1          <0.01        <0.01
                      Engen                         Middle East                1          <0.01        <0.01
                      Shell                         Middle East                1          <0.01        <0.01
4.      Toilet/me     Medsoft dedorant ,            India                      5                                  <0.01
        dicated       Trichloro Carbanilider USA
        soap
5       Beauty        Teint Clair, Yous Types de    Fermco sprl                5                                  <0.01
        soap          Peaux                         Rep. of Congo
6.      Skin          Skin Glow, Fairness Crème     Tanzania                   5                                  <0.01
        cream
7       Lipstick      Personi 314                   India                      5                                  <0.01
8       Switch        Electric bell switch, UK                                 1                                  <0.01
        relay                                       England                    1

        Overflow      15(8)A250V~U T80 >PP<                                    1                                  <0.01
        switch
        Electronic    Electronic Ballast (choke),   China                      1                                  <0.01
        switch        hongyu
9.      PVC pipes     Tee, IPS MYTU dia ½                                      1          <0.01        0.26
                      Tee, IPS MYTU dia ½                                      1          <0.01        <0.01
                      Tee, IPS MYTU dia ½           India                      1          <0.01        0.01
                      Tee, IPS MYTU dia ½                                      1          <0.01        0.19
                      Tee, IPS MYTU dia ½                                      1          <0.01        0.03
10.     Toys          Toy 1, xie yu No A360                                    1          <0.01        <0.01
         (Funny       Toy 2, xie yu No A360                                    1          <0.01        <0.01
        Airplane      Toy 3, xie yu No A360         China                      1          <0.01        <0.01
        battery       Toy 4, xie yu No A360                                    1          <0.01        <0.01
        operated)     Toy 5, xie yu No A360                                    1          <0.01        <0.01
11      Phosphate     Minjingu Phosphates P205-     Tanzania                   1           0.12
        Fertilizers   28-30%

        Phosphate Di-Ammonium Phosphate           South Africa            1          17.14
        Fertilizers (DAP) 18-46-0
12.     Floor       Red cement floor paint        India                   1           0.27      50.56             2.87
        paint
13      Dumpsite/ Soil sample at 20m                                      1           0.65      263.71            0.82
        battery     Soil sample at 50m            Tabata Dar es           1           1.00      131.52            0.76
        reconditio Soil sample at 100m            Salaam                  1           0.20      102.16            0.46
        ning site   Soil sample at 250m                                   1           0.05      11.01             <0.01
        soil        Soil sample at 500m                                   1           0.96      65.40             0.64
Note: Samples analyzed by Southern and Eastern African Mineral Centre (SEAMIC), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


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Table 7.2: Contaminant Limits for Habitat and Agriculture Soil:

Parameter                                        Upper Limit (mg/kg)

                          Netherlands1       Thailand2         France              Tanzania
Cadmium                        1                37                                    1
Lead                          50               400               400                 200
Mercury                       0.5               23                                    2
Source:
1
  VROM,1983, Leidrand Bodemsanering – Guidelines for soil clean-up – Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Planning
                 and Environment, Soil, Water and Chemical Substances Department, The Hague, Netherlands.
2
  http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/en_reg_std_soil01.html#s1


271. As noted in Table 7.1 and Table 7.2 the concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in the
    tested soil samples were within the acceptable levels. .




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8.0 CASE STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
AND THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CADMIUM, LEAD AND
MERCURY AND PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM, LEAD
AND MERCURY
272. Thischapter presents some cases studies showing good and bad management practices of
    wastes from products containing cadmium, lead and mercury in Africa as well as impacts to
    human health and the environment which have resulted from activities or the trade of these
    products.



8.1     Case Study No. 1: E-waste management in Kenya

Country: Kenya

Problem
273. The electronic and information technology industry is currently the largest and fastest
     manufacturing industry in the world. As a consequence of this remarkable growth combined
     with the phenomenon of rapid obsolescence of products, discarded electronic equipment
     known as e-waste is now recognized as the fastest growing waste stream in developed
     countries. Electronic equipment contains a number of toxic materials including cadmium,
     lead and mercury. Thus electronic wastes are technically hazardous wastes and should be
     managed properly as recognized under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
     Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.
Action Taken
274. In order to prevent significant environmental problems associated with the growing waste
     stream of e-waste, the Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) has opened East Africa's first e-
     waste management plant in Embakasi, Kenya, to handle the region's electronic recycling
     needs. The monitors which are considered toxic will be shipped to Fair International in
     Norway, which has the expensive equipment required to dispose of the monitors.

Lessons learned
275. This case study demonstrates one way of a good method for waste management. Considering
     that most African countries are in the developing group, the project demonstrates a method
     which other countries could adopt to solve their e-waste problems.




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8.2 Case Study No. 2:                       Bridging the digital gap vs. creating a digital
dump

Country: Nigeria

Problem
276. The growth rate of information technology in developing countries like Nigeria is similarly
     increasing due to among other issues, the natural hunger among the populace to stay abreast
     technological developments in order to communicate and compete in this globalized world.
     However, due to financial limitations in most of the people in developing countries, the growth
     of information technology in developing countries has been contributed to a larger extend by
     importation of used or second-hand products from developed countries whose consumers are
     more than happy to find buyers for their used products. This could be regarded as a ‘win-win’
     situation whereby the rich countries from the North are sweeping out their e-waste mountains
     which pollute their environment while at the same time benefit those in the South who are too
     poor to afford a brand new equipment. As a result, the trade in used electronic equipment has
     become a big business.
  Action taken
277. TheNigerian government is working to abolish the import of second-hand goods. Ironically,
   Nigeria has already ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement
   of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

  Assessment of action
278. Study conducted by Basel Action Network (BAN) in Nigeria in 2005 revealed that containers
     loaded with computers keep coming to Nigeria and most of them are non-functional or have
     very short life span. Large amounts of televisions, cellular phones and computer scraps from
     North America and Europe are being dumped into Nigeria. Consequently, these fast growing
     hazardous wastes end up in dumpsites or landfills and pollute the environment in developing
     countries. Electronic equipment contains a number of toxic materials including cadmium, lead
     and mercury. Thus electronic wastes are technically hazardous wastes and should be managed
     properly as recognized under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
     Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Exporters from the west on the other
     hand continue to violate the Basel Convention by calling electronic waste as second-hand
     products. The Basel Action Network says that if all parties involved don’t take responsibility
     soon, this toxic trade nightmare will never end.

Lessons learned
279. Trade of used electronics equipment is actually a trade of hazardous wastes which should be
     controlled by the Basel Convention. These e-wastes often end up dumped in countries with
     little or no regulation of its recycling or disposal. What we are seeing in Nigeria is
     unfortunately a harbinger of things to come; it is soon to be the future in the entire developing
     world. Therefore efforts should be made to test all electronic equipment before shipment to
     ensure that they comply with the Basel convention.



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8.3 Case Study No 3                         E-waste environmental contamination in
Ghana

Country: Ghana

Problem
280. Electronic products such as laptops and mobile phones contain hazardous chemicals and
     materials. Thus recycling or disposal of these products can pose serious threats to human
     health and the environment if not well managed. Since, many developing countries have no
     restrictions for importing used electronic products, these e-wastes often end up dumped in
     countries with little or no regulations for its recycling or disposal. Exporting hazardous e-
     waste is illegal in the European Union (EU), however the US Environment Protection Agency
     classifies it as legitimate recycling.

281. Asthe global market for electronic goods expands, and the lifespan of many of those products
    gets shorter, there has been a rapid growth in electronic waste (e-waste). The UN estimates that
    20-50 million tonnes of e-waste is produced globally every year, making e-waste the fastest
    growing waste stream in the world.

282. In2006 millions of tonnes of obsolete electronics products were unaccounted for in the US and
    EU amounting to about 6.6 million tonnes. It is believed that some of these e-wastes are still
    stored in people’s homes; some disposed of in landfills; some incinerated while some are
    exported to developing countries where they are considered useful. After a short useful
    lifespan these products become obsolete.

Action taken
283. At Agbogbloshie, in Ghana, the obsolete electronics products are manually dismantled at
     numerous small workshops within the market to remove valuable parts. Some parts are burned
     to remove plastics from valuable metals. Materials of no value are dumped along with other
     waste. Much of the work is carried out by children, some as young as 5, with no protective
     equipment and using basic tools, or bare hands.

Assessment
284. The Greenpeace team documented in Ghana e-waste from European, Japanese, and US brands,
     including: Philips, Sony, Microsoft, Nokia, Dell, Canon and Siemens. Labels revealed the
     equipment came from a range of organizations such as Den Kongelige Livgarde – the Danish
     Royal Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The team saw containers of e-
     waste from Germany, Korea, and Switzerland and the Netherlands being opened at Tema
     harbour; the biggest port in Ghana. The container numbers revealed that all the European
     containers had been shipped via Antwerp in Belgium

285. Greenpeace  experts collected soil and sediment samples from two e-waste recycling sites: the
    Agbogbloshie scrap market in the capital city, Accra, the main centre for e-waste recycling in
    the country; and from a scrap yard in the smaller city of Korforidua, which were thought to be
    typical of the numerous small-scale e-waste recycling workshops in Ghana. The soil samples
    were analyzed at one University of Exeter in Britain.


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286. The  study found that many soil and sediment samples contained numerous hazardous
    substances: including very high levels of the toxic metal lead and other chemicals such as the
    phthalates, DEHP and DBP, which are known to interfere with human sexual reproduction;
    and chlorinated dioxins known to promote cancer. Though the study did not attempt to
    quantify the damage caused to the environment or human health, the results indicated that
    there may be substantial exposure of workers and bystanders to hazardous chemicals.

    Lessons learned
           trade of hazardous waste is being practiced by many countries, especially developed
287. Illegal
    countries, under the legitimate term of recycling or reuse. Many of the old computers, monitors
    and television sets that end up in Ghana come from the European Union, despite laws there
    that prohibit the export of such hazardous materials. The materials are exported as "second
    hand goods" and purportedly meant to be reusable. But it has been reported that 25-75% of
    “second hand goods” imported into Africa are broken and cannot be reused again. This simply
    means dumping useless equipment containing hazardous chemicals on the poor.

288. Therefore in order to end this dumping of toxic chemicals in developing countries, there is
    need for electronics manufacturers to eliminate hazardous chemicals from their products, and
    to take responsibility for their products over their entire lifecycle; from design to use to waste
    disposal, otherwise this dumping of toxic chemicals will not stop. Some countries and regions
    including the EU have introduced a legislation to restrict the use of certain hazardous
    substances in electronic goods and regulate the collection and recycling of e-waste. The
    regulation is however limited, as it excludes many hazardous substances used in electronics
    and many countries fail to fully address the management of e-waste. An international and
    more comprehensive legislation must therefore be put in place.



8.4       Case No 4:               Lead intoxication in Thiaroye sur Mer, Senegal

    Country: Senegal

    Problem
289. About 70% of the lead manufactured worldwide goes into car batteries. As the demand for
    cars increases, the demand for lead-acid car batteries also increases. Although North America
    and Europe continue to be the world's biggest buyers of cars, fewer and fewer car batteries are
    made there. Both the manufacturing and the recycling of these batteries have now been moved
    mostly to developing countries such as China, India and Africa where labor is cheaper and
    environmental protections regulations are weak, and/or at least more leniently enforced.

290. Indeveloped countries, recycling of lead batteries is regulated. Most states in North America
    and Europe require anyone who sells lead-acid batteries to collect spent ones and ship them to
    recycling plants licensed and regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. However,
    this is not the case in the third world like Senegal, where there are hardly any attempts to
    control the movement of these products.

       Thiaroye sur Mer, a suburb of Dakar, Senegal, is a town of about 100,000 people. Like
291. The
    many African families, most of the families here are very poor. Most of the people depend on

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    petty agriculture and fishing for their livelihoods. For years, the town's blacksmiths extracted
    lead from car batteries and remolded it into weights for fishing nets. This is a dangerous and
    messy process in which workers crack open the batteries with a hatchet and pull small pieces
    of lead out of skin-burning acid. This work left the dirt of Thiaroye dense with small lead
    particles; consequently the soil in the town became heavily contaminated with lead due to
    informal recycling of lead batteries.

292. When   the world price of lead increased in recent years, traders from India came and offered to
    buy bits of lead particles from the dirt soil by the bag for 60 cents a kilogram. So the locals in
    Thiaroye sur Mer, mostly women, started to dig the dirt soil and carried bags of it back home
    for sifting in order to separate the lead particles. The sifting, which was done in the presence of
    children, created a lot of lead dust. On the other hand, the same business created more and
    quick income to the families than selling vegetables at the market. However, as the sifting
    continued, sickness among the children in the town started and eventually some died. About
    20 children were reported to have died with same symptoms between October 2007 and March
    2008.

     Action taken
293. The government of Senegal through the health and environmental authorities conducted blood
     tests on 71 siblings and mothers of the dead children in March 2008 and found extremely high
     blood lead levels of 1,000 micrograms per liter (just 100 micrograms per liter is enough to
     impair brain development in children).

    Assessment
294. Following  a formal request from Senegal, the World Health Organization (WHO) deployed in
    June 2008 an international team consisting of a clinical toxicologist, an environmental health
    specialist and analytical chemist to investigate further this outbreak and to assist the Ministry
    of Health in managing the outbreak. The team conducted clinical examinations and further
    environmental investigations in Thiaroye sur Mer. Clinical examinations confirmed continuing
    high blood lead concentrations in the original group studied, as well as in a randomly-selected
    group of adults and children who were not involved in lead recycling. Many children showed
    evidence of neurological damage. Environmental investigations found very high
    concentrations of lead both outside and inside peoples' homes. These have been mapped to an
    area inhabited by approximately 950 people, who are continuously exposed through ingestion
    and inhalation of lead-contaminated dust.

295. Thefollowing are some of the key findings of the WHO mission to Thiaroye sur Mer in June
    2008:

   Out of the 47 children examined, 25 showed evidence of neurological damage including, in
    some cases, developmental regression;

   Blood lead concentrations in those children ranged from 439 g/L to 6139 g/L. The lowest
    level was in a 3 month old baby who was presumably exposed in utero;

   40 children had a blood lead concentration above 700 g/L, for which immediate removal from
    exposure and chelation therapy was advised;


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   An additional 6 children had a blood lead concentration above 450 g/L, for which removal
    from exposure and chelation therapy was also advised;

   Of the 32 children whose blood lead was measured in March 2008, 12 had increased blood
    lead concentrations, indicating continuing exposure;

   Lead concentrations of up to 200,000 ppm were found in NGagne Diaw. In areas previously
    decontaminated by the Ministry of Environment, lead was measured at 100,000 ppm which is
    much higher than the maximum permissible concentration level in France of 400 ppm in
    residential areas;

   Measurements performed inside houses also showed high levels of lead up to 14,000 ppm.

    Lessons learned
296. Recycling/recovery of valuable products from waste is a good economic strategy for reducing
    poverty but it can also be very disastrous when not properly managed and controlled.
    Governments must establish waste recycling regulations for purposes of protecting the human
    health and the environment. Monitoring of recycling sites or activities is essential.


8.5 Case Study No 5:                        Dump sites in Africa: A hazard to children
and the environment

    Country: Kenya

     Problem
297. Human activities normally generate different waste streams including solid wastes, which need
     to be well controlled and managed in order to prevent negative impacts to the environment and
     human health. Huge amounts of solid wastes are being generated in municipalities and cities
     due to high populations in these urban centres. Thus environmental disposal of municipal
     solid waste is very important in order to avoid adverse effects to the environment and human
     health. Municipal solid wastes are normally disposed of in land-fills or dump sites. Thus local
     authorities are supposed to set aside sites for disposal of rubbish. However, many countries in
     developing world lack proper solid waste disposal facilities. Waste sorting and separation is
     hardly practiced before disposal. Existing land-fills/dump sites such as the Dandora dumping
     site in Nairobi, are uncontrolled and unmanaged. This means that even hazardous wastes such
     as waste products containing lead / cadmium and mercury are not given the required handling
     and treatment to prevent the potential health and environmental effects caused by these metals.

298. TheDandora dumping site in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the largest waste dumps in Africa. The
    30-acre dumping site receives 2,000 tonnes of rubbish every day, including plastics, rubber and
    lead paint treated wood, generated by some 4.5 million people living the Kenyan capital City,
    Nairobi.

299. Every day, scores of people, including children, from the nearby slums and low-income
    residential areas use the dump to find food, recyclables and other valuables they can sell as a
    source of income, at the same time inhaling the noxious fumes from routine waste burning and

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    methane fires. Waste often finds its way into the Nairobi River that runs just meters away from
    the dumpsite, polluting water used by local residents and farmers downstream

    Action taken
300. A study, commissioned by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), examined 328 children
    aged 2-18 living around the Dandora waste dump and its impacts on public health and the
    environment. Experts from the University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University, Kenyatta National
    Hospital and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute as well as local community leaders from
    St. John's Catholic Church in Korogocho supported the study. The study also compared soil
    samples from the site with another location just outside of Nairobi. Soil and water samples
    were analyzed for heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium, and persistent
    organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Blood and
    urine samples were analyzed for the same pollutants and for signs of diseases associated with
    them

     Assessment
301. Half of the children tested had concentrations of lead in their blood exceeding internationally
     accepted levels, while 42 percent of soil samples recorded lead levels almost 10 times higher
     than what is considered unpolluted soil (over 400 parts per million (ppm) compared to 50
     ppm).

302. Children have been exposed to pollutants such as heavy metals and toxic substances through
    soil, water and air (smoke from waste burning) with implications for respiratory,
    gastrointestinal and dermatological or skin diseases. Almost half of the children tested were
    suffering from respiratory diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma.

303. Theresults show dangerously high levels of heavy metals, especially lead, mercury and
    cadmium, at the dumpsite, in the surrounding environment and in local residents. Lead and
    cadmium levels found on the dumpsite were 13,500 ppm and 1,058 ppm, respectively,
    compared to the action levels in The Netherlands of 150 ppm/5 ppm for these heavy metals.

304. One soil sample from the banks of Nairobi River indicates high levels of mercury (over 18
    ppm against the safe level of 2 ppm). The soil surface samples also recorded cadmium
    concentration 50 times higher than in unpolluted soil (53 ppm compared to 1 ppm). Health
    wise, 50 percent of the children had blood lead levels equal to or above the internationally
    accepted action levels of 10 micrograms per decilitre of blood, including two children with
    concentrations of over 29 and 32 micrograms. Low haemoglobin levels and iron deficiency
    anaemia, some of the known symptoms of lead poisoning, have been detected in 50 and 30
    percent of the children, respectively. Exposure to high lead levels is also linked with a wide
    range of other ill effects including damage to the nervous system and the brain, whilst
    cadmium poisoning causes damage to internal organs, especially kidneys, and cancers.

Lessons learned
305. The poor are the best recyclers in the world, nothing of value goes to waste. Many local
     people around the Dandora dump site depend on the wastes. However, uunrestricted and
     uncontrolled waste dumping is causing serious threat to their health and the environment. Thus
     a controlled and well-managed waste processing facility should be established. This will not


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    only reduce health and environment impacts but also generate jobs and income for the local
    community.

306. The challenge is for the authorities to minimize or prevent the level of hazardous materials
    coming to the dump site in the first place and better treatment of toxic and medical wastes
    before disposal. Safe and sustainable conditions for the people working on, and living near, the
    dump site need to be put in place for purposes of assisting the poor people who depend on this
    waste and promote the recycling and reuse of this waste as a safer opportunity both
    economically and environmentally.




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        ANNEX 1A: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY




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     1. BACKGROUND

     The UNEP Governing Council, at its 23rd session in February 2005, requested UNEP to undertake a
     review of scientific information on lead and cadmium, focusing especially on long-range
     environmental transport, in order to inform future discussion of the Governing Council on the
     possible need for global action in relation to lead and cadmium. Interim scientific reviews were made
     available to the Governing Council for consideration at its 24th regular session in February 2007 and
     they can be accessed at http://www.chem.unep.ch/Pb_and_Cd/SR/Interim_reviews.htm . The Interim
     scientific reviews identified some essential gaps in information, in particular, the need to examine
     global flow of lead and cadmium in products.

     UNEP Governing Council decided in February 2007 ( Decision 24/3 III ) to encourage efforts by
     Governments and others to reduce risks to human health and the environment of lead and cadmium
     throughout the whole life cycle of those substances; and requested UNEP to provide available
     information on lead and cadmium to address the data and information gaps identified in the Interim
     Reviews, and to compile an inventory of existing risk management measures; with a further report back
     to the next Governing Council at its 25th regular session in 2009.

     The aim of this study is to fill some of the data and information gaps identified in the Interim scientific
     reviews on lead and cadmium and for mercury information gaps identified elsewhere.

     Lead, cadmium and mercury are used and traded globally as metals in various products.

     The major use of lead in recent years is in lead batteries, accounting for 78 percentage of reported global
     consumption in 200368. Other major application areas are lead sheets, ammunition, alloys and cable
     sheathing. Other uses include plastics, paints, electrical and electronic equipment and certain toys.

     Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of zinc and, to a lesser
     degree, as a by-product of lead and copper production. Cadmium is used and traded globally as a metal
     and as a component in various products. This is the case in particular for its dominant use -NiCd
     batteries- but it is also used for many applications in alloys, plastics, plating and in electronic and
     electrical equipment. A special issue of concern that is not addressed in this project is the presence of
     cadmium in phosphate fertilizers.

     Main source categories of products containing mercury includes batteries, dental amalgams, measuring
     and control devices (largely medical sector), electric and electronic switches, skin lighting creams and
     cosmetics. The rate of decline in mercury demand in the future will depend primarily upon reductions in
     the battery, electrical product, and measuring device manufacturing sectors, and in dental use. These
     sectors represent the greatest potential for short-term declines because alternatives are readily available
     and are of equal or better quality. For these sectors, the challenges are not technical but relate to the rate
     of and incentive to phase out.

     As awareness of the adverse impacts of lead, cadmium and mercury has increased, many uses have
     been reduced significantly in industrialized countries. In addition, as public awareness has grown,
     waste management systems have increasingly been put in place in industrialized countries to reduce
     releases of these three heavy metals to the environment. However, some of the uses of lead, cadmium


68
  Interim review of scientific information on lead –Version of October 2006- Figure 6
(http://www.chem.unep.ch/Pb_and_Cd/SR/Interim_reviews.htm )

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   and mercury which have been phased out in industrialized countries have continued in developing
   countries, and even increased in some less developed regions and countries.

   A specific problem faced by developing countries is the import of new and used products containing
   lead, cadmium and mercury, including electrical and electronic equipment and batteries, since some
   countries lack the capacity to manage and dispose of such products in an environmentally sound
   manner. Regulations and restrictions are less comprehensive or less well enforced in some
   developing regions. This has resulted in some of the health and environmental risks, local and
   regional, that accompany the use, management (including collection, storage, recycling and
   treatment) and disposal of products containing lead, cadmium and mercury. These hazardous disposal
   practices include open burning and indiscriminate dumping in sensitive ecosystems such as rivers and
   wetlands.


   2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF WORK

   The main objective of this project is to analyze the trade, use and disposal of products containing
   lead, cadmium and mercury in Africa in order to assess how this can lead to adverse human and
   environmental effects due to the release of these toxic elements. The study will be the basis for
   identifying measures that need to be taken on a regional and global level.

   The full range of products should be assessed in order to be able to identify and focus on types of
   products that constitutes the main hazards to health and environment.

   The study will consist of a comprehensive collection, compilation and analysis of data on trade and
   transfers of products to Africa based on available databases and sources. The study should quantify
   the extent of the problem to be able to identify what measures need to be taken on a national, regional
   and global level to reduce the risks to human health and the environment.

   The study should include case studies to describe concrete examples of how some products
   containing lead, cadmium and mercury can have adverse effects on the human health and the
   environment in Africa, but also examples of sound management of products containing these toxic
   metals.

   The study is to be written in English.

   UNEP will be involved in the work through teleconferences in order to follow progress and discuss
   how the results are presented in the study.

   Issues to be covered
   The following elements should be covered in the study:

        (a)      Background and context of the work (incl. a reference to the UNEP Governing
                 Council mandates, specific objectives, scope and coverage of the study);
        (b)      Brief overview of lead, cadmium and mercury and products containing lead,
                 cadmium and mercury;
        (c)      Brief overview of possible effects on human health and the environment from
                 products containing lead, cadmium and mercury;
        (d)      Brief description of production, use and trade patterns of lead, cadmium and
                 mercury containing products (description of type of products, quantities, etc.) in a


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                  global perspective and with emphasis on Africa (incl. international trade to Africa
                  and trade routes within Africa);
        (e)       Brief overview or examples of environmentally sound initiatives taken in Africa for
                  collection, recycling and disposal of used products containing lead, cadmium and
                  mercury;
        (f)       Key organizations and databases dealing with lead, cadmium and trade statistics
                  (data collection, reporting, scope and limitations of trade data);
        (g)       Screening analysis of selected products to determine presence of lead, cadmium
                  and/or mercury;
        (h)       Case studies including a description of effects on human health and the
                  environment from products containing lead, cadmium and mercury within the
                  African context; and
        (i)       Glossary of terms and reference list.

   A more detailed chapter outline should be developed and approved by UNEP Chemicals within the
   2nd to 3 ½ month. The report should be aimed to be less than 80 pages total.

   Sources of information

   The sources of information to be used to develop the report are:

             Information from Governments, IGOs, NGOs and the private sector regarding trade
              information of lead, cadmium and mercury containing products. This information is/will be
              made available on a running basis on a dedicated web-page;
             Publications, articles and reports of relevance to lead, cadmium and mercury contained
              products identified through a search of the scientific literature;
             Additional available information, publications and reports publicly available on websites of
              various Governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; and
             Data bases, included but not limited, to the UN Comtrade database (exports and imports of
              reported lead, cadmium and mercury containing products), the International Lead and Zinc
              Study Group (ILZSG), The International Cadmium Association (ICdA), the Secretariat of the
              Basel Convention for (national reporting on transboundary movements of hazardous wastes
              and other wastes for the year 2004 with special focus on under cover wastes that can become
              second hand products) and the World Customs Organization database.

   Expected output

   It is expected that the study will include a review of relevant materials and databases, compilation
   and assessment of collected information, drafting, language editing and final formatting of the study
   (word version with other relevant supportive documentation e.g. excel sheets, figures, tables, etc).

   The development of this study is to be performed over a period of approximately 8 months, in
   accordance with the workplan and timetable given in the next section.

   3. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK TO BE UNDERTAKEN

   The work can be organized in the main tasks as described below, together with suggested deadlines,
   to be adjusted as necessary during the course of the work:

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                                                                       TO BE                EXPECTED
                                                                    AVAILABLE                OUTPUT
                                TASKS
                                                                    BY THE END
                                                                        OF
       A.      Data collection (briefly review materials by
               performing literature search, collect and review                             Summarized
                                                                     2nd to 3 ½
               identified materials and download 2000-2005 data                              background
                                                                       month
               bases from the suggested different sources of                            information and data
               information)
       B.      Develop more detailed study outline (to be
               discussed and agreed with UNEP Chemicals by           2nd to 3 ½
                                                                                       Detailed study outline
               taking into consideration the tentative outline in      month
               these terms of references)
       C.      UNEP Chemicals providing to the contractor                                Information from
                                                                     5th month
               input received from GOV, IGOs and NGOs                                         UNEP
       D.      Develop of the first draft of the study, including
                                                                     6th month         First draft of the study
               suggested case studies
       E.      UNEP Chemicals providing comments to the
                                                                     6 ½ to 7th          Second draft of the
               draft study and the contractor incorporating
                                                                      month                    study
               those comments and developing a 2nd draft
                                                                                          Incorporated
       F.      Incorporation of final comments and results            7th – 7 ½
                                                                                        comments and case
               (including case studies)                                month
                                                                                             studies
                                                                                          Final study to be
       G.      Contractor submitting final study                     8th month
                                                                                             submitted
       H.      Contractor submitting final certified financial       8th to 8 ½             Final certified
               statement                                               month             financial statement



   UNEP Chemicals will contribute to the work as follows:

           Establish and ensure all communication with the GOV, IGOs and NGOs with regard to the
            requested information (incl. developing a questionnaire for requests of information);
           Put all information and submissions received from Governments, IGOs and NGOs up on a
            dedicated webpage to allow easy electronic access for the contractor.
           Draft an introductory chapter providing necessary background and context;
           Provide guidance with regard to the direction of the work, through teleconferences hosted
            monthly and/or by a country visit;
           Provide comments and input to the draft documents according to the agreed workplan;
           Publish, print and distribute the finalized study.

   4. COSTING. To be further discussed




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .




                              ANNEX 1B : QUESTIONNAIRE




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cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .




1.0     CONTACT DETAILS
        Please indicate the country or organization submitting the information and provide a
        contact institution and/or person, with full contact details for eventual follow-up questions.

        Name of country or organization……………………………………………………………
        Name and address of contact institution and/or person (physical address, telephone, email
        in case follow-up is needed)…………………………………………………………………
        ………………………………………………………………………………………………

        Date:………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.0     TIMEFRAME AND UNITS FOR THE DATA

        Comprehensive trade statistics for lead, cadmium and mercury for United Nations member
        states are publicly available through the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
        Database (Comtrade). Comtrade contains detailed export and import statistics reported by
        statistical authorities of close to 200 countries and area. These data are processed into a
        standard format with a consistent coding and valuation. The data are then stored in a
        computerized data base system, called UN Comtrade. For many countries the data
        coverage starts as far back as 1962 and goes up to the most recent completed years. The
        data can be accessed at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/comtrade/ .

        In addition there are a few other commercial statistical database maintained by key
        organizations that provide trade data on lead, cadmium and mercury. These include, among
        others, Eurostat (the statistical office of the European Communities) and the United States
        International Trade Commission, which focus on statistics for trade between their own
        region/country and other countries.

        In connection with the study on possible effects on human health and the environment in
        Africa of the trade of products containing lead, cadmium and mercury, while going through
        UN Comtrade website, it was noted that some countries, especially African countries have
        never submitted their trade data or, if submitted, data were not in the standard format of
        Comtrade.

        As background information to the study, we would like you to provide information and
        input relevant to:

             1. Countries dealing with production/use/export/import/re-export of products
                containing lead, cadmium and mercury to and within Africa, which have either
                already been submitted to UN Comtrade or which have been reported to other
                databases in your country, including to customs authorities
             2. Data requested should be covering the period 2000-2006 and amounts should be
                given with a unit clearly defined, preferably in kilogramme (kg) and not in pieces
                or not Applicable (N.A) or zero.


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3.    TRADE OF PRODUCTS CONTAINNING LEAD, CADMIUM AND MERCURY.

3.1 Products containing lead

Does your country have any system in place to register the intended use of products containing
lead before import/export/re-export? YES / NO . If YES what kind of systems are in place?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

During the collection and reporting of trade statistics in your country, is there any requirement to
identify the final destination or use of products containing lead being transported?. YES / NO. If
YES, please give details and respond through the relevant tables below.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Give names of the trade partners to your country of products containing lead.

        Import partners: …………………………………………………………………………..

        Export partners: ………………………………………………........................................

        Re-exported partners:…………………………………………………………………...



Please provide data on the production, use, export, import and re-export of products containing
lead for the year 2000-2006 to Africa and within Africa, as indicated in the following tables:




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)
                                                               2000                                        2001                                        2002
Products containing lead                       P        U        E        I       R        P        U        E        I       R        P        P       R        I      R

Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)     89765   89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765     89765   89765   89765   89765
Lead-acid electric accumulators except for
vehicles
Ash or residues containing mainly lead
Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
Lead monoxide (litharge, massicot)
Anti-knock preparations based on lead
comps.
Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead
powders and flakes.
Lead waste and scraps
Pencils lead, black/coloured
Leaded gasoline sludges & leaded anti-
knock compound sludges
Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings
(for example, couplings, elbows, sleeves).
Lead and lead alloys unwrought
Lead and lead alloys, worked
Lead carbonates
Electronic computers


Second hand electric and electronic
products such as computers which might
containing lead
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain lead.
Any additional products containing lead
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.

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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)
                                                               2003                                        2004                                        2005
Products containing lead                       P        U        E        I       R        P        U        E        I       R        P        P       R        I      R

Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)     89765   89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765     89765   89765   89765   89765
Lead-acid electric accumulators except for
vehicles
Ash or residues containing mainly lead
Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
Lead monoxide (litharge, massicot)
Anti-knock preparations based on lead
comps.
Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead
powders and flakes.
Lead waste and scraps
Pencils lead, black/coloured
Leaded gasoline sludges & leaded anti-
knock compound sludges
Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings
(for example, couplings, elbows, sleeves).
Lead and lead alloys unwrought
Lead and lead alloys, worked
Lead carbonates
Electronic computers


Second hand electric and electronic
products such as computers which might
containing lead
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain lead.
Any additional products containing lead
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.

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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)
                                                                                                                             2006
Products containing lead                                                                                      P       U       E        I        R

Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)                                                                    89765   89765   89765   89765     89765

Lead-acid electric accumulators except for vehicles
Ash or residues containing mainly lead
Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
Lead monoxide (litharge, massicot)
Anti-knock preparations based on lead comps.
Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders and flakes.
Lead waste and scraps
Pencils lead, black/coloured
Leaded gasoline sludges & leaded anti-knock compound sludges
Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (for example, couplings, elbows, sleeves).
Lead and lead alloys unwrought
Lead and lead alloys, worked
Lead carbonates
Electronic computers


Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might containing lead
Second hand mobile phones that might contain lead.
Any additional products containing lead that are treaded in your country? Please specify and give details.




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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing cadmium, lead
and mercury                                                                                                                   .

3.2   Products containing cadmium

Does your country have any system in place to register the intended use of products containing cadmium
before import/export? YES / NO . If YES what kind of systems are in place?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
During the collection and reporting of trade statistics in your country, is there any requirement to identify
the final destination or use of products containing cadmium being transported?. YES / NO. If YES, please
give details and respond through the relevant tables below.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Give names of the trade partners of products containing cadmium in your country.

        Import Partners: ……………………………………………………………………………………….

        Export Partners: ……………………………………………………………….....................................

        Re-exported partners:…………………………………………………………………………………...



Please provide data on the production, use, export, import and re-export of products containing cadmium for
the year 2000-2006 to Africa and within Africa, as indicated in the following tables:




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)


                                                                 2000                                        2001                                      2002
Products containing cadmium                      P        U        E        I       R        P        U       E        I        R        P      P       R        I      R
                                               89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765   89765   89765   89765
Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
Pigments and preparations based on cadmium
compounds
Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and
scrap; powders
Anti-oxidising preps. & oth. compound
stabilisers for rubber/plastics
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic
Phosphatic fertilizers and materials
Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture
of iron/steel) containing
antimony/beryllium/cadmium/chromium/their
mixtures

Second hand electric and electronic products
such as computers which might containing
cadmium
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain cadmium
Any additional products containing cadmium
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)

                                                                 2003                                        2004                                      2005
Products containing cadmium                      P        U        E        I       R        P        U       E        I        R        P      P       R        I      R
                                               89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765   89765   89765   89765
Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
Pigments and preparations based on cadmium
compounds
Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and
scrap; powders
Anti-oxidising preps. & oth. compound
stabilisers for rubber/plastics
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic
Phosphatic fertilizers and materials
Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture
of iron/steel) containing
antimony/beryllium/cadmium/chromium/their
mixtures

Second hand electric and electronic products
such as computers which might containing
cadmium
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain cadmium
Any additional products containing cadmium
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)

                                                                                                                                               2006
Products containing cadmium                                                                                                   P        U        E        I      R
                                                                                                                            89765   89765      89765   89765   89765
Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
Pigments and preparations based on cadmium compounds
Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and scrap; powders
Anti-oxidising preps. & oth. compound stabilisers for rubber/plastics
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic
Phosphatic fertilizers and materials
Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture of iron/steel) containing antimony/beryllium/cadmium/chromium/their mixtures

Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might containing cadmium
Second hand mobile phones that might contain cadmium
Any additional products containing cadmium that are treaded in your country? Please specify and give details.




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and mercury



3.3   Products containing mercury

Does your country have any system in place to register the intended use of products containing mercury
before import/export? YES / NO . If YES what kind of systems are in place?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
During the collection and reporting of trade statistics in your country, is there any requirement to identify
the final destination or use of products containing mercury being transported?. YES / NO.
If YES, please give details and respond through the relevant tables below.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Give names of the trade partners of products containing mercury in your country.

        Import Partners: ……………………………………………………………………………………….

        Export Partners: ……………………………………………………………….....................................

        Re-exported partners:…………………………………………………………………………………...



Please provide data on the production, use, export, import and re-export of products containing mercury for
the year 2000-2006 to Africa and within Africa, as indicated in the following tables:




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)

                                                                 2000                                        2001                                      2002
Products containing mercury                      P        U        E        I       R        P        U       E        I        R        P      P       R        I      R
                                                89765   89765    89765   89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765   89765   89765   89765
Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultra-violet
lamps), mercury/sodium vapour ...
Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric
oxide
ELEC.SWITCH.RELAY.CIRCUT
Input/output units (of auto. data processing
machines), whether or not cont. storage units
in the same housing
Radio and TV transmitters, television
cameras
Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl.
video monitor cathode-ray tubes, black &
white/oth. monochrome
Thermionic and cold cathode valves and
tubes
Organo-mercury compounds
Ash & residues (excl. from the mfr. of
iron/steel) cont. mainly
arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mixts.
Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode
valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum or vapour or
gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc
rectifying valves and tubes, cathode-ray
tubes, television camera tubes); diodes,
transistors and similar semiconductor
devices.




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Second hand electric and electronic products
such as computers which might containing
mercury
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain mercury
Skin lightening creams which might contain
mercury
Any additional products containing mercury
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)

                                                                 2003                                        2004                                      2005
Products containing mercury                      P        U        E        I       R        P        U       E        I        R        P      P       R        I      R
                                                89765   89765    89765   89765    89765    89765   89765    89765    89765    89765   89765    89765   89765   89765   89765
Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultra-violet
lamps), mercury/sodium vapour ...
Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric
oxide
ELEC.SWITCH.RELAY.CIRCUT
Input/output units (of auto. data processing
machines), whether or not cont. storage units
in the same housing
Radio and TV transmitters, television
cameras
Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl.
video monitor cathode-ray tubes, black &
white/oth. monochrome
Thermionic and cold cathode valves and
tubes
Organo-mercury compounds
Ash & residues (excl. from the mfr. of
iron/steel) cont. mainly
arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mixts.
Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode
valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum or vapour or
gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc
rectifying valves and tubes, cathode-ray
tubes, television camera tubes); diodes,
transistors and similar semiconductor
devices.




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Second hand electric and electronic products
such as computers which might containing
mercury
Second hand mobile phones that might
contain mercury
Skin lightening creams which might contain
mercury
Any additional products containing mercury
that are treaded in your country? Please
specify and give details.




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   Key: P-Production: U-Used: E- Export, I –Import, R-Re-export (Units: kg)

                                                                                                                                                       2006
Products containing mercury                                                                                                            P        U       E        I      R
                                                                                                                                     89765     89765   89765   89765   89765
Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultra-violet lamps), mercury/sodium vapour ...
Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric oxide
ELEC.SWITCH.RELAY.CIRCUT
Input/output units (of auto. data processing machines), whether or not cont. storage units in the same housing
Radio and TV transmitters, television cameras
Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl. video monitor cathode-ray tubes, black & white/oth. monochrome
Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes
Organo-mercury compounds
Ash & residues (excl. from the mfr. of iron/steel) cont. mainly arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mixts.
Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum or vapour or gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc
rectifying valves and tubes, cathode-ray tubes, television camera tubes); diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices.

Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might containing mercury
Second hand mobile phones that might contain mercury
Skin lightening creams which might contain mercury
Any additional products containing mercury that are treaded in your country? Please specify and give details.




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4. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND INITIATIVES

4.1 Do you have any awareness raising activities on the effects of lead, cadmium and mercury?
    YES / NO. If YES, please provide names and contact details of key organization(s) that
    provide such activities.

        Organization name ………………………………………………………………………
        Contact person and detailed address ……………………………………………………

        Organization name ………………………………………………………………………
        Contact person and detailed address ……………………………………………………

        (use another sheet of paper if necessary)

4.2 Are you aware or have you reported cases of possible effects on human health and the
    environment from products containing, lead, cadmium and mercury in your country? YES /
    NO.
    If YES, provide a brief on the case(s) and some reference material, if possible.
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………

        (use another sheet of paper if necessary)

4.3 Does your country have policies and regulations to prevent and control production, use and
    disposal of products containing lead, cadmium and mercury? YES / NO.
    If YES, please list them below:
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………

        (use another sheet of paper if necessary)

4.4 Does your country have any strategy for collection, recycling, transportation and disposal of
    products and/or waste containing lead, cadmium and mercury? YES/NO. If YES please
    mention:

       National strategies………………………………………………………………………
       International strategies……………………………………………………………………
       International strategies……………………………………………………………………
       NGO strategies…………………………………………..………………………….……
       Regional / sub-regional strategies…………………………………………………………




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4.5 Has waste of products containing lead, mercury and cadmium been recognized/appreciated
    as a threat for human health and environment in your country? YES / NO. If YES, are there
    any initiatives which are in place to manage/alleviate the problem?. Provide a brief on them.

         National strategies………………………………………………………………………
         International strategies……………………………………………………………………
         International strategies……………………………………………………………………
         NGO strategies…………………………………………..………………………….……
         Regional / sub-regional strategies…………………………………………………………


4.6 Does your country have facilities to measure the levels / amount of lead, cadmium and
        mercury in:
          Water                   – Yes/No
          Air                     – Yes/No
          Soil                    – Yes/No
          Products                - Yes / No

          If the answer is YES, what type of facilities does your country have? Government and/or
          private laboratories, universities, technical institutes, etc?


        Do you have any views or suggestions on measures that could be implemented at national,
        regional or global level to better understand the trade of products containing lead, cadmium
        and mercury, and to take steps to reduce the potential effects to human health and the
        environment                                         resulting                                      from                                     this
        trade?...........................................................................................................................................
        …………………………………………………………………………………………………
        …………………………………………………………………………………………………




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                    ANNEX COMMODITY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CODES


PRODUCTS CONTAINING LEAD

CODE                      PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
HS1992-850710             Lead-acid electric accumulators (vehicle)
HS1992-850720             Lead-acid electric accumulators except for vehicles
HS96 - 262020             Ash or residues containing mainly lead
HS92 - 2824               Lead oxides, red lead, orange lead
HS92 - 282410             Lead monoxide (litharge, massicot)
HS96- 381111              Anti-knock preparations based on lead comps.
HS02-780300               Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire.
HS92-7804                 Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders and flakes.
HS02-780200               Lead waste and scraps
HS02-960920               Pencils lead, black/coloured
HS02-262021               Leaded gasoline sludges & leaded anti-knock compound sludges
HS92-7805                 Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (for example, couplings, elbows,
                          sleeves).
SITC 3-6851               Lead and lead alloys unwrought
SITC 3-6852               Lead and lead alloys, worked
SITC 3 - 52375            Lead carbonates
HS96-7016                 Glass blocks, bricks, tiles, leaded lights, etc.
SITC 1 - 71421            Electronic computers

Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might contain lead
Second hand mobile phones that might contain lead.


PRODUCTS CONTAINING CADMIUM

CODE                      PRODUCT DECRIPTION
HS02- 283030              Cadmium sulphide (Electroplating)
SITC3-53313               Pigments and preparations based on cadmium compounds
HS 92- 850730             Nickel-cadmium electric accumulators
SITC C3-68982             Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and scrap; powders
HS96-381230               Anti-oxidising preps. & oth. compound stabilisers for rubber/plastics
SITC.4-5622               Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic
SITC.1-5612               Phosphatic fertilizers and materials
HS07-262091               Ash & residues (excl. from the manufacture of iron/steel) containing
                          antimony/beryllium/cadmium/chromium/their mixtures

Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might contain cadmium
Second hand mobile phones that might contain cadmium.



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PRODUCTS CONTAINING MERCURY

CODE                      PRODUCT DECRIPTION
HS92 -853931              Fluorescent lamps, hot cathode
HS92-9025                 Hydrometers, thermometers, barometers, etc
HS02-853932               Electric discharge lamps (excl. ultra-violet lamps), mercury/sodium vapour
...
HS02-850630               Primary cells & primary batteries, mercuric oxide
SITC3-772                 ELEC.SWITCH.RELAY.CIRCUT
HS02-847160               Input/output units (of auto. data processing machines), whether or not cont.
                          storage units in the same housing
HS92-8525                 Radio and TV transmitters, television cameras
H02-854012                Cathode-ray television picture tubes, incl. video monitor cathode-ray tubes,
                          black & white/oth. monochrome
HS96-8540                 Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes
SITC.2-51551 and
SITC.1-51283              Organo-mercury compounds
HS02-262060               Ash & residues (excl. from the mfr. of iron/steel) cont. mainly
                          arsenic/mercury/thallium/their mixts.
SITC.4-776                Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes (e.g., vacuum
                          or vapour or gas-filled valves and tubes, mercury arc rectifying valves and
                          tubes, cathode-ray tubes, television camera tubes); diodes, transistors and
                          similar semiconductor devices.

Second hand electric and electronic products such as computers which might contain mercury
Second hand mobile phones that might contain mercury.
Skin lightening creams which might contain mercury




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       ANNEX 6A : SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO THE
   QUESTIONNAIRE FROM GOVERNMENTS, IGOs AND NGOs




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A:      AFRICAN STATES

QUESTION                                                                                              SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                                       Burkina Faso                              Seychelles                 Togo

System in place to register the intended use of products                                                                                    Products containing
containing Cd, Pb and/or Hg before import/export/re-export             None                                      None                       Pb: Yes – Customs
                                                                                                                                            Office

                                                                                                                                            Products containing
                                                                                                                                            Cd: No

                                                                                                                                            Products containing
                                                                                                                                            Hg: Yes – Customs
                                                                                                                                            Office
Requirement to identify final destination of products.                 None                                      None                       Products containing
                                                                                                                                            Pb: YES - Exterior and
                                                                                                                                            Interior Trade
                                                                                                                                            (Ministère du
                                                                                                                                            Commerce; de
                                                                                                                                            l’Industrie et des
                                                                                                                                            Petites et Moyennes
                                                                                                                                            Entreprises)

                                                                                                                                            Products containing
                                                                                                                                            Cd: No

                                                                                                                                            Products containing
                                                                                                                                            Hg: Yes - Exterior and
                                                                                                                                            Interior Trade
                                                                                                                                            (Ministère du
                                                                                                                                            Commerce; de
                                                                                                                                            l’Industrie et des
                                                                                                                                            Petites et Moyennes
                                                                                                                                            Entreprises)




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Policies and regulations to prevent and control production,            None                                      None                           No
use and disposal of products containing lead, cadmium and
mercury


QUESTION                                                                                              SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                                       Burkina Faso                              Seychelles                     Togo
Awareness activities on the effects of products containing             Available                                 None
cadmium, lead and/or mercury
Awareness on Cases of possible effects on human health                 Yes                                       None
and environment
                                                                       Burkina Faso is a mining country.
                                                                       There is an industrial production
                                                                       mainly of gold, but we have an
                                                                       important informal production. In
                                                                       this case they use a lot of mercury
                                                                       with possible effects on human
                                                                       health and the environment
Strategies for collection, recycling, transport and disposal           None, but an action plan is being         None                           None
of products containing cadmium, lead and/or mercury                    prepared.

Waste recognised / appreciated as a threat for human                   None                                      None                           None
health and environment.

Facilities to monitor or measure levels of Cd, Pb & Hg in              Water -           NO                      Water – Yes, but in ppm        Water – YES
products, water, air and soil                                          Air     -         NO                      level for lead & cadmium       Air     – No
                                                                       Soil    -         NO                      Air – No                       Soil    – No
                                                                       Products -        NO                      Soil – Yes, but in ppm         Products- No
                                                                                                                 level for lead & cadmium
                                                                                                                 Products - Yes, but in ppm
                                                                                                                 level for lead & cadmium


Views or suggestions on measures that could be                         Many countries don’t have actions         Nationally, it is important    a) Reduce the informal trade;
implemented at national, regional or global level to better            plan of products containing lead,         that specific regulations be   b) Find new alternatives;
understand the trade of the products                                   cadmium and mercury                       established for the trading
                                                                       management. Each country must             and use of such products.      c) Have the registrations for
                                                                       elaborate its action plan. In second      These regulations should       trade    importation        and
                                                                       time we have to implement it. But         cover the whole life-cycle     exportation;



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                                                                       it is not evident because the most        of the products right from    c) Have the data of inventory
                                                                       of those countries don’t have             the moment of entering
                                                                       sufficient capacities technically         the country to its final
                                                                       and materially for products               disposal or re-cycling. The
                                                                       containing lead, cadmium and              same approach could be
                                                                       mercury sustainable management            extended        on       an
                                                                                                                 international or regional
                                                                                                                 scale.



QUESTION                                                                                              SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                                       Burkina Faso                              Seychelles                           Togo
Trade data and trade partners for products containing                  None                                      Import partners: the products        Import partners:
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                        are   imported   by  licensed        France; United
                                                                                                                 importers                            States of
                                                                                                                                                      America;
                                                                                                                 Export partners: No exporters        England;
                                                                                                                                                      Belgium; China;
                                                                                                                 Re-exported partners: No re-         Holland; Brazil
                                                                                                                 exporters                            Nigeria
                                                                                                                                                      Indonesia; Hon
                                                                                                                                                      Kong and
                                                                                                                 Import    data    for   products     German.
                                                                                                                 containing Cd, Pb and Hg for the
                                                                                                                 period 2000 to 2006 provided
                                                                                                                                                      Re-exported
                                                                                                                                                      partners for
                                                                                                                                                      products
                                                                                                                                                      containing Hg:
                                                                                                                                                      Niger; Burkina
                                                                                                                                                      Faso; Mali;
                                                                                                                                                      Ghana; Chad;
                                                                                                                                                      Nigeria.




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B:      OTHER STATES OUTSIDE AFRICA

QUESTION                                                                                            SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                       Czech Republic               European                  Finland                                           Sweden
                                                                                    Community69/

System in place to register the intended               Yes                                                    Briefly there are no completely
use of products containing Cd, Pb and/or               EU        legislation:                                 covering systems in place to register
Hg before import/export/re-export                      Council Regulation                                     the intended use of products
                                                       (EEC) No 2658/87 of                                    containing lead, cadmium or mercury
                                                       23 July 1987 on the                                    before import/export/re-export.
                                                       tariff and statistical                                 Finland however has a register for
                                                       nomenclature      and                                  chemical products on the market, and
                                                       on the Common                                          also a common Nordic database
                                                       Customs Tariff etc.                                    (SPIN) based on the publicly available
                                                                                                              parts of the same data, but these do
                                                       Czech     legislation:                                 not cover all other technical products,
                                                       Tariff   law      No.                                  articles and materials containing heavy
                                                       13/1993 Sb.                                            metals. The direct internet address to
                                                                                                              the Nordic on-
                                                                                                              line database is http://195.215.251.22
                                                                                                              9/DotNetNuke/default.aspx

Requirement to identify final destination              Yes.
of products.                                           EU         legislation:
                                                       Council Regulation
                                                       (EEC) No 2658/87 of
                                                       23 July 1987 on the
                                                       tariff and statistical
                                                       nomenclature       and
                                                       on the Common
                                                       Customs Tariff etc.
                                                       Czech legislation:
                                                       Tariff law No.
                                                       13/1993 Sb.

69
 /   The European Community (EC) legislation reported here applies to all Member States of the EC. Currently, there are 15 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
     France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.


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QUESTION                                                                                    SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                   Czech Republic                            European                Finland                Sweden
                                                                                             Community
Policies and regulations to prevent and            Yes.
control production, use and disposal of
products containing lead, cadmium and              EU Legislation
mercury
                                                   Czech legislation: Water law No
                                                   254/2001sb; Waste law No
                                                   185/2001sb; Chemical law No
                                                   356/2003sb; Law on Air pollution
                                                   No 86/2002 sb

Awareness activities on the effects of             Yes
products containing cadmium, lead and/or
mercury
Awareness on Cases of possible effects on          No
human health and environment
Strategies for collection, recycling,              YES
transport and disposal of products
                                                   Yes
containing cadmium, lead and/or mercury
                                                   National Strategies: The Waste
                                                   Management Plan of the Czech
                                                   Republic stipulates the objectives
                                                   and measures for waste
                                                   management in the territory of the
                                                   Czech Republic, in accordance with
                                                   the principles of sustainable
                                                   development
                                                   International Strategies: Waste
                                                   Framework Directive
Waste recognised / appreciated as a threat         Yes
for human health and environment.




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QUESTION                                                                                    SUBMISSION RESPONSES/COUNTRY

                                                   Czech Republic                            European                Finland                Sweden
                                                                                             Community
Facilities to monitor levels of Cd, Pb and         Water – Yes
Hg in products, water, air and soil                Air     – Yes
                                                   Soil    – Yes
                                                   Products - Yes

Views or suggestions on measures that
could be implemented at national,
regional or global level to better
understand the trade of the products

Trade data and partners                            -                                         Trade data are                                 Export data of
                                                                                             based on UN                                    products containing
                                                                                             COMTRADE and are                               Cd, Pb and Hg to all
                                                                                             available at                                   African countries for
                                                                                             http://madb.europ                              the period 2000 to
                                                                                             a.eu/mkaccdb2/st                               2006 provided
                                                                                             atistical_form.htm
                                                                                             ,
                                                                                             http://exporthelp.
                                                                                             europa.eu/thdapp/
                                                                                             comext/ComextSer
                                                                                             vlet?languageId=EN




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C:      INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZAITIONS


QUESTION                                                                                          SUBMISSION RESPONSES/ORGANIZATION

                                                                                  WHO                                         Toxics Link, NGO, India


System in place to register the intended use of products containing                                                    None
Cd, Pb and/or Hg before import/export/re-export

Requirement to identify final destination of products.                                                                 No

Policies and regulations to prevent and control production, use and                                                    Yes
disposal of products containing lead, cadmium and mercury
Awareness activities on the effects of products containing cadmium,                               Yes                  Yes
lead and/or mercury
                                                                                  Teaching material for the
                                                                                  health sector on lead and
                                                                                  children's health;
                                                                                  Information sheet on mercury :
                                                                                  http://www.who.int/phe/new
                                                                                  s/Mercury-flyer.pdf

                                                                                  Policy paper on mercury in
                                                                                  health care:
                                                                                  http://www.who.int/water_sa
                                                                                  nitation_health/medicalwaste/
                                                                                  mercurypolpap230506.pdf

                                                                                  World Health Organization
                                                                                  Regional Office for Africa:
                                                                                  website    contains   relevant
                                                                                  material http://afro.who.int/


Awareness on Cases of possible effects on human health and                        Yes - Mass lead poisoning in         Yes
environment                                                                       Thiaroye sur Mer, Dakar



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Strategies for collection, recycling, transport and disposal of                                                         Yes
products containing cadmium, lead and/or mercury

Waste recognised / appreciated as a threat for human health and
environment
QUESTION                                                                                          SUBMISSION RESPONSES/ORGANIZATION

                                                                                  World Health Organization                   Toxics Link, NGO, India
                                                                                  (WHO)

Facilities to monitor levels of Cd, Pb and/or Hg in products, water,
air and soil
Views or suggestions on measures that could be implemented at                     Should identify existing facilities   1. Labeling and information
national, regional or global level to better understand the trade of              for measuring Cd, Pb and Hg in        availability on products
the products                                                                      blood & urine, and also food.         2. Information availability to
                                                                                                                        various stakeholders who come in
                                                                                                                        contact with them through out
                                                                                                                        their life cycle.
                                                                                                                        3. Substitution of lead cadmium
                                                                                                                        and mercury in products by cleaner
                                                                                                                        alternatives
                                                                                                                        4. Working with medical
                                                                                                                        community to improve
                                                                                                                        sensitization of health impacts.
                                                                                                                        5. Specific disposal guidance for
                                                                                                                        such products at end-of-life
Trade data and partners




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Top Six Products Containing Hg. Cd, Pb Exported by Sweden into African Countries:
2000 – 2006.
                                 Submission from Sweden

                                                  Quantity (Kg), Product and HS Code
                                        Lead
                     Electrical                       Digital auto
                                     unwrought                         Portable digital      Lead bars,       Refined
                   apparatus for                         data
   Country                           containing                          processing         rods, profiles     Lead
                    voltage > 1                       processing
                                       mostly                            machines             and wire          HS
                    kv, nes HS                           units
                                      antimony                           HS 847130           HS 780300        780110
                      853590                          HS 847149
                                     HS 780191
Angola                     1,694                                                     451
Benin                                                           22
Burkina Faso               3,736                                23
Botswana                   3,343                                                      11
C. African Rep.                                                 47
Congo                                                            1                    20
Cote d Ivoire             12,670                               311                  2085
Cameroon                     414                               209
The DRC                                                        196                    13
Egypt                    703,708         300,000              1470                  9614
Ethiopia                  24,406                              4740                 53594
Gabon                        600                               360
Ghana                      1,155                              3789                 18236
Gambia                         8                                                     606
Guinea                                                          16
Guinea-Bissau                                                   33
Kenya                      8,561                                                      30
Lesotho                   38,985
Liberia                                                         6                      1
Libya                        431                              472                     26            46,496
Madagascar                                                    504
Morocco                        2                           100483                    345
Mali                         740                                                      52
Mauritania                     2
Mauritius                                                                              3
Malawi                    10,487                               129                     2
Mozambique                 4,251                               163                    30
Namibia                       79                                                       7
Niger                                                          483
Nigeria                  872,727                              1350                   278                          50,964
Seycheles                    126                                                      10
Sudan                    409,936                              3560                   947
Siera Leone                1,845                                 1                   108
Senegal                   35,225                                                      10
Togo                                                            23                    34




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                                                  Quantity (Kg), Product and HS Code
                                        Lead
                     Electrical                       Digital auto
                                     unwrought                           Portable digital    Lead bars,      Refined
                   apparatus for                         data
   Country                           containing                            processing       rods, profiles    Lead
                    voltage > 1                       processing
                                       mostly                              machines           and wire         HS
                    kv, nes HS                           units
                                      antimony                             HS 847130         HS 780300       780110
                      853590                          HS 847149
                                     HS 780191

Tunisia                   27,612                               276                    246
Tanzania                  36,617                               383                  11677            9,000
Uganda                     9,602                                34                   7521
South Africa              59,424                             2305                    1722
Zambia                     4,508                               579                   1831
Zimbabwe                  18,111                                 1                     41
Total                  2,291,005           300,000         121,969                109,551           55,496        50,964



Import Data for the period 2000 to 2006 for cadmium, lead and mercury (kg)


                                                Submission from Seychelles

   HSCODE            2000           2001          2002          2003            2004          2005                2006
   3811.1100          75              0               0           152            132             0               0
   7803.0000          27              0             822             2             24            95               0
   7805.0000         163             25               0            52             84            552              0
   8507.1000        13,326         52,990         48,040        35,391         55,684         39,486          60,364
   8507.2000         157             982            314           725           1,619          3,551           5,533
   8507.3000          34             196             52           133            245            557             127
   8539.3100        2,273           3,921          4,216         3,245          4,806          1,811           5,284
   8540.1200          0               0               3            99              0             2               0
   9609.2000        1,065            686           2,268          581            892           1,632            744
    2.850630         257             387            739           130            149            126             369
    92.8525          190            2,615            95           224            183            130             727
    2.850630        21,902         23,502         19,469        32,733         32,059         32,907          31,445
    2.847160        66,337         63,462         75,172        95,046         73,586        107,381          65,120
    92.8525         13,069         21,975         43,881        11,337         12,626         26,142          12,502
    92.9025         89,751         90,652         97,743       128,714        106,869        142,176          98,405

     SITC
    772.000         177,943        243,069      205,420        171,657        166,275        353,768         183,008
    776.000          20,019         12,396       14,105         2,808          6,607          1,945           1,395
    533.130            19            188           126           391           3,493           15               1
    562.220          1,000          13,253        2,663           0              0            5,000           5,282


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                        ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

           AU                         African Union
           AMCEN                      African Ministerial Conference on the Environment
           ARSCP                      African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production
           BAN                        Basel Action Network
           BAJ                        Battery Association of Japan
           BAT                        Best Available Techniques
           BCRC                       Basel Convention Regional Centres
           °C                         degree Celsius (centigrade)
           Cd                         Cadmium
           CAI-SSA                    Clean Air Initiative in Sub-Saharan African Cities
           CFSK                       Computers For Schools Kenya
           CNS                        Central Nervous System
           CREPD                      Centre de Recherches et d'Education pour le Développement,
                                      Cameroon
           CRT                        Cathode Ray Tube
           DANCED                     Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development
           DEAT                       Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
           DWAF                       Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
           EAC                        East African Community
           EMA                        Environmental Management Act
           EU                         European Union
           GC                         Governing Council
           g.cm-3                     Gram per cubic centimeters
           g.mol -1                   Gram per mole
           Hg                         Mercury
           Hg2+ or Hg(II)             divalent mercury
           HS                         Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
           IARC                       International Agency for Research on Cancer
           IDB                        Inter-American Development Bank
           ICdA                       International Cadmium Association
           IGO                        Intergovernmental Organizations


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Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .


           IOMC                       Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of
                                      Chemicals
           IPCS                       International Programme on Chemical Safety
           ITC                        International Trade Commission
           ILZSG                      International Lead and Zinc Study Group
           LRTAP                      Long - Range Transboundary Air Pollution
           km                         kilometre
           mg                         milligram
           ng                         nanogram (10-9 gram)
           µg                         microgram (10-6 gram);
           NEMA                       National Environmental Management Authority
           NEPAD                      New Partnership for Africa’s Development
           NWMS                       National Waste Management Strategy
           NCPC                       National Cleaner Production Centre
           NGO                        Non-governmental organizations
           OECD                       Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
           Ni                         Nickel
           P                          Phosphorus
           PIC                        Prior Informed Concert
           PCFV                       Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles
           PM                         particulate matter
           ppb                        parts per billion
           ppm                        parts per million
           pH                         Power of Hydrogen (measure for acidity or basicity of a solution)
           PTWI                       Provisional Tolerable Weakly Intake
           PVC                        Poly vinyl chloride
           RBRC                       Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation
           SITC                       Standard International Trade Classification
           SCP                        Sustainable Consumption and Production
           SEAMIC                     Southern and Eastern Africa Mineral Centre
           TV                         Television
           UN                         United Nations
           TRAINS                     Trade Analysis and Information System
           UNCOMTRADE                 United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database
           UNSD                       United Nations Statistics Division

                                                                                                                  155
Study on the possible effects on human health and the environment in Africa of the trade of products containing
cadmium, lead and mercury                                                                                          .


           UNECE                      United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
           UNEP                       United Nations Environment Programme
           UNIDO                      United Nations Industrial Development Organization
           USA                        United States of America
           WB                         World Bank
           WHO                        World Health Organization
           10YFP                      Ten Year Framework of Programmes
           <                          less than
           >                          greater than




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