# 15th Century- Cannon Fire

Document Sample

					                    Television
• Iron canon ball
• Surveying and mapping
• Limelight
• Electromagnetic induction
• Electric light
• Celluloid
•   Motion pictures
• Photoelectric effect
• Iconoscope
15th Century- Cannon Fire
• First ones shot rubble –
very inaccurate.
• Latter, the iron
cannonball – more
precise and accurate.
• 1503 – First bastions
built in Italy, replacing
the fortresses’
vulnerable drum tower.
Drum Towers & Bastions
• The canon caused
the replacement of     13th Century
the vulnerable drum    in N. Wales
tower with the
defensive bastion
and shorter slanted
curtain walls in the
15th century.          17th Century
Vienna
Iron Cannon Ball
• Cannons and
cannon balls came
in different sizes.
• The picture shows
15,10 and 6 pound
iron cannon balls.
Early Guidance Systems
• 1533 – Gemma Frisius, a
mathematician, developed triangulation
and a modified astrolab to determine
target distance.
– It was accurate, but too slow.
• 1571 – Leonard Digges developed the
theodolite which simultaneously
measured distance and height.
Law of Sines
• a\sin A = b\sin B = c\sin C
• If A, B and c are 55o, 71o
and 152m
• Since A+B+C = 180
• C = 54
• b = c x sinB ÷ sinC = 153m

Table of sines
Triangulation
• Using known angles 
and  and distance L.
• d = Lsinsin 
sin( + )

• If  and  and distance
L are 35o, 50o and
151m, respectively.
• d= 49.2 m
1536 – Henry VIII’s Divorce
• Since the church
would not recognize
his divorce he
seized their
monasteries and
sold their land. This
triggered land
surveying and more
accurate map
making.
Surveyors & Map Making
• 1579 – Christopher Saxton published
his artful map of England.
• Wars stimulated more maps with roads.
accurate maps since more people were
mortgaging their land to finance this
More Surveyors & Map
Making
• John Ogilby – the statute mile, 5280 feet.
Scotland to gain control over Scotland.
• 1824 – Began surveying Ireland to better
assess taxes on real estate.
• 1825 – Thomas Drummond used limelight to
solve triangulation problem (Divis, Slieve
Snaght & Scotland) in mapping Ireland.
Limelight
Shortage of Limelight Fuel
• Limelight requires pure oxygen and fuel.
Prior to refrigeration the best way to
obtain pure oxygen was through
electrolysis of water, which required
much electricity.
2H2O (l) + electricity  O2 (g) + 2H2 (g)
Water + electricity  Oxygen + Hydrogen
Generation of Electricity
• 1849 – Floris Nollet used Michael
electromagnetic induction (spinning
magnet within arms of coiled wire) to
generate electricity.
• 1870 – Zenobie Gramme developed the
dynamo. Producing sufficient AC
electricity for the arc-lamp.
Carbon Arc-lamp

First invented in 1810
Electrons and light
• Absorbed energy
promotes electrons
to higher energy
levels.
• Electrons falling
back to lower
energy levels give
off light (energy).
1850 – Shortage of Ivory
• 1847 – Shoenbein’s accidental
discovery of nitrocellulose (guncotton).
• 1870 – John Hyatt’s discovery of
nitrocellulose to make billiard balls.
• 1889 – Eastman company produced
celluloid film.
1853 –Moving Pictures
• Franz von Uchatius used projected
moving pictures as artillery training tool.
• 1872 – Sequential camera ensemble
developed by Muybridge to make
photographic moving pictures.
• 1873 – Muybridges zoopraxiscope
moving picture viewer.
Zoopraxiscope
Thomas Edison
• Invented modern inventing by making it
a market driven process.
Define the innovation…Establish
goals…Assess major stages of
available…Every team member has a clear
defined area of activity…Record
everything.
Thomas Edison Marketing
• Define market wants and needs.
• Define innovation to meet these wants
and needs.
• Acquire necessary financial support.
• Promote the product before final
completion.
• Roll out the product.
Some Edison Inventions
• 1877 – Patented his phonograph
• 1879 – Developed electric light bulb
• 1893 – Invented the kinetoscope,
incorporating moving celluloid film
pictures and the light bulb.
• 1895 – Lumiere brothers invented the
moving picture projector.
Photoelectric effect
• When light hits a metal
surface electrons
(electricity) is emitted.
• This principal was the
basis of television. To
change light or an
image into an electrical
signal.
1884 - Paul Nipkow
• The first working device
for analyzing a scene to
generate electrical
signals suitable for
transmission was a
scanning system
proposed and built by
Paul Nipkow in 1884.
• The selenium cells
responded too slowly.
John Baird
was demonstrated
in England in
January 1926.
• He used a method
similar to Nipkow’s.

http://www.bairdtelevision.com/firstdemo.html
Iconoscope
• An image is cast onto thousands of
photoelectric cells (pixels).
• Each cell giving off electrons
proportional to amount of light.
• These electrons are scanned onto a
distant fluorescent screen at the
receiving (viewer) end.
The Iconoscope
Notorious                          Hired by
Westinghouse                       David
Engineer                           Sarnoff at
RCA in
1929.

Television
became a
USA reality
in June
1933.
Pixilated Image
Philo Farnsworth
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Liquid Crystal Displays
Plasma Displays
• Plasma is ionized gas
of roughly equal + and -
charged particles.
• These ions cause the
Argon or Xenon gas in
each pixel to emit UV
which causes a red,
blue or green
fluorescent coating to
emit.
What you should know
• Connections to map      • #5-6
making from cannons,
Henry VIII, wars and
taxes.
• Connection between      • #4-5
cannons and
mathematics.
• #3
• Architectural changes
caused by the cannon.
What you should know
• What was limelight first used   • #8-10
for and how does it work?
•    Connection between
limelight, electricity &      • #10-13
electrical generators.
• What type of light was          • #12-14
eventually chosen for light
houses & how did the light
work?
• Connection between valence
• #15
electrons and light.
What you should know
• Explain the                 • #22
photoelectric effect.
• Explain the technical       • #22-28 basically light from
an image is changed into
principals of television.     electricity via photo-electric