Grand Jury Practice and Indictments by yurtgc548


									Grand Jury Practice and Indictments
              Bernard L. Hyman, Jr.
      Oneida County Assistant District Attorney
CPL Section 190.25

   • 23 Grand Jurors

   • 1 Foreman and 1 Vice Foreman
     appointed by the impaneling judge

   • Secretary appointed by the grand jurors
Requests to Appear – CPL 190.50 (5)

   • Notice only required to those defendants
     whose case was previously commenced
     by way of felony complaint in lower
     criminal court
   • A potential defendant may nonetheless
     serve a written request to appear before
     the grand jury upon the district attorney
   • Written request must be honored despite
     lack of felony complaint
Requests to Appear – CPL 190.50 (5)

   • Failure to allow defendant to testify warrants
     dismissal of indictment
   • Any challenge to the indictment based on a
     failure to allow defendant to testify must be
     made within five (5) days of arraignment
   • Untimely request constitutes waiver, People v.
     Legree, 176 AD2d 983 (3rd Dept. 1991)
   • Defense counsel’s strategic move to have
     defendant not testify is valid even without
     defendant’s consent People v. Dickens, 259
     AD2d 450 (1st Dept. 1999)
Defense Counsel’s Role – CPL 190.52

   • Any person who signs a waiver of
     immunity is entitled to have an attorney
     appear with them
   • Attorney may be present
   • Attorney may advise
   • May not otherwise take part in proceeding
   • Court may remove attorney who is in
Notice of Time to Appear

   • Notice required when notice requested or
     when an unresolved felony complaint is
     pending in lower criminal court
   • Notice must be reasonable
   • One day notice is unreasonable
   • Notice need not include a list of charges
     to be presented
Defense Witnesses – CPL 190.50(6)

   • Request may be made orally or in writing
   • Grand jury has discretion to grant such a
   • Prosecutor may require defense
     witnesses to execute written waivers of
     immunity, People v. Buxton, 309 AD2d
     872 (2nd Dept. 2003)
Defendant’s Right to Testify

   • Defendant, appearing before the grand
     jury, must be afforded an opportunity to
     give his version of events prior to being
     examined by the People. People v. Miller,
     144 AD 2d 94.
   • When that opportunity has not been
     conferred the indictment must be
     dismissed, provided that defendant has
     moved for such relief within five days of
     his/her arraignment

  • Judicial order not required for
    resubmission unless there has been an
    initial refusal by the grand jury to indict or
    a prior court dismissal of the indictment.
    People v. Cade, 74 NY2d 410; People v.
    Brown, 166 AD2d 4581 (1st. Dept. 1990)
  • No court order required where original
    submission was withdrawn by prosecutor
    before grand jury vote or where
    superseding indictment is sought

  • CPL 190.45
    – Must be in writing
    – Witness in grand jury entitled to attorney
    – Waiver should specify conduct which will be
      examined – any other conduct for which
      defendant is questioned is subject to a grant
      of immunity
Defense Motions

   • Motion to dismiss for failure to give notice
     of time to appear must be made within
     five days of arraignment
   • Court can review
     – Sufficiency of evidence presented
     – Notice issues
     – Voting records
     – Any other issues that may impair the ability
       of the grand jury to function properly
Removal of Grand Jurors

   • CPL 190.20
     – Neither the grand jury panel nor any
       individual grand juror may be challenged, but
       the court may:
     – (a) at any time before a grand jury is sworn,
       discharge the panel and summon another
       panel if it finds that the original panel does
       not substantially conform to the requirements
       of the judiciary law; or
Removal of Grand Jurors

     – (b) at any time after a grand juror is drawn,
       refuse to swear him, or discharge him after
       he has been sworn, upon a finding that he is
       disqualified from service pursuant to the
       judiciary law, or incapable of performing his
       duties because of bias or prejudice, or guilty
       of misconduct in the performance of his
       duties such as to impair the proper
       functioning of the grand jury.
Evidentiary Standards – CPL 190.30

   • General rules of evidence apply
   • Admission of some inadmissible evidence
     during grand jury presentation will not be
     deemed fatal to indictment unless the
     remaining evidence is insufficient to
     sustain the indictment, People v.
     Carncross, 59 AD3d 1112 (4th Dept.
Voting and Grand Jury Action
Voting and Grand Jury Action

   • Quorum = 16

   • True Bill = 12 or more

   • No Bill = less than 12

   • Only 12 grand jurors need vote so long as
     the 12 grand jurors heard substantially all
     of the material evidence in the case
Description and Function

   • CPL 200.10
     – An indictment is a written accusation by a
       grand jury, filed with a superior court,
       charging a person, or two or more persons
       jointly, with the commission of a crime, or
       with the commission of two or more offenses
       at least one of which is a crime. Except as
       used in Article 190, the term indictment shall
       include a superior court information.

   • Upon arraignment, defense counsel
     should receive:
     – A true and accurate copy of the indictment
       filed with the Court
     – A copy of any Prosecutor’s or District
       Attorney’s Information filed with the Court
     – Discovery Demand
     – Demand for Notice of Alibi
     – Written Notice of Readiness
     – Any notices pursuant to CPL 710.30
Sufficiency and Defectiveness

   • Motion to dismiss based on defective
     grand jury proceedings or the form and
     content of the indictment pursuant to CPL
   • Certain counts require specific pleading
     (i.e. Perjury)
   • Multiplicitous Counts
   • Duplicitousness
Notice of Readiness

   • People must be ready within 6
     months ***
Waiver of Indictment
Superior Court Information

   • CPL 200.15

  • CPL 200.70
  • Matters of form, time, place, names of
    persons and the like
  • CANNOT change theory of prosecution
    as reflected before the grand jury
Multiplicitous Counts

   • Where each count of an indictment
     requires proof of an element not essential
     to the other, an indictment is not
   • Course of conduct cases
Duplicitous Counts

   • A count is duplicitous when it alleges the
     commission of a particular offense
     occurring repeatedly during a designated
     period of time
   • Charging one count under two separate
     theories of larceny is not duplicitous
CPL Section 710.30 Notices

   • Identification Procedure

   • Oral Statements

   • Written Statements
Sealed Indictments
Effect of Charges Superseded by
Juvenile Offenders
Speedy Trial Issues
Other Notices

To top