120 Macrominerals by yge1qY6



Proteins     Fats   Carbohydrates

   Fiber    Water      Vitamins
     Minerals are elements that originate in the Earth and cannot be
    made by living organisms. They are, therefore, inorganic. Plants
  obtain minerals from the soil, and most of the minerals in our diets
     come directly from plants, however this varies with geographic
      locale because of soil mineral content. Some minerals come
   indirectly from animal sources.…not from the beef of the cow, but
  from the milk of the cow. Minerals may also be present in the water
          we drink, but this also varies with geographic locale.

 Like vitamins, minerals often        Minerals are sturdy nutrients,
serve as coenzymes. They help      meaning they will not be destroyed
  protein form enzymes that           during most food preparation
speed up body reactions during     methods, although some leach out
  digestion and metabolism.           into the water used in various
                                             cooking methods.
    About 17 minerals are considered ‘essential’ to humans…
  required for proper functioning and good health. Those seven
needed in amounts of 0.1 gram or more daily are considered major
                  minerals, or MACROMINERALS.
  An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or
negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or
   more electrons. Sodium is a ‘cation’ (kăt'ī‘on) or a positively
     charged ion… NA+. Chloride is an ‘anion’ (ăn'ī'ən) or the
negatively charged ion of chlorine… Cl¯. Together they form SALT.

     Sodium and chloride are essential macrominerals.
  Approximately 75% of your daily salt intake in the U.S.
  comes from processed and manufactured foods. The
remaining 25% comes naturally in foods and from adding
               salt to foods at the table.
                                          The lowest salt
                                            intakes are
                                         associated with
                                             diets that
                                         especially fruits,
                                         vegetables, and
    Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an
important role in the absorption of chloride, proteins (amino
 acids), carbohydrates (glucose), and water. Chloride, in the
    form of hydrochloric acid (HCl), is also an important
  component of gastric juice, which aids the digestion and
absorption of many nutrients. Sodium also helps the body to
 retain water and prevent dehydration, and may have some
                 activity as an antibacterial.
Endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and pancreas
work with the kidneys to regulate sodium levels. They ‘sense’ changes in
 blood pressure and volume. Blood pressure is a measure of the force
               blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels.
 When blood pressure is low, the kidneys
 hold onto sodium and the body responds
  by holding onto water. This increases
    blood volume and blood pressure.
 When blood pressure is high, the kidneys
release sodium, and the result is water loss
    in the body. Blood volume and blood
             pressure decrease.
  Sodium has functions that go beyond dietary benefits. Salt has a
reputation as a germ killer. Some people use a sodium solution as an
antibacterial mouthwash to combat microorganisms that cause sore
   throats or inflamed gums. Plain saltwater soaks have also been
  recommended as a remedy for sweaty feet. Saltwater soaks have
   been used by some to relieve sore or aching muscles and even
  appear to have some therapeutic value in treating arthritis. Salt is
 believed to have a drying effect by soaking up excess perspiration.
    Sodium and chloride are
electrolytes, meaning they are
 the positively and negatively
  ionized salts in body fluids,
   primarily those outside the
 cells including blood plasma.
 When sodium is dissolved in
bodily fluids, its mild electrical
charge is necessary for normal
      functioning of nerve
   transmissions and muscle

Sodium works hand-in-hand with another mineral, potassium, to maintain the
   concentration and pH (alkalinity and acidity) balance of intra- and extra-
cellular fluids. This balance is referred to as ‘membrane potential’, and will be
              discussed in the section of this lesson on potassium.
  The AI or Adequate Intake Level for adolescents and
adults ages 14-50 years is 1.5 g sodium or 3.8 g salt per
   day for males and females, based on the amount
 needed to replace losses through sweat in moderately
   active people and to achieve a diet that provides
    sufficient amounts of other essential nutrients .
     Food          Serving      Sodium (g)     Salt (g)

Hot dog, beef     1            0.51          1.3
Dill pickle       1 spear      0.30          0.8
Fish sandwich     1            0.94          2.4
w/ tartar sauce   sandwich
Ham               3 oz.        1.0           2.5
Pretzels          10 (2 oz.)   1.0           2.5
Chicken Noodle    1 cup        1.4           3.4
Soup (canned)
Macaroni &        1 cup        1.3           3.3
Cheese (canned)
Potato Chips      8 oz. bag    1.2           3.0
      Food            Serving     Sodium (g)     Salt (g)

Olive oil            1 tbsp.     0.000         0.000
Orange juice from    8 oz.       0.000         0.000
frozen concentrate   glass
Fruit cocktail,      1 cup       0.009         0.023
Carrot               1 medium 0.042            0.105
Tomato               1 medium 0.006            0.015
Potato Chips,        8 oz. bag   0.018         0.045
Popcorn, air-        1 cup       0.001         0.003
popped & unsalted
       Sodium and chloride
   deficiencies do not generally
  result from inadequate dietary
   intake, even in those on very
    low-salt diets. Children with
  cystic fibrosis have increased
       sodium and chloride
  concentrations in their sweat.

Hyponatremia (hī'pō-nə-trē'mē-ə) is the deficiency of sodium levels in the
  blood. It may result from excessive water intake or fluid retention, or if
               losses from heavy sweating are not replaced.
 Conditions that increase the loss of sodium and chloride include severe
or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, excessive and persistent sweating, the
 use of some diuretics, and some forms of kidney disease. Symptoms of
    hyponatremia include headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps,
   twitching or weakness, fatigue, memory loss, lack of concentration,
                         disorientation, and fainting.
 Acute or severe hyponatremia has been recognized as a potential
problem in individuals competing in very long endurance exercise
   events such as marathons or Ironman triathlons. It has been
 speculated that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
 (NSAIDs) used for joint and muscle pain may increase the risk of
exercise-related hyponatremia by impairing water excretion… even
                     if fluid intake is modest.
                                       Clinoril (sulindac)
                                       Daypro (oxaprozin)
                                       Feldene (piroxicam)
                                       Indocin (indomethacin)
                                       Lodine (etodolac)
                                       Meclomen (meclofenamate)
                                       Mobic (meloxicam)
                                       Motrin, Advil (ibuprofen)
                                       Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan,
                                       Naprosyn (naproxen sodium)
                                       Orudis (ketoprofen)
                                       Relafen (nabumetone)
      Partial list of common NSAIDS:   Tolectin (tolmetin sodium)
                                       Voltaren, Arthrotec (diclofenac)
                                  Recent surveys have found that the
                               average dietary salt intake in the U.S. is
                             7.8-11.8 grams/day for adult men and 5.8-
                                7.8 grams/day for adult women… and
                              those did NOT include salt added to food
                               at the table. This exceeds the 3.8 grams
                              recommended per day and the 5.8 grams
                                 that is considered the maximum safe
                             intake level. Excess sodium can increase
                             the risk of edema (swelling, particularly in
                                 joints, caused by an accumulation of
                                    fluids) and high blood pressure.

  Hypernatremia is an abnormally high blood plasma sodium level
developed from excess water loss, and frequently accompanied by an
 impaired thirst mechanism or lack of access to water. Symptoms of
hypernatremia may include dizziness or fainting, low blood pressure,
                  and diminished urine production.
  Like sodium, potassium is a cation : K+ This
positively charged ion is in the fluid inside the cell,
while sodium (NA+) was the principal cation in the
              fluid outside of the cell.


The richest sources of potassium are fruits and vegetables and nuts.
  Examples: 1 banana contains 422 mg., 1 baked potato with skin
   contains 926 mg., ½ cup of raisins contain 598 mg., 1 medium
      tomato contains 292 mg., 1 oz. almonds contain 200 mg.
                  Do you remember step 5 of the metabolic process?
                    Potassium and sodium chloride are two of the
                            primary elements in this step.
            The energy cannot get to the part of the cell it needs to
         without assistance. It has to be transported in a vehicle called
         Adenosine (ə-dĕn'ə-sēn') Triphosphate… ATP.

   Phosphate              Phosphate                    Phosphate

   Phosphate              Phosphate                    Phosphate


ADP… adenosine        Then the ADP picks     Reaching its destination,
diphosphate picks        up another free     enzymes break off the extra
  up the energy       floating phosphate,    phosphate… releasing
                       and becomes ATP.      large amounts of
                                             energy.                 Phosphate
The ADP returns to pick up more energy
           and phosphates.
   Potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than
  outside cells, while sodium concentrations are more than ten times
lower inside than outside cells. The concentration differences between
     potassium and sodium across the cell membranes create an
    electrochemical gradient or balance known as the ‘membrane
       potential’. Potassium helps maintain membrane potential.

    Inside the cell
                                               Enzyme pump or “gate”

                                                cell membrane

                                                  Potassium molecules
                                              Sodium chloride molecules
                                             Free-floating phosphate
    Outside the cell
                                             used to make ATP energy
A cell's ‘membrane potential’ or balance is maintained by
ion pumps in the cell membrane, especially the sodium,
 potassium-ATPase pumps: Na+/K+ATPase . (the suffix
  “ase” indicates an enzyme and is pronounced ‘ace’)
   Potassium and sodium serve as co-enzymes, with
   protein, to form an ion pump in the cell membrane.





                  Phosphate   As sodium is pumped out of the cell
                                  in exchange for potassium, the
                 Energy        enzyme pumps release or use ATP
                                 (energy). Their activity has been
                              estimated to account for 20%-40% of
                               the resting energy expenditure in a
                                           typical adult.

The large proportion
of energy dedicated
   to maintaining
  emphasizes the
 importance of this
     function in
   sustaining life.
 When sodium chloride and potassium are dissolved in bodily
fluids, they have a mild electrical charge. For this reason, they
   are called ELECTROLYTES. In the correct balance, these
      fluids are necessary for normal functioning of nerve
             transmissions and muscle contractions.

   A beverage called an ‘electrolyte solution’ simply means that it
 contains a good balance of sodium chloride and potassium, as well
as other electrolytes such as magnesium and calcium. Pedialyte is a
brand name example, often given to children with diarrhea. Gatorade
  is a brand name example, often given to adults involved in heavy
                exercise who are sweating profusely.
                           The adequate intake level (AI) for
                        potassium is based on intake levels that
                       have been found to lower blood pressure,
                        reduce salt sensitivity, and minimize the
                                 risk of kidney stones.

  Adolescents and
 adults, both male
and female, need 4.7
   grams or 4,700
 milligrams per day.
An abnormally low plasma potassium concentration is referred to as
hypokalemia, and is most commonly a result of prolonged vomiting,
the use of some diuretics, overuse of laxatives, anorexia nervosa or
 bulimia, alcoholism, some forms of kidney disease and metabolic
  disturbances. Symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness and
    cramps, and intestinal paralysis, which may lead to bloating,
constipation, and abdominal pain. Severe hypokalemia may result in
muscular paralysis or abnormal heart rhythms (cardiac arrhythmias)
                          that can be fatal.

                                      Black licorice candy contains a
                                     compound that increases urinary
                                   excretion of potassium. Use caution in
                                      habitually eating large amounts.
                                   Abnormally elevated serum potassium
                                      concentrations are referred to as
                                        hyperkalemia. Symptoms of
                                  hyperkalemia may include tingling of the
                                  hands and feet, muscular weakness, and
                                   temporary paralysis. The most serious
                                  complication of hyperkalemia is the same
                                  as hypokalemia… the development of an
                                       abnormal heart rhythm (cardiac
                                   arrhythmia), which can lead to cardiac

  The greatest risks of potassium overdose is with a drug interaction, or in
  taking potassium supplements. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common
     side effects of potassium supplements, including nausea, vomiting,
   abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Intestinal ulceration has also been
reported, especially when potassium chloride supplements have been taken
                                without food.
                  Potassium levels are often affected by over-the-
                 counter and prescription drugs. Individuals with
                abnormal kidney function or on certain medications
               should be closely monitored. Common side effects of
                  high blood pressure medications are increased
              frequency of urination and increased urinary excretion
                                   of potassium.

Common medications affecting
potassium levels include:
High-dose antibiotics
Cardiac and blood pressure medications
Diuretics NSAIDS (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs)
     Calcium (Ca) is the most
      common mineral in the
   human body. About 99% of
   the calcium in the body is
    found in bones and teeth,
  while the other 1% is found in
    the blood and soft tissue.

        Calcium levels in the blood and fluid surrounding the cells
       (extracellular fluid) must be maintained within a very narrow
      concentration range for normal physiological functioning. The
physiological functions of calcium are so vital to survival that the body
 will de-mineralize bone to maintain normal blood calcium levels when
                        calcium intake is inadequate.
                                                     Dairy products
                                                      contain high
                                                        levels of
                                                      calcium, and
                                                     provide nearly
                                                       75% of the
                                                       calcium in
                                                     American diets.

  Calcium rich plants in the kale family (such as broccoli, bok choy,
   cabbage, mustard, and turnip greens) contain calcium that is as
 absorbable as that in milk, but also contain some food components
   that have been found to inhibit the absorption of calcium. Oxalic
(ŏk-săl'ĭk) acid, also known as oxalate, is the most potent inhibitor of
  calcium absorption and is found at high concentrations in spinach
 and rhubarb and somewhat lower concentrations in sweet potatoes
                           and dried beans.
Recommended Adequate Intake
                         Calcium                Tolerable Upper
   Male and Female Age
                         (mg/day)                 Intake Level
   0 to 6 months            210
   7 to 12 months           270
   1 to 3 years             500              2,500 mg/day
   4 to 8 years             800              2,500 mg/day
   14 to 18 years           1300             2,500 mg/day
   19 to 50 years           1000             2,500 mg/day
   51+ years                1200

   Average dietary intakes of calcium in the U.S. are well below the
adequate intake (AI) recommendation for every age and gender group,
especially in females. Only about 25% of boys and 10% of girls ages 9
        to 17 are estimated to meet the AI recommendations.
  Calcium is a major structural
   element in bones and teeth.
      Bone is a tissue that is
remodeled throughout life. Bone
 cells called ‘osteoclasts’ begin
  the process of remodeling by
  dissolving or resorbing bone.
    Bone-forming cells called
  ‘osteoblasts’ then synthesize
  new bone to replace the bone
    that was resorbed. During
 normal growth, bone formation
   exceeds bone resorption. A
       condition known as
‘osteoporosis’ may result when
   bone resorption chronically
       exceeds formation.
Calcium also plays a significant role in the secretion of hormones such
      as insulin and as a cofactor with vitamin K for clotting blood.
Calcium levels in the blood must be maintained in precise balance in
    order for all physiological functioning to take place, such as
 regulating the constriction and relaxation of blood vessels, nerve
          impulse transmission, and muscle contraction.

                                         PHT ( parathyroid hormone)
                                        secreted from the parathyroid
                                            glands and calcitonin
                                          secreted from the thyroid
                                        gland regulate the amount of
                                        calcium either deposited into
                                        bone from the diet or stripped
                                             from the bone when
                                              deficiencies exist.

  Vitamin D is necessary to balance the calcium levels in the blood.
 Vitamin D is a component of the diet (extra is added to cereals and
dairy products) but is also synthesized in the skin in the presence of
 sunlight. It stimulates calcium absorption from the small intestine
  and mobilization of calcium from bone, both serving to reverse a
                     decrease in plasma calcium.
 Calcium absorption from the small intestine and excretion from the
kidneys are regulated to ensure that the concentration of calcium in
 the plasma is very precisely balanced… in a state of homeostasis.
A low blood calcium level is rarely due to low
dietary calcium intake since the skeleton
provides a large reserve of calcium. A low
calcium level may be due to abnormal
parathyroid or thyroid function, kidney
failure, vitamin D
deficiency, or low
magnesium levels.
Magnesium levels
influence the functioning
of osteoclasts and

A chronically low calcium intake in growing individuals may prevent
the attainment of optimal peak bone mass. Once peak bone mass is
 achieved, inadequate calcium intake may contribute to accelerated
   bone loss and ultimately to the development of osteoporosis.
   Abnormally elevated blood calcium (hypercalcemia) resulting from the
  over consumption of calcium has never been documented to occur from
      foods, only from calcium supplements and usually when calcium
  supplements are taken in combination with antacids. Mild hypercalcemia
    may be without symptoms or may result in loss of appetite, nausea,
   vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, dry mouth, thirst, and frequent
  urination. More severe hypercalcemia may result in confusion, delirium,
                       coma, and if not treated, death.

Only the calcium listed as ‘elemental’ in supplements is absorbable by the body.
 Calcium is best absorbed in an acidic environment, hence calcium citrate is the
   best absorbed supplemental form of calcium and can be taken on an empty
  stomach. Calcium carbonate is alkaline based, it requires extra stomach acid
for better absorption, and is best taken right after meals or with a glass of acidic
                            juice such as orange juice.
 Approximately 12% of the U.S. population will have a kidney stone at
  some time. Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate or
     calcium phosphate. Although their cause is usually unknown,
          abnormally elevated urinary calcium (hypercalciuria)
(hī'pər-kal'sē-ōō'rē-ə) increases the risk of developing calcium stones.

                                                    The pain from these
                                                     stones, which have
                                                    dislodged and travel
                                                     through the ureter
                                                     and urethra tubes,
                                                    can be excruciating
                                                     and incapacitating.
                                                    Stones range in size
                                                   from that of a grain of
                                                    sand to pea-size and
                                                      larger. Stones too
                                                     large to ‘pass’ may
                                                   have to be broken up
                                                     with sound waves.
     Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral that is required by every
         cell in the body for normal function. The majority of the
          phosphorus in the body is found as phosphate (PO4).
     Approximately 85% of the body's phosphorus is found in bone
                                 and teeth.
In the bones and teeth, phosphorus
   combines with calcium to form
        calcium phosphate.
Phosphate is found in association with protein, especially in milk and
   cheese. Only a few other foods contain a lot of phosphate like
  wholegrain cereals, baking powder, shellfish. Other sources are
    convenience foods which have phosphates added by food
 The recommended dietary allowance for phosphorus
  is based on the amount needed to adequately meet
          cellular and bone formation needs.

 Life stage         Age          Males         Females
                                (mg/day)       (mg/day)
Adolescents 14-18 yrs of           1,250          1,250
   Adults        19 yrs and         700            700

Some foods that are high in phosphorus include: 8 oz. skim
  milk has 247 mg., 3 oz. cooked salmon has 252 mg., 1 oz.
peanuts have 107 mg., 3 oz. turkey or beef has 173 mg., 1 egg
      has 104 mg., 1 oz. mozzarella cheese has 131 mg.
                                           Combined with calcium as
                                            calcium phosphate, the
                                           phosphorus builds strong
  Phosphorus binds with lipids to form         bones and teeth.
          cell membranes.

        Lipid/ phosphorus
         layers shown in

                                   Nucleic acids, the DNA and RNA which
 Phosphorus serves the body as       are responsible for the storage and
   a ‘buffer’. As such, it helps    transmission of genetic information,
 maintain the pH of a system to         are long chains of phosphate-
absorb specific ions and become    containing molecules… as shown here
      more acidic or alkaline.                 in blue spheres.
                  Once again, do you remember step 5 of the metabolic
                  process? Phosphate is a component of the ADP and
                        ATP that helps carry and release energy.
            The energy cannot get to the part of the cell it needs to
         without assistance. It has to be transported in a vehicle called
         Adenosine (ə-dĕn'ə-sēn') Triphosphate… ATP.

   Phosphate              Phosphate                    Phosphate

   Phosphate              Phosphate                    Phosphate


ADP… adenosine        Then the ADP picks     Reaching its destination,
diphosphate picks        up another free     enzymes break off the extra
  up the energy       floating phosphate,    phosphate… releasing
                       and becomes ATP.      large amounts of
                                             energy.                 Phosphate
The ADP returns to pick up more energy
           and phosphates.
                           Inadequate phosphorus intake
                              results in abnormally low
    The effects of             blood phosphate levels
 hypophosphatemia               (hypophosphatemia).
 may include loss of
  appetite, anemia,
 muscle weakness,
bone pain, rickets (in
   osteoporosis (in
  adults), increased
   susceptibility to
infection, numbness
 and tingling of the
extremities, difficulty   Fractures due to osteoporosis
walking, and death in       may not show up for years
    severe cases.         following chronic deficiencies.

    Because phosphorus is so widespread in food,
dietary phosphorus deficiency is usually seen only in
  cases of near-total starvation. Other individuals at
  risk of hypophosphatemia include alcoholics and
                   some diabetics.
   The most serious adverse effect of abnormally elevated blood
  levels of phosphate (hyperphosphatemia) is the calcification of
non-skeletal tissues. Calcium phosphate deposits can lead to organ
 damage, especially when the calcified deposits are in the kidney in
the form of kidney stones. The upper tolerable limit is 4,000 mg/day.

                                          Abnormal and even painful
                                       calcium phosphate deposits can
                                        appear on joints and teeth, and
                                              appear on Xrays.
    Magnesium (Mg) plays important roles in the structure and the
 function of the human body. The adult human body contains about
25 grams of magnesium. Over 60% of all the magnesium in the body
is found in the skeleton, about 27% is found in muscle, 6% to 7% is
   found in other cells, and less than 1% is found outside of cells.
 Because magnesium is part of chlorophyll, the green pigment in
 plants, green leafy vegetables are rich in magnesium. Unrefined
 grains and nuts also have high magnesium content. Meats and
milk have an intermediate magnesium content, while refined foods
generally have the lowest magnesium content. Water is a variable
source of intake; harder water usually has a higher concentration
                       of magnesium salts.

Magnesium is involved in more than 300 essential        Phosphate
metabolic reactions. It functions to help ADP pick
up the third phosphate molecule…becoming ATP.

                                                     Then the ADP picks
                                                        up another free
                                                     floating phosphate,
                                                      and becomes ATP.

                               Magnesium is required for the active
  Magnesium plays a            transport of ions like potassium and
structural role in bone,         calcium across cell membranes.
   cell membranes,               Through its role in ion transport
    ribosomes, and               systems, magnesium affects the
chromosomes. It helps         conduction of nerve impulses, muscle
 teeth retain calcium.        contraction, and normal heart rhythm.
 Because magnesium is found in ample supplies in many foods, and
    because the kidneys can limit excretion of this mineral when
 supplies are low, deficiencies are rare. Conditions that may increase
   the risk of a deficiency include gastrointestinal disorders, renal
                  disorders, alcoholism, and old age.

      When magnesium
     deficiencies do exist
   (hypomagnesemia), the
  symptoms include rapid
 demineralization of bone,
  retention of sodium, low
 potassium levels, muscle
 spasms, loss of appetite,
nausea, vomiting, insomnia,
      mood swings and
    personality changes.
  While there have not been any adverse effects associated with
    dietary magnesium, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for
 supplemental magnesium has been determined. Adolescents and
 adults should not exceed 350 mg. intake per day of supplemental
     The initial symptom of excess
    magnesium supplementation is
   diarrhea. Elevated serum levels of
 magnesium (hypermagnesemia) may
result in low blood pressure. Some of
     the later effects of magnesium
 toxicity, such as lethargy, confusion,
    disturbances in normal cardiac
  rhythm, and deterioration of kidney
function, are related to the severe low
blood pressure. As hypermagnesemia
  progresses, muscle weakness and
  difficulty breathing may occur, and
        eventually cardiac arrest.
                                               Sulfur (S) is an essential
                                             mineral. It is a component of
   Sulfur compounds act as structural        numerous compounds that
   entities (connective tissues such as       play a variety of essential
collagen), part of hair, skin, and nails, as  functions in the body. No
catalysts (enzymes), as oxygen carriers          recommended daily
  (hemoglobin), as hormones (insulin),       allowance has been set for
 and as vitamins (thiamine and biotin).      this mineral, although 800-
 Sulfur is present in four amino acids. It   1,000 mg/day is suggested
     interferes with copper storage.          for individuals 18 yrs and

                          No deficiencies or toxicity
                             symptoms have been
                          specifically noted. The use
                         of sulfur supplements (MSM
                         or methylsulfonylmethane)
                            have produced diarrhea,
                          flatulence, bloating, and a
                           ‘burning sensation’ in the
 Although sulfur is found in most protein foods, the top three foods
containing this mineral are eggs, onions, and garlic. Sulfur content is
              responsible for their characteristic odors.

                              Sulfur is often used as a homeopathic
                                (non-traditional medical practices)
                             remedy. It is often prescribed for internal
                                 ‘cleansing’ and for skin ailments.

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