Unit 1: Organic Chemistry

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Unit 1: Organic Chemistry Powered By Docstoc
					AT THE END OF THIS UNIT
YOU WILL…
1)   Name and draw different organic molecules
2)   Predict chemical/physical properties of organic
     compounds base on the presence of FUNCTIONAL
     GROUPS

3)   Learn how to synthesis one FAMILY from another

     After all, designing the synthesis of new molecules,
     ranging from high-tech fabrics to “designer drugs,” is one
     of the most important aspects of modern organic
     chemistry
Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds
        Characteristics of Organic
                      Compounds
The Importance of Organic
Chemistry
   Many areas rely on Organic Chemistry:
       Biology and Biochemistry
       Petroleum Industry
       Plastics
       Genetic Engineering
       Agriculture
       Pharmacology
       Consumer Products
Chemistry and MEDIA
STORIES
   1538

   “All substances are poisonous, there is none
    which is not a poison; the right dose
    differentiate a poison from a remedy”
   GREAT MYTH
       “natural is good, manmade is bad”
                        Vitalism (200 years ago)


       HOWEVER
           NATURE’s poisons outrank in number and toxicity
            anything chemists can do…..

        SARIN (nerve gas)
 Seven most deadliest CHEMICAL
 COMPOUNDS
Compound                                Structure                  LD50/(mg/kg body
                                                                   weight)
Botulinum toxin A (BOTOX)               C6760H10447N1743O2010S32   5*10-8
produced by the bacterium and is held                              roughly 0.005–
to be the most toxic protein known to
mankind[1][2
                                                                   0.05 µg/kg
Tetanus Toxin A                                                    5*10-6
causes tetanus fatal disease
Diphtheria Toxin                        C13H23N5O3                 3*10-4



Dioxin                                  C4H4O2                     3*10-2

Muscarine                                                          2*10-1



Bufotoxin - skin and venom of many                                 4*10-1
amphibians
Natural toxins in FOOD
Chemical            Food source                        Hazzard
Allyl isothiocyanate Brwon mustard, horseradish,       Tumors
                     garlic
Cyanides            Bitter almonds, cashews, lima      Stomach cancer
                    beans
Glycyrrhizic acid   licorice                           Hypertension/heart
Hydrazines          Raw mushrooms                      Cancer
Myristicin          Nutmeg, parshley, dill, carrots,   Hallucinations
                    celery
Oxalic acid         Spinach                            Kidney damage/death
Tetrodoxin          Puffer fish                        Paralysis/death
The substance was urea,
the end product of protein metabolism.


                      O

         H2N

                      NH2
Organic vs. Inorganic Chemistry
There are about 100,00 inorganic compounds vs
  over 15 million of organic ones.

   Organic Chemistry – is the study of organic
    compounds
      Composed of C, H and others O, N, S
      Chains, rings or both


   Inorganic Compounds
      Any compound that does not contain carbon
       (exception: oxides, bicarbonates, carbonates
       cyanides)
Characteristic of Organic
Compounds
   They contain covalent bonds
   The contain carbon atoms joined together in
    chains or rings (catenation).

   The properties of organic compounds are
    determined by the presence of certain
    groups of atoms within the compound
    (functional groups).
    Carbon…facts
   Total mass of carbon on EARTH 7.5*1019kg
   Human body is 18% carbon by mass  provides the
    framework for all tissues

   HISTORY
       Charcoal –”carbo” (Latin) – burned wood
       17th century  carbon officially recognized as an element by
        Antoine Lavouisier.

    EARLIER>>>>>>>>
    - An explosion of a star led to the formation of CARBON
    - Thermonuclear reaction:
      - Fusion of Hydrogen  He
      - Fusing of Helium  CARBON ATOM
Carbon…facts...
   Atomic mass = 12 u         6 C12
   Atomic number = 6
   #p=6; #n=6; #e=6

BUT: there is C-13 and C-14: (ISOTOPES)

Have you ever wondered what carbon dating is
 all about?
Carbon…
   Basis for life!!!
   carbon forms 4 stable covalent bonds to other
    carbon atoms
   Can form single, double and triple bonds
   forms chains, branched or cyclic molecules
   carbon can also readily bond with almost all every
    other element in the periodic table
Allotropic Forms of Carbon
   Elemental carbon exists in FOUR forms:
     Amorphous – no definite structure

     Graphite – layered sheets of rings

     Diamonds – tetrahedral

     Spherical combination of rings
Soot is made up from the
carbon particles in smoke.
Graphite          Graphite


   Sheet of rings
   Sheet can slip over each other
   Good lubricant
   resistant to stretching and compression
   Chemically intert
Diamond
   Tetrahedral array of carbon
   Very hard
   GRAPHITE AND DIAMONDS are
    POLYMORPHS (same chemistry but different
    structure)
            graphite  diamond (3000C; high P)
                          •Diamond

           1813 Humphrey Davey used a lens to
           concentrate the sun's rays as a heat
           source to ignite diamond
                      Bucky ball




“FULLERENE” (1985)
-Heated graphite to extremely high
Temperature  cooled for analysis

-High stability
-Unexpected properties  led
to the development of the
new branch of CHEMISTRY
(astrochemistry, superconductivity,
And material chemistry/physics)

-published in the “NATURE”

				
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posted:7/30/2012
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