Robin Mittelstaedt, Brenda Robertson, Kelly Russell,
John Byl, Jeff Temple, and Laurie Ogilvie
• Campus recreation
Serves students and often faculty and staff at universities
• Recreation in correctional facilities
Can instill in offenders more appropriate outlets for
• Faith-based recreation
Often includes a spiritual dimension and emotional
• Employee or corporate recreation and wellness
Serves employees within corporations.
• Armed forces recreation
Supports U.S. and Canadian military personnel and their
families at their home stations and in deployed environments
at remote sites around the world.
Involvement by Colleges
• At the beginning of the 21st century, an
estimated 2,250 institutions ran intramural
programs that attracted 12 million
• $1.5 billion U.S. was recently spent to
renovate or build new state-of-the-art
collegiate recreational and sport facilities.
Campus Recreation Program
Includes diversity of facilities and programs such
as the following:
• Climbing walls and high-ropes challenge courses
• Multipurpose activity courts
• Specialized fitness areas
• Special events such as tournaments, homecoming events
• Intramural and club sports
• Outdoor programs such as weekend camping, backpacking,
and canoe trips
• Outdoor pursuits rental centers, tennis courts, and golf
• Classes, informal recreation, and social events
History of Campus Recreation
• Intramural sports began as student-initiated
and sponsored athletic contests in eastern
• In 1913, first professional staff members
were hired to direct programs for men at the
University of Michigan and the Ohio State
• After WWII, campus recreation expanded
because of significant growth in student
Birth of a National Organization
• National Intramural Association (NIA), 1950
Formed following a meeting of 20 African American
male and female intramural directors from 11 historically
black colleges. Conference organized by Dr. William
Wasson, at Dillard University in New Orleans.
• NIA evolved into National Intramural-Recreational
Sports Association (NIRSA)
In 2004, NIRSA represented primarily college and
university recreational sports programs, serving 7 million
in Today’s Colleges and Universities
• Campus recreation defined
Diverse facilities and programs to promote physical,
emotional, and social growth by encouraging the
development of lifelong skills and positive attitudes
through recreational activities.
• Purpose and justification: 7 goals
1. Participate in a variety of activities
2. Provide value to participants
3. Enhance recruitment and retention initiatives
4. Coordinate the use of campus recreation facilities
5. Provide extracurricular education opportunities
6. Contribute positively to institutional relations
7. Cooperate with academic units
“Students who participate in recreational
sports tend to develop positive self-images,
awareness of strengths, increased tolerance
and self-control, stronger social interaction
skills, and maturity—all gleaned from
recreational sports experiences” (NIRSA,
n.d., paragraph 1).
• Campus recreation, intramural, and
recreational sports programs will continue
to flourish and grow and will provide critical
avenues of expression as our society
becomes more and more technologically
• This field has grown into a dynamic,
exciting area with diverse career
• The inability to use free time in ways
considered to be socially acceptable can
lead to incarceration.
• A significant portion of the population does
not support correctional recreation, despite
the fact that these programs can expose
offenders to more socially acceptable
means of spending their free time.
Mission of Corrections
in the United States and Canada
• The United States and Canada provide a
system of facilities to house offenders.
These facilities include local facilities, state
or provincial facilities, and federally run
• Correctional systems in both countries
serve similar roles: protecting society and
helping offenders become law-abiding
to the Federal Correctional System
• In the U.S., in 2005, 197 institutions house 182,153
offenders (U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2005).
• Canada has 53 federal institutions, housing 31,600
offenders (Correctional Service of Canada, 2001).
• Security is determined through a combination of the
– Physical features
– Available technologies
– Classification of inmates based on risk factors
– Direct staff supervision
• Inmates are sentenced to a specific level of security
based on the nature of their crime and in accordance
with their security needs.
State or Provincial
• Detention centers, or jails, are located in cities,
counties, and territories and are used primarily as
holding facilities for offenders until adjudicated by
• The type and length of sentence determines where
offenders serve their time.
• A juvenile or youth detention center is a secure
facility for housing juveniles under the age of 18.
• Community-based correctional facilities, or halfway
houses, are responsible for the supervision of
offenders serving sentences within the community.
Role of Recreation
in Different Settings
• The nature of the facility determines the role of
• People housed within the correctional system are
charged with a range of crimes.
– Represent all races, backgrounds, origins, physical
conditions, and age groups.
– Some have never been incarcerated, while others are
• These factors, along with the size of the facility and the
number of staff available, present one of the biggest
challenges to the provision of recreation programming.
Employed in Canada and United States
1. Labor is considered to be a recreation.
2. Participation in recreation programs is a privilege.
3. Idle minds are susceptible to negatives impulses.
4. Recreation can serve as a mechanism to control
the behavior of inmates.
5. Offenders are incarcerated as their punishment;
access to recreation should not be denied.
6. Goal is to prepare offenders to pursue a normal
lifestyle upon release; recreation must be
7. Responsibility to work with the whole person.
• Number one concern is safety, both of
participants and staff.
• Each activity must be carefully examined to
identify potential hazards.
• Careful supervision is required, including
accounting for all equipment.
• Correctional institutions can be aggressive
and hostile settings; therefore, it’s
important not to agitate offenders.
• Develop outlets for stress and enhance self-esteem.
• Identify activities that serve as alternatives to
• Foster interpersonal skills, such as trust, cooperation,
• Increase access to new social environments.
• Foster new interests.
• Negotiate constraints.
• Develop awareness of personal needs and appropriate
avenues to satisfy them.
• Develop decision-making and problem-solving skills.
• Develop new interests that could evolve into a career.
Correctional Recreation Professional
• College degree: associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s
• Certification in first aid and CPR
• Polygraph tests and background checks
• Fluency in a second language (helpful)
• Credentials such as certified personal trainer,
therapeutic recreation specialist, or certified leisure
Specific job titles vary from facility to facility; the role of
correctional recreation personnel is the same in both
the United States and Canada.
Trends and Issues
• Affected by societal trends both from the
client and administrative perspective.
• Challenging issues are as follows:
– Incarceration rates
– Budget cuts
– Philosophical shifts
– Aging infrastructure
– Special needs of the incarcerated population based
on factors such as age, sex, and race
to Faith-Based Recreation
• It is important to recognize and understand
the role religious institutions play in
providing satisfying recreational
opportunities within their communities.
• When considering how well we respond to
people of faith in a public setting, reflect on
this statement: How well do recreation
providers meet the needs of religiously
First Amendment to the Constitution
• “Congress shall make no law respecting an
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof” (First Amendment to the U.S.
• Canadian government set a goal to increase
physical activity levels by 10% by 2010. Recreation
providers must understand barriers that limit
people of different faiths from participating in all
• Clothing preferences and rules of physical contact
of a variety of cultures, including the ever growing
populations of Muslims, Jews, and Sikhs in both
countries (to name a few).
Within Faith Traditions
• Religious groups are not necessarily one
– Have different ways of thinking about their beliefs
– Beliefs fostered by different ethnic roots
• Differences relate to individual
commitments and ethnic backgrounds:
– Some religious beliefs intentionally and fully shape
their recreation choices.
– Others express beliefs only unintentionally and
partially shape their recreation choices.
Between Faith Traditions
• Nationality provides shape and encourages
some to recreate with people of similar
interests, background, religious affiliation,
and language. This is called selective-
acculturation in leisure (Shaull & Gramann,
• Different faith groups find roots in different
• Nearly 20% of the world’s population follows the
teachings of Islam.
• Muslims make up the fastest growing religious group in
the United States (Kosmin, Mayer, & Keysar, 2001).
• Sports have been encouraged as a means to personal
well-being and, in part, to being well-prepared in case of
war (Anahar, Becker, & Messing, 1992).
• Recreation cannot take away from family
responsibilities of watching over siblings and doing
other household duties or school work (Carrington,
Chivers, & Williams, 1987; De Knop, Theeboom, Wittock,
& De Martelaer, 1996; Fleming, 1993).
Recreation Programming for Muslims
• Speak with Muslim clergy, parents, and participants
for advice about advancing recreation participation.
• Respect clothing and modesty issues.
• Respect prayer and Ramadan rituals.
• Provide segregated games for females and males.
• Make showers optional or provide private stalls for
showering and changing.
• Muslims should encourage the development of
Muslim-specific clubs and organizations (Kahan,
Mosques in Canada
Each mosque is governed by a mosque
council, which oversees a variety of
concerns, including a sport council.
The sport council organizes recreational events for
men and women.
Activities are a means to build community,
encourage healthy lifestyles, and provide financial
assistance to those who are unable to afford
During the past 100 years, congregations
have enjoyed togetherness in church
buildings with activities such as the
• Coffee socials
• Boys and girls clubs
• Annual church picnics
• Competitive leagues with teams from other similar
• KidsGames, modeled after the Olympics, began in
Barcelona in 1985 and has grown worldwide. Includes
summer camps at churches, Bible knowledge, poster
contest, and essay questions (Bynum, 2003).
• Adult church leagues generally do not permit alcohol
use at games, and they also have time built in for
prayer, fellowship, and witnessing.
• In small-town churches in Ontario, sport is ranked
lowest in current activities.
• Association of Church Sports and Recreation Ministers
(CSRM) helps churches use sport and recreation
programs to reach out to their communities.
• Jews distinguish between sacred and
secular activities, thereby providing an
alternative perspective on faithful living in
• Reasons for engaging with Jewish
Community Centers or the Maccabiah
Games are less about faith and more about
the survival of their nation.
Recreation Programs for Jews
• Recreation programs are completely
secular. The recreation centers cater mostly
to Jewish people, but are open to others.
Some programs focus on Jewish culture,
such as Jewish writers, and are open to
• Participants in recreation programs are
approximately 50% Jewish and 50% non-
in Faith-Based Recreation
Professionals in faith-based recreation
must meet 3 requirements:
1. Passionate commitment to the faith is the first
entry point into any position.
2. Most professionals receive training in
recreation and leadership. The academic
training may consist of a college or university
3. Ability to nurture the faith or culture through
recreation with people of various backgrounds.
• Religious institutions play an important role
in advising their members on the
importance of recreation.
• To achieve national goals of improving
physical activity, it is important for
recreation providers to listen to their
communities and try to discover more
effective ways of providing recreation for
History of Employee or
Corporate Recreation and Wellness
• In the 19th century, the Pullman Company,
manufacturer of Pullman sleeping train cars, was
one of the first companies in American to
implement an employee recreation and fitness
• National Industrial Recreation Association was
founded in 1941.
• It later changed its name to Employee Services
Management Association, and it authorizes
certification of recreation and sport directors in
companies throughout the United States.
Employee Recreation Benefits
• Increased productivity
• Increased communication
• Weight management
• Athletic achievement
• Long-term disease prevention
• Personal confidence and sense of well-being
• Decreased sick leave
• Decreased injury rates
• Decreased health insurance premiums
• Increased number of lives saved
Trends in Employee Recreation
• All jurisdictional types and sizes of
companies and corporations
• Hobby clubs and special interest groups
• Fitness counseling, one-on-one prenatal
exercise, aerobics, and competitive sports
• Special events on site and at remote
• Topical seminars, e.g., Climbing the Activity
Armed Forces Recreation:
Recreation programs in Canada and the United
States are based on the following philosophies:
• Members of the military and their families are
entitled to the same quality of life as is afforded the
society that they protect.
• Quality recreation programs have a direct impact on
mission readiness and retention.
Recreation programs maintain a positive quality of
life that leads to a sound mind and body, a
productive community and a strong family
• Organized Canadian and U.S. programs started on
the battlefields of World War I. The Salvation Army
and Red Cross ministered to the needs of soldiers
as the forerunners of today’s recreation specialists.
• In 1940 at the beginning of World War II, the U.S.
Morale Division was established in the U.S. Army.
• In Canada, success of the military depends on the
physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of the
Today’s Armed Forces Programs
Both in Canada and the United States,
recreation programs within the military
environment are broad in scope, evolving
constantly to meet the ever changing needs
of the military community.
• United States: Morale, Welfare, and Recreation
• Canada: Personnel Support (PSP) Division of the
Canadian Forces Personnel Support Agency
in Military Programming
• Military families relocate frequently.
• Many military communities are in remote or
unstable locations around the world.
• Scope of the recreation department is
exclusive to military personnel and their
• Use of volunteers is critical to success.
Department of Navy/
United States Marine Corps
• The U.S. Navy Morale, Welfare and
Recreation Division is located in Memphis,
Tennessee. Recreation staff work on U.S.
installations and on the Navy’s larger ships.
• The Marine Corps, Quantico, Virginia,
provides fitness and recreation, personal
services, and business activities in direct
support of individual and family readiness
Department of Army/
Department of Air Force
• The U.S. Army, headquartered in the
Community Family Support Center (CFSC) in
Alexandria, Virginia, meets the needs of all
active, Reserve, and Guard soldiers, civilian
employees, retirees, and family members.
• The U.S. Air Force, headquartered in San
Antonio, Texas, under the title of Services
Squadron, contributes to readiness and
improves productivity through quality of life for
Air Force people.
U.S. Coast Guard
Since 2002, U.S. Coast Guard, Chesapeake,
Virginia, has been aligned under the
Department of Homeland Security. It
provides recreation programs worldwide.
The smallest of the service branches, it
offers a critical element in the quality-of-life
programming for its members and their
Canadian Armed Forces
• The mission of the Canadian Armed Forces, or the
Department of National Defense, is to protect
Canada, defend North America in cooperation with
the United States, and to contribute to peace and
• The organization resides exclusively under the
authority of the federal government and is present
in every Canadian province and territory and
represents the cultural, linguistic, and regional
diversity of Canada.
Canada’s Maritime Command/
Canada’s Land Force
• Canada’s Navy conducts surveillance and
defends waters against illegal fishing and
ecological damage. Supports international
initiatives for peace and humanitarian
• Canada’s Army performs combat operations
and supports peacekeeping and disaster
recovery missions at home and abroad. In
crises, the Army delivers assistance and
helps civil authorities restore public order.
Canada’s Air Command/
Department of National Defense
• Air Force provides surveillance and control of
Canada’s airspace, air transport of Canadian
military personnel and equipment throughout the
world, and supports Army and Navy operations.
• Department of National Defense supports
departments, civilians, and military families in more
than 3,000 communities in Canada, with military
and families representing more than half a million
Military Recreation Program Areas
in Canada and the United States
• Sports and fitness
• Skill development
• Recreation centers
• Outdoor recreation
• Child and youth activities
• Special events and entertainment
• Business activities
• Recreation clubs and private organizations
• Employs thousands of civilians around the world.
• Locations include the beaches of California, the
sands of the Afghan desert, the icy rivers of
Canada, and the high seas of the Atlantic.
• Career provides upward mobility and opportunities
to travel and live abroad.
• Is the largest employer of physical education,
human kinetics, and leisure study graduates.
• Provides a variety of positions; 5,600+ staff deliver
morale and welfare programming in Canada.