Summary Campus recreation by QSBckEM



          Unique Groups

          Robin Mittelstaedt, Brenda Robertson, Kelly Russell,
          John Byl, Jeff Temple, and Laurie Ogilvie
              Unique Recreation

• Campus recreation
  Serves students and often faculty and staff at universities
  and colleges.
• Recreation in correctional facilities
  Can instill in offenders more appropriate outlets for
  emotional expression.
• Faith-based recreation
  Often includes a spiritual dimension and emotional
• Employee or corporate recreation and wellness
  Serves employees within corporations.
• Armed forces recreation
  Supports U.S. and Canadian military personnel and their
  families at their home stations and in deployed environments
  at remote sites around the world.
         Campus Recreation:
       Involvement by Colleges
• At the beginning of the 21st century, an
  estimated 2,250 institutions ran intramural
  programs that attracted 12 million

• $1.5 billion U.S. was recently spent to
  renovate or build new state-of-the-art
  collegiate recreational and sport facilities.
                                   (NIRSA, 2004)
    Campus Recreation Program
Includes diversity of facilities and programs such
as the following:
• Climbing walls and high-ropes challenge courses
• Multipurpose activity courts
• Specialized fitness areas
• Special events such as tournaments, homecoming events
• Intramural and club sports
• Outdoor programs such as weekend camping, backpacking,
  and canoe trips
• Outdoor pursuits rental centers, tennis courts, and golf
• Classes, informal recreation, and social events
   History of Campus Recreation

• Intramural sports began as student-initiated
  and sponsored athletic contests in eastern
• In 1913, first professional staff members
  were hired to direct programs for men at the
  University of Michigan and the Ohio State
• After WWII, campus recreation expanded
  because of significant growth in student
   Birth of a National Organization

• National Intramural Association (NIA), 1950
  Formed following a meeting of 20 African American
  male and female intramural directors from 11 historically
  black colleges. Conference organized by Dr. William
  Wasson, at Dillard University in New Orleans.

• NIA evolved into National Intramural-Recreational
  Sports Association (NIRSA)
  In 2004, NIRSA represented primarily college and
  university recreational sports programs, serving 7 million
  college students.
        Campus Recreation
in Today’s Colleges and Universities
• Campus recreation defined
  Diverse facilities and programs to promote physical,
  emotional, and social growth by encouraging the
  development of lifelong skills and positive attitudes
  through recreational activities.
• Purpose and justification: 7 goals
  1.   Participate in a variety of activities
  2.   Provide value to participants
  3.   Enhance recruitment and retention initiatives
  4.   Coordinate the use of campus recreation facilities
  5.   Provide extracurricular education opportunities
  6.   Contribute positively to institutional relations
  7.   Cooperate with academic units

“Students who participate in recreational
sports tend to develop positive self-images,
awareness of strengths, increased tolerance
and self-control, stronger social interaction
skills, and maturity—all gleaned from
recreational sports experiences” (NIRSA,
n.d., paragraph 1).

• Campus recreation, intramural, and
  recreational sports programs will continue
  to flourish and grow and will provide critical
  avenues of expression as our society
  becomes more and more technologically
  oriented (Karabetsos,1991).

• This field has grown into a dynamic,
  exciting area with diverse career
       Correctional Recreation

• The inability to use free time in ways
  considered to be socially acceptable can
  lead to incarceration.

• A significant portion of the population does
  not support correctional recreation, despite
  the fact that these programs can expose
  offenders to more socially acceptable
  means of spending their free time.
       Mission of Corrections
  in the United States and Canada

• The United States and Canada provide a
  system of facilities to house offenders.
  These facilities include local facilities, state
  or provincial facilities, and federally run
• Correctional systems in both countries
  serve similar roles: protecting society and
  helping offenders become law-abiding
to the Federal Correctional System
• In the U.S., in 2005, 197 institutions house 182,153
  offenders (U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2005).
• Canada has 53 federal institutions, housing 31,600
  offenders (Correctional Service of Canada, 2001).
• Security is determined through a combination of the
   – Physical features
   – Available technologies
   – Classification of inmates based on risk factors
   – Direct staff supervision
• Inmates are sentenced to a specific level of security
  based on the nature of their crime and in accordance
  with their security needs.
            State or Provincial
           Correctional System
• Detention centers, or jails, are located in cities,
  counties, and territories and are used primarily as
  holding facilities for offenders until adjudicated by
  the courts.
• The type and length of sentence determines where
  offenders serve their time.
• A juvenile or youth detention center is a secure
  facility for housing juveniles under the age of 18.
• Community-based correctional facilities, or halfway
  houses, are responsible for the supervision of
  offenders serving sentences within the community.
              Role of Recreation
             in Different Settings
• The nature of the facility determines the role of

• People housed within the correctional system are
  charged with a range of crimes.
   – Represent all races, backgrounds, origins, physical
     conditions, and age groups.
   – Some have never been incarcerated, while others are
     repeat offenders.

• These factors, along with the size of the facility and the
  number of staff available, present one of the biggest
  challenges to the provision of recreation programming.
     Philosophical Approaches
Employed in Canada and United States
1. Labor is considered to be a recreation.
2. Participation in recreation programs is a privilege.
3. Idle minds are susceptible to negatives impulses.
4. Recreation can serve as a mechanism to control
   the behavior of inmates.
5. Offenders are incarcerated as their punishment;
   access to recreation should not be denied.
6. Goal is to prepare offenders to pursue a normal
   lifestyle upon release; recreation must be
7. Responsibility to work with the whole person.
    Programming Considerations

• Number one concern is safety, both of
  participants and staff.
• Each activity must be carefully examined to
  identify potential hazards.
• Careful supervision is required, including
  accounting for all equipment.
• Correctional institutions can be aggressive
  and hostile settings; therefore, it’s
  important not to agitate offenders.
              Programming Goals

• Develop outlets for stress and enhance self-esteem.
• Identify activities that serve as alternatives to
• Foster interpersonal skills, such as trust, cooperation,
  and teamwork.
• Increase access to new social environments.
• Foster new interests.
• Negotiate constraints.
• Develop awareness of personal needs and appropriate
  avenues to satisfy them.
• Develop decision-making and problem-solving skills.
• Develop new interests that could evolve into a career.
Correctional Recreation Professional

•   College degree: associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s
•   Certification in first aid and CPR
•   Polygraph tests and background checks
•   Fluency in a second language (helpful)
•   Credentials such as certified personal trainer,
    therapeutic recreation specialist, or certified leisure
    professional (helpful)

    Specific job titles vary from facility to facility; the role of
    correctional recreation personnel is the same in both
    the United States and Canada.
              Trends and Issues

• Affected by societal trends both from the
  client and administrative perspective.
• Challenging issues are as follows:
  –   Incarceration rates
  –   Budget cuts
  –   Philosophical shifts
  –   Aging infrastructure
  –   Special needs of the incarcerated population based
      on factors such as age, sex, and race
      to Faith-Based Recreation

• It is important to recognize and understand
  the role religious institutions play in
  providing satisfying recreational
  opportunities within their communities.
• When considering how well we respond to
  people of faith in a public setting, reflect on
  this statement: How well do recreation
  providers meet the needs of religiously
  committed people?
First Amendment to the Constitution
• “Congress shall make no law respecting an
  establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
  exercise thereof” (First Amendment to the U.S.
• Canadian government set a goal to increase
  physical activity levels by 10% by 2010. Recreation
  providers must understand barriers that limit
  people of different faiths from participating in all
• Clothing preferences and rules of physical contact
  of a variety of cultures, including the ever growing
  populations of Muslims, Jews, and Sikhs in both
  countries (to name a few).
          Unique Differences
         Within Faith Traditions
• Religious groups are not necessarily one
  homogeneous unit:
  – Have different ways of thinking about their beliefs
  – Beliefs fostered by different ethnic roots
• Differences relate to individual
  commitments and ethnic backgrounds:
  – Some religious beliefs intentionally and fully shape
    their recreation choices.
  – Others express beliefs only unintentionally and
    partially shape their recreation choices.
         Unique Differences
       Between Faith Traditions
• Nationality provides shape and encourages
  some to recreate with people of similar
  interests, background, religious affiliation,
  and language. This is called selective-
  acculturation in leisure (Shaull & Gramann,

• Different faith groups find roots in different

• Nearly 20% of the world’s population follows the
  teachings of Islam.
• Muslims make up the fastest growing religious group in
  the United States (Kosmin, Mayer, & Keysar, 2001).
• Sports have been encouraged as a means to personal
  well-being and, in part, to being well-prepared in case of
  war (Anahar, Becker, & Messing, 1992).
• Recreation cannot take away from family
  responsibilities of watching over siblings and doing
  other household duties or school work (Carrington,
  Chivers, & Williams, 1987; De Knop, Theeboom, Wittock,
  & De Martelaer, 1996; Fleming, 1993).
         Considerations in
Recreation Programming for Muslims
• Speak with Muslim clergy, parents, and participants
  for advice about advancing recreation participation.
• Respect clothing and modesty issues.
• Respect prayer and Ramadan rituals.
• Provide segregated games for females and males.
• Make showers optional or provide private stalls for
  showering and changing.
• Muslims should encourage the development of
  Muslim-specific clubs and organizations (Kahan,
         Mosques in Canada

Each mosque is governed by a mosque
council, which oversees a variety of
concerns, including a sport council.
 The sport council organizes recreational events for
  men and women.
 Activities are a means to build community,
  encourage healthy lifestyles, and provide financial
  assistance to those who are unable to afford
  recreational events.

During the past 100 years, congregations
have enjoyed togetherness in church
buildings with activities such as the
•   Coffee socials
•   Boys and girls clubs
•   Annual church picnics
•   Dances
•   Competitive leagues with teams from other similar
        Recreation Programming
             for Christians
• KidsGames, modeled after the Olympics, began in
  Barcelona in 1985 and has grown worldwide. Includes
  summer camps at churches, Bible knowledge, poster
  contest, and essay questions (Bynum, 2003).
• Adult church leagues generally do not permit alcohol
  use at games, and they also have time built in for
  prayer, fellowship, and witnessing.
• In small-town churches in Ontario, sport is ranked
  lowest in current activities.
• Association of Church Sports and Recreation Ministers
  (CSRM) helps churches use sport and recreation
  programs to reach out to their communities.

• Jews distinguish between sacred and
  secular activities, thereby providing an
  alternative perspective on faithful living in
  one’s recreation.
• Reasons for engaging with Jewish
  Community Centers or the Maccabiah
  Games are less about faith and more about
  the survival of their nation.
   Recreation Programs for Jews

• Recreation programs are completely
  secular. The recreation centers cater mostly
  to Jewish people, but are open to others.
  Some programs focus on Jewish culture,
  such as Jewish writers, and are open to
• Participants in recreation programs are
  approximately 50% Jewish and 50% non-
    in Faith-Based Recreation

Professionals in faith-based recreation
must meet 3 requirements:
1. Passionate commitment to the faith is the first
   entry point into any position.
2. Most professionals receive training in
   recreation and leadership. The academic
   training may consist of a college or university
3. Ability to nurture the faith or culture through
   recreation with people of various backgrounds.

• Religious institutions play an important role
  in advising their members on the
  importance of recreation.
• To achieve national goals of improving
  physical activity, it is important for
  recreation providers to listen to their
  communities and try to discover more
  effective ways of providing recreation for
     History of Employee or
Corporate Recreation and Wellness
• In the 19th century, the Pullman Company,
  manufacturer of Pullman sleeping train cars, was
  one of the first companies in American to
  implement an employee recreation and fitness
• National Industrial Recreation Association was
  founded in 1941.
• It later changed its name to Employee Services
  Management Association, and it authorizes
  certification of recreation and sport directors in
  companies throughout the United States.
     Employee Recreation Benefits
            and Services
•   Increased productivity
•   Increased communication
•   Weight management
•   Athletic achievement
•   Long-term disease prevention
•   Personal confidence and sense of well-being
•   Decreased sick leave
•   Decreased injury rates
•   Decreased health insurance premiums
•   Increased number of lives saved
  Trends in Employee Recreation

• All jurisdictional types and sizes of
  companies and corporations
• Hobby clubs and special interest groups
• Fitness counseling, one-on-one prenatal
  exercise, aerobics, and competitive sports
• Special events on site and at remote
• Topical seminars, e.g., Climbing the Activity
     Armed Forces Recreation:
        Two Philosophies
Recreation programs in Canada and the United
States are based on the following philosophies:
 • Members of the military and their families are
   entitled to the same quality of life as is afforded the
   society that they protect.
 • Quality recreation programs have a direct impact on
   mission readiness and retention.

   Recreation programs maintain a positive quality of
   life that leads to a sound mind and body, a
   productive community and a strong family

• Organized Canadian and U.S. programs started on
  the battlefields of World War I. The Salvation Army
  and Red Cross ministered to the needs of soldiers
  as the forerunners of today’s recreation specialists.

• In 1940 at the beginning of World War II, the U.S.
  Morale Division was established in the U.S. Army.

• In Canada, success of the military depends on the
  physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of the
  military community.
Today’s Armed Forces Programs

Both in Canada and the United States,
recreation programs within the military
environment are broad in scope, evolving
constantly to meet the ever changing needs
of the military community.
• United States: Morale, Welfare, and Recreation
• Canada: Personnel Support (PSP) Division of the
  Canadian Forces Personnel Support Agency
           Four Differences
       in Military Programming

• Military families relocate frequently.
• Many military communities are in remote or
  unstable locations around the world.
• Scope of the recreation department is
  exclusive to military personnel and their
• Use of volunteers is critical to success.
        Department of Navy/
     United States Marine Corps

• The U.S. Navy Morale, Welfare and
  Recreation Division is located in Memphis,
  Tennessee. Recreation staff work on U.S.
  installations and on the Navy’s larger ships.
• The Marine Corps, Quantico, Virginia,
  provides fitness and recreation, personal
  services, and business activities in direct
  support of individual and family readiness
  and retention.
         Department of Army/
        Department of Air Force

• The U.S. Army, headquartered in the
  Community Family Support Center (CFSC) in
  Alexandria, Virginia, meets the needs of all
  active, Reserve, and Guard soldiers, civilian
  employees, retirees, and family members.
• The U.S. Air Force, headquartered in San
  Antonio, Texas, under the title of Services
  Squadron, contributes to readiness and
  improves productivity through quality of life for
  Air Force people.
           U.S. Coast Guard

Since 2002, U.S. Coast Guard, Chesapeake,
Virginia, has been aligned under the
Department of Homeland Security. It
provides recreation programs worldwide.
The smallest of the service branches, it
offers a critical element in the quality-of-life
programming for its members and their
        Canadian Armed Forces

• The mission of the Canadian Armed Forces, or the
  Department of National Defense, is to protect
  Canada, defend North America in cooperation with
  the United States, and to contribute to peace and
  international security.

• The organization resides exclusively under the
  authority of the federal government and is present
  in every Canadian province and territory and
  represents the cultural, linguistic, and regional
  diversity of Canada.
   Canada’s Maritime Command/
      Canada’s Land Force
• Canada’s Navy conducts surveillance and
  defends waters against illegal fishing and
  ecological damage. Supports international
  initiatives for peace and humanitarian
• Canada’s Army performs combat operations
  and supports peacekeeping and disaster
  recovery missions at home and abroad. In
  crises, the Army delivers assistance and
  helps civil authorities restore public order.
      Canada’s Air Command/
   Department of National Defense
• Air Force provides surveillance and control of
  Canada’s airspace, air transport of Canadian
  military personnel and equipment throughout the
  world, and supports Army and Navy operations.

• Department of National Defense supports
  departments, civilians, and military families in more
  than 3,000 communities in Canada, with military
  and families representing more than half a million
    Military Recreation Program Areas
     in Canada and the United States
•   Sports and fitness
•   Skill development
•   Libraries
•   Recreation centers
•   Outdoor recreation
•   Child and youth activities
•   Special events and entertainment
•   Business activities
•   Recreation clubs and private organizations
      Employment Opportunities

• Employs thousands of civilians around the world.
• Locations include the beaches of California, the
  sands of the Afghan desert, the icy rivers of
  Canada, and the high seas of the Atlantic.
• Career provides upward mobility and opportunities
  to travel and live abroad.
• Is the largest employer of physical education,
  human kinetics, and leisure study graduates.
• Provides a variety of positions; 5,600+ staff deliver
  morale and welfare programming in Canada.

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