chapter 11 Unique Groups Robin Mittelstaedt, Brenda Robertson, Kelly Russell, John Byl, Jeff Temple, and Laurie Ogilvie Unique Recreation • Campus recreation Serves students and often faculty and staff at universities and colleges. • Recreation in correctional facilities Can instill in offenders more appropriate outlets for emotional expression. • Faith-based recreation Often includes a spiritual dimension and emotional expression. • Employee or corporate recreation and wellness Serves employees within corporations. • Armed forces recreation Supports U.S. and Canadian military personnel and their families at their home stations and in deployed environments at remote sites around the world. Campus Recreation: Involvement by Colleges • At the beginning of the 21st century, an estimated 2,250 institutions ran intramural programs that attracted 12 million participants. • $1.5 billion U.S. was recently spent to renovate or build new state-of-the-art collegiate recreational and sport facilities. (NIRSA, 2004) Comprehensive Campus Recreation Program Includes diversity of facilities and programs such as the following: • Climbing walls and high-ropes challenge courses • Multipurpose activity courts • Specialized fitness areas • Special events such as tournaments, homecoming events • Intramural and club sports • Outdoor programs such as weekend camping, backpacking, and canoe trips • Outdoor pursuits rental centers, tennis courts, and golf courses • Classes, informal recreation, and social events History of Campus Recreation • Intramural sports began as student-initiated and sponsored athletic contests in eastern colleges. • In 1913, first professional staff members were hired to direct programs for men at the University of Michigan and the Ohio State University. • After WWII, campus recreation expanded because of significant growth in student enrollment. Birth of a National Organization • National Intramural Association (NIA), 1950 Formed following a meeting of 20 African American male and female intramural directors from 11 historically black colleges. Conference organized by Dr. William Wasson, at Dillard University in New Orleans. • NIA evolved into National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA) In 2004, NIRSA represented primarily college and university recreational sports programs, serving 7 million college students. Campus Recreation in Today’s Colleges and Universities • Campus recreation defined Diverse facilities and programs to promote physical, emotional, and social growth by encouraging the development of lifelong skills and positive attitudes through recreational activities. • Purpose and justification: 7 goals 1. Participate in a variety of activities 2. Provide value to participants 3. Enhance recruitment and retention initiatives 4. Coordinate the use of campus recreation facilities 5. Provide extracurricular education opportunities 6. Contribute positively to institutional relations 7. Cooperate with academic units Benefits “Students who participate in recreational sports tend to develop positive self-images, awareness of strengths, increased tolerance and self-control, stronger social interaction skills, and maturity—all gleaned from recreational sports experiences” (NIRSA, n.d., paragraph 1). Summary • Campus recreation, intramural, and recreational sports programs will continue to flourish and grow and will provide critical avenues of expression as our society becomes more and more technologically oriented (Karabetsos,1991). • This field has grown into a dynamic, exciting area with diverse career opportunities. Correctional Recreation • The inability to use free time in ways considered to be socially acceptable can lead to incarceration. • A significant portion of the population does not support correctional recreation, despite the fact that these programs can expose offenders to more socially acceptable means of spending their free time. Mission of Corrections in the United States and Canada • The United States and Canada provide a system of facilities to house offenders. These facilities include local facilities, state or provincial facilities, and federally run facilities. • Correctional systems in both countries serve similar roles: protecting society and helping offenders become law-abiding citizens. Introduction to the Federal Correctional System • In the U.S., in 2005, 197 institutions house 182,153 offenders (U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2005). • Canada has 53 federal institutions, housing 31,600 offenders (Correctional Service of Canada, 2001). • Security is determined through a combination of the following: – Physical features – Available technologies – Classification of inmates based on risk factors – Direct staff supervision • Inmates are sentenced to a specific level of security based on the nature of their crime and in accordance with their security needs. State or Provincial Correctional System • Detention centers, or jails, are located in cities, counties, and territories and are used primarily as holding facilities for offenders until adjudicated by the courts. • The type and length of sentence determines where offenders serve their time. • A juvenile or youth detention center is a secure facility for housing juveniles under the age of 18. • Community-based correctional facilities, or halfway houses, are responsible for the supervision of offenders serving sentences within the community. Role of Recreation in Different Settings • The nature of the facility determines the role of recreation. • People housed within the correctional system are charged with a range of crimes. – Represent all races, backgrounds, origins, physical conditions, and age groups. – Some have never been incarcerated, while others are repeat offenders. • These factors, along with the size of the facility and the number of staff available, present one of the biggest challenges to the provision of recreation programming. Philosophical Approaches Employed in Canada and United States 1. Labor is considered to be a recreation. 2. Participation in recreation programs is a privilege. 3. Idle minds are susceptible to negatives impulses. 4. Recreation can serve as a mechanism to control the behavior of inmates. 5. Offenders are incarcerated as their punishment; access to recreation should not be denied. 6. Goal is to prepare offenders to pursue a normal lifestyle upon release; recreation must be incorporated. 7. Responsibility to work with the whole person. Programming Considerations • Number one concern is safety, both of participants and staff. • Each activity must be carefully examined to identify potential hazards. • Careful supervision is required, including accounting for all equipment. • Correctional institutions can be aggressive and hostile settings; therefore, it’s important not to agitate offenders. Programming Goals • Develop outlets for stress and enhance self-esteem. • Identify activities that serve as alternatives to addictions. • Foster interpersonal skills, such as trust, cooperation, and teamwork. • Increase access to new social environments. • Foster new interests. • Negotiate constraints. • Develop awareness of personal needs and appropriate avenues to satisfy them. • Develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. • Develop new interests that could evolve into a career. Correctional Recreation Professional • College degree: associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s • Certification in first aid and CPR • Polygraph tests and background checks • Fluency in a second language (helpful) • Credentials such as certified personal trainer, therapeutic recreation specialist, or certified leisure professional (helpful) Specific job titles vary from facility to facility; the role of correctional recreation personnel is the same in both the United States and Canada. Trends and Issues • Affected by societal trends both from the client and administrative perspective. • Challenging issues are as follows: – Incarceration rates – Budget cuts – Philosophical shifts – Aging infrastructure – Special needs of the incarcerated population based on factors such as age, sex, and race Introduction to Faith-Based Recreation • It is important to recognize and understand the role religious institutions play in providing satisfying recreational opportunities within their communities. • When considering how well we respond to people of faith in a public setting, reflect on this statement: How well do recreation providers meet the needs of religiously committed people? First Amendment to the Constitution • “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof” (First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution). • Canadian government set a goal to increase physical activity levels by 10% by 2010. Recreation providers must understand barriers that limit people of different faiths from participating in all activities. • Clothing preferences and rules of physical contact of a variety of cultures, including the ever growing populations of Muslims, Jews, and Sikhs in both countries (to name a few). Unique Differences Within Faith Traditions • Religious groups are not necessarily one homogeneous unit: – Have different ways of thinking about their beliefs – Beliefs fostered by different ethnic roots • Differences relate to individual commitments and ethnic backgrounds: – Some religious beliefs intentionally and fully shape their recreation choices. – Others express beliefs only unintentionally and partially shape their recreation choices. Unique Differences Between Faith Traditions • Nationality provides shape and encourages some to recreate with people of similar interests, background, religious affiliation, and language. This is called selective- acculturation in leisure (Shaull & Gramann, 1998). • Different faith groups find roots in different leaders. Islam • Nearly 20% of the world’s population follows the teachings of Islam. • Muslims make up the fastest growing religious group in the United States (Kosmin, Mayer, & Keysar, 2001). • Sports have been encouraged as a means to personal well-being and, in part, to being well-prepared in case of war (Anahar, Becker, & Messing, 1992). • Recreation cannot take away from family responsibilities of watching over siblings and doing other household duties or school work (Carrington, Chivers, & Williams, 1987; De Knop, Theeboom, Wittock, & De Martelaer, 1996; Fleming, 1993). Considerations in Recreation Programming for Muslims • Speak with Muslim clergy, parents, and participants for advice about advancing recreation participation. • Respect clothing and modesty issues. • Respect prayer and Ramadan rituals. • Provide segregated games for females and males. • Make showers optional or provide private stalls for showering and changing. • Muslims should encourage the development of Muslim-specific clubs and organizations (Kahan, 2003a). Mosques in Canada Each mosque is governed by a mosque council, which oversees a variety of concerns, including a sport council. The sport council organizes recreational events for men and women. Activities are a means to build community, encourage healthy lifestyles, and provide financial assistance to those who are unable to afford recreational events. Christianity During the past 100 years, congregations have enjoyed togetherness in church buildings with activities such as the following: • Coffee socials • Boys and girls clubs • Annual church picnics • Dances • Competitive leagues with teams from other similar churches Recreation Programming for Christians • KidsGames, modeled after the Olympics, began in Barcelona in 1985 and has grown worldwide. Includes summer camps at churches, Bible knowledge, poster contest, and essay questions (Bynum, 2003). • Adult church leagues generally do not permit alcohol use at games, and they also have time built in for prayer, fellowship, and witnessing. • In small-town churches in Ontario, sport is ranked lowest in current activities. • Association of Church Sports and Recreation Ministers (CSRM) helps churches use sport and recreation programs to reach out to their communities. Judaism • Jews distinguish between sacred and secular activities, thereby providing an alternative perspective on faithful living in one’s recreation. • Reasons for engaging with Jewish Community Centers or the Maccabiah Games are less about faith and more about the survival of their nation. Recreation Programs for Jews • Recreation programs are completely secular. The recreation centers cater mostly to Jewish people, but are open to others. Some programs focus on Jewish culture, such as Jewish writers, and are open to non-Jews. • Participants in recreation programs are approximately 50% Jewish and 50% non- Jewish. Employment in Faith-Based Recreation Professionals in faith-based recreation must meet 3 requirements: 1. Passionate commitment to the faith is the first entry point into any position. 2. Most professionals receive training in recreation and leadership. The academic training may consist of a college or university degree. 3. Ability to nurture the faith or culture through recreation with people of various backgrounds. Summary • Religious institutions play an important role in advising their members on the importance of recreation. • To achieve national goals of improving physical activity, it is important for recreation providers to listen to their communities and try to discover more effective ways of providing recreation for everyone. History of Employee or Corporate Recreation and Wellness • In the 19th century, the Pullman Company, manufacturer of Pullman sleeping train cars, was one of the first companies in American to implement an employee recreation and fitness program. • National Industrial Recreation Association was founded in 1941. • It later changed its name to Employee Services Management Association, and it authorizes certification of recreation and sport directors in companies throughout the United States. Employee Recreation Benefits and Services • Increased productivity • Increased communication • Weight management • Athletic achievement • Long-term disease prevention • Personal confidence and sense of well-being • Decreased sick leave • Decreased injury rates • Decreased health insurance premiums • Increased number of lives saved Trends in Employee Recreation • All jurisdictional types and sizes of companies and corporations • Hobby clubs and special interest groups • Fitness counseling, one-on-one prenatal exercise, aerobics, and competitive sports • Special events on site and at remote locations • Topical seminars, e.g., Climbing the Activity Pyramid Armed Forces Recreation: Two Philosophies Recreation programs in Canada and the United States are based on the following philosophies: • Members of the military and their families are entitled to the same quality of life as is afforded the society that they protect. • Quality recreation programs have a direct impact on mission readiness and retention. Recreation programs maintain a positive quality of life that leads to a sound mind and body, a productive community and a strong family environment. History • Organized Canadian and U.S. programs started on the battlefields of World War I. The Salvation Army and Red Cross ministered to the needs of soldiers as the forerunners of today’s recreation specialists. • In 1940 at the beginning of World War II, the U.S. Morale Division was established in the U.S. Army. • In Canada, success of the military depends on the physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of the military community. Today’s Armed Forces Programs Both in Canada and the United States, recreation programs within the military environment are broad in scope, evolving constantly to meet the ever changing needs of the military community. • United States: Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) • Canada: Personnel Support (PSP) Division of the Canadian Forces Personnel Support Agency Four Differences in Military Programming • Military families relocate frequently. • Many military communities are in remote or unstable locations around the world. • Scope of the recreation department is exclusive to military personnel and their families. • Use of volunteers is critical to success. Department of Navy/ United States Marine Corps • The U.S. Navy Morale, Welfare and Recreation Division is located in Memphis, Tennessee. Recreation staff work on U.S. installations and on the Navy’s larger ships. • The Marine Corps, Quantico, Virginia, provides fitness and recreation, personal services, and business activities in direct support of individual and family readiness and retention. Department of Army/ Department of Air Force • The U.S. Army, headquartered in the Community Family Support Center (CFSC) in Alexandria, Virginia, meets the needs of all active, Reserve, and Guard soldiers, civilian employees, retirees, and family members. • The U.S. Air Force, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, under the title of Services Squadron, contributes to readiness and improves productivity through quality of life for Air Force people. U.S. Coast Guard Since 2002, U.S. Coast Guard, Chesapeake, Virginia, has been aligned under the Department of Homeland Security. It provides recreation programs worldwide. The smallest of the service branches, it offers a critical element in the quality-of-life programming for its members and their families. Canadian Armed Forces • The mission of the Canadian Armed Forces, or the Department of National Defense, is to protect Canada, defend North America in cooperation with the United States, and to contribute to peace and international security. • The organization resides exclusively under the authority of the federal government and is present in every Canadian province and territory and represents the cultural, linguistic, and regional diversity of Canada. Canada’s Maritime Command/ Canada’s Land Force • Canada’s Navy conducts surveillance and defends waters against illegal fishing and ecological damage. Supports international initiatives for peace and humanitarian assistance. • Canada’s Army performs combat operations and supports peacekeeping and disaster recovery missions at home and abroad. In crises, the Army delivers assistance and helps civil authorities restore public order. Canada’s Air Command/ Department of National Defense • Air Force provides surveillance and control of Canada’s airspace, air transport of Canadian military personnel and equipment throughout the world, and supports Army and Navy operations. • Department of National Defense supports departments, civilians, and military families in more than 3,000 communities in Canada, with military and families representing more than half a million Canadians. Military Recreation Program Areas in Canada and the United States • Sports and fitness • Skill development • Libraries • Recreation centers • Outdoor recreation • Child and youth activities • Special events and entertainment • Business activities • Recreation clubs and private organizations Employment Opportunities • Employs thousands of civilians around the world. • Locations include the beaches of California, the sands of the Afghan desert, the icy rivers of Canada, and the high seas of the Atlantic. • Career provides upward mobility and opportunities to travel and live abroad. • Is the largest employer of physical education, human kinetics, and leisure study graduates. • Provides a variety of positions; 5,600+ staff deliver morale and welfare programming in Canada.
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