The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007 by 4qZ843


									Middle School Social Studies                                                               China
The Eastern World

                               SCoPE Site Lesson Plan
Title: Lesson 9 – Challenging the Government in China (SS070709)

In this lesson on political tension, stagnation, and change in China, the students read and write
about Tiananmen Square. They research the history of China in the 20th and the first part of the
21st century. The students create a chronology of political events. They examine the question,
“Can a single human being make a difference?” as they study the events of Tiananmen Square in
1989. Using pictures from the Internet, books, magazines, as well as pictures that they have
drawn, students create a collage that shows their impressions of the Tiananmen event. Finally,
they write statements about the question on a “Democracy Wall” (a large piece of paper posted in
the classroom).

Subject Area: Social Studies

Grade Level and Course Title: Seventh Grade/The Eastern World

Unit of Study: China

 Express an informed position on a current public issue involving China (VI.3.MS.1).

Key Concept

Instructional Resources
Current news article about the United States
Downtown        Map       of     Beijing.      Travel China   Guide.     8  May  2007
Markers and colored pencils
One large sheet of paper, at least 3’ x 6’ feet
Pictures of Tianenmen Square from listed Web sites and Travel China Guide. 8 May 2007
Poster paper for the collages

Student Resource
Around Tiananmen Square.        Ed. Peter Danford. At the Square. 8 May 2007

A classroom set of world atlases, such as: Atlas of World Geography. Chicago: Rand McNally,
    2006; or Hudson, J., and E. Espanshade, Eds. Goodes World Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally,
    2005; or The Nystrom World Atlas. Chicago: Nystrom, 2006.

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Middle School Social Studies                                                                 China
The Eastern World

Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History. National Security Archive Electronic
    Briefing Book No. 16. 8 May 2007

Tiananmen: The Gate of            Heavenly     Peace.    Long    Bow     Group.    8   May    2007

The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books, 2007.

Teacher Resource
China Today. InfoPacific Development Inc. Canada and Kompass (China) Information Service
    Co. Ltd. 8 May 2007 <>.

Goralewski, Sharon. Supplemental Materials (SS07070901.doc). Teacher-made material.
    Waterford, MI: Oakland Schools, 2007.

Tiananmen Square. 22 January 2007 <>.

Yee, Sophia. China expert Pye examines Tiananmen massacre. The Tech Online Edition. 8 May
    2007 <>.

Sequence of Activities
1. Tiananmen Square or “Heavenly Peace,” is a large open gathering space in the center of
   Beijing. It is often associated with the protests of the college students in 1989. The repressive
   rule of Deng Xiaoping was challenged through sit-ins and hunger strikes in the square. The
   government lost patience with these forms of rebellion and declared martial law. This power
   struggle reached its climax on June 3, 1989, when the army entered Tiananmen Square by
   force, leaving many people dead or wounded. On June 4, the remaining students negotiated
   with the army so that they were able to leave the square. This was one of the worst human
   rights disasters of the 1980s. Death toll figures vary from 500 up to 7000 with thousands
   more injured and over 10,000 arrested. Thirty-one people were tried under Chinese Law and
   executed. One of the most vivid images of this event was a young, unarmed man standing in
   front of a row of military tanks, refusing to let them enter the square. A copy of this picture
   can be found in the Supplemental Materials (SS07070901.doc).

2. Use a guided discussion to set the context for the students. Ask about political protests in
   United States history, citing the Boston Tea Party, as well as more recent protests. Point out
   that political protests are viewed differently within different political systems, and the
   communist system has a long history of violent suppression of political protest. The cases of
   Hungary in 1957 and later protests and revolts in Czechoslovakia and Poland against Soviet
   domination may be cited. Today, there are no open protests of any kind against the
   governments of Cuba, North Korea, or China that are not forcefully subdued by the
   government. Protests in these countries against other governments, such as the United States,
   do occur and are approved and sponsored by the government. The government does not

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Middle School Social Studies                                                               China
The Eastern World

   tolerate public displays that flout government policies, such as those by the Fulon Gong in
   China. A discussion of Core Democratic Values could also take place here if there is time.

3. Instruct the students to research information about Tiananmen Square as well as the events in
   China’s history that led up to the event. They may use a variety of sources including the
   Internet and interviews of people who remember the event. Have students construct a
   chronology of the events as part of the research to help them sequence the cause-effect and
   consequences relative to China. This “Chronology…” can also be found in the Supplemental
   Materials (SS07070901.doc). Some important dates include:

   Chronology of Events Leading to the Tiananmen Square Massacre and Afterwards
   1919       Protests over WW I distribution of land with Japan
   1921       Foundation of the Chinese Communist Party
   1940-45    Second World War; Sino-Japanese War
   1949       Mao Ze Dong comes to power with a communist government; founding of PRC
   1966-76    Cultural Revolution in China
   1972       Richard Nixon visits China
   1976       Chou En Lai dies; first Tiananmen incident
   1979       U.S. begins relations with China; protests are stifled in China
   1986       Protests begin on Chinese university campuses; students sent
              under detention to political reeducation camps
   1989       Tiananmen Square Massacre
   1991       First McDonald’s in China opens in Beijing
   1997       Hong Kong goes back to China from British rule
   2001       China joins World Trade Organization
   2008       China will host the Olympics in Beijing

4. Have the students collect pictures of Tiananmen Square from the Internet and books as well
   as drawing their own sketches. Symbols and slogans may also be incorporated into their
   work. Working in small cooperative groups, they create a collage that tells the story of the
   Tiananmen Square event. Once the collages are completed, the students present them to the
   class, explaining the significance of the pictures and symbols in relation to what happened
   there in 1989. The teacher leads the students in a summary of the results and ramifications of
   this event. Conclude the discussion with how it has affected foreign relations between the
   United States and China.

5. A large piece of paper is hung on the wall in the classroom. The question, “Can a single
   human being make a difference?” is written across the top. The student collages are hung
   around this paper. The teacher explains that a “Democracy Wall” existed for a time near
   Tiananmen Square where students were allowed to write their thoughts and ideas. In keeping
   with that idea, have the students write their own comments about what they have studied
   about Tiananmen Square and responses to the question on the paper. Encourage students to
   compare and reflect on ways in which core democratic values are not fostered in China's

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Middle School Social Studies                                                                China
The Eastern World

   political system. Encourage students to reflect on the absence of core democratic values in
   China with a statement like, "Why can't there be freedom of assembly in China?"

6. Bring a news headline or news article from a local paper or newsmagazine that addresses the
   idea of human rights in China. Also bring the editorial page from a newspaper or
   newsmagazine. Read the article about China to the class and discuss the issue. Explain to
   students the difficulty in discussing public policy issues in a country with a communist
   government. As a comparison, read the editorial from the newspaper or newsmagazine.
   Explain how the public is informed in many different ways about public issues in a
   democratic system of government. Guide the discussion so students reflect on the differences
   between the two systems of government and how they deal with public issues.

7. Use the news articles and editorial items as examples of current events items the students
   should begin collecting and bringing to class for Lesson 10. Assign each student to bring in a
   current event item involving China from a newspaper, newsmagazine, the Internet, or radio
   news or information program. Students should be reminded that National Public Radio and
   other radio and television stations often have World Wide Web sites where details of the
   current news may be reviewed.

The students demonstrate their knowledge of Tiananmen Square through their collages and their
discussion of the statements written on the “Democracy Wall.” In their discussion, the students
articulate basic differences between communist and democratic systems of government and how
public issues are addressed in each.

Application Beyond School
The students discuss other ways that people can work for change in their country or their
community. They continue to explore the question, “Can a single human being make a

English Language Arts
The students use speech and discussion skills learned in language arts class when presenting their

Students engage in informational reading when researching and creating a timeline of the events
leading to the Tiananmen Square Massacre.

The students use skills for creating a number line learned in math class when creating their
timelines of Chinese history.

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