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					      January 2007                                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



  Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: [WiBEEM (Wireless Beacon-enabled Energy Efficient Mesh network) technology for
                     BAN and U-City Core Services]
Date Submitted: [January 17, 2007]
Source: [Ho-In Jeon (1) and Jin-Seok Bae (2)]
   Company: [(1) Dept. Electronic Engineering, Kyung-Won University (KWU), (2) Korean Agency for
               Technology and Standards (KATS)]
   Address: [San 65, Bok-Jung-Dong, Sung-Nam-Shi, Kyung-Gi-Do, Republic of Korea]
   Voice 1: [ +82-31-753-2533], Voice 2:[ +82-10-4708-5328] FAX: [+82-31-753-2532],
   E-Mail: [jeon1394@kornet.net]
Re: [This work has been supported by KATS.]
Abstract: [This document proposes a Mesh Network Architecture that can be used for WBAN (Wireless
             Body Area Network) applications. The proposed technology is called WiBEEM providing
             beacon-enabled mesh network and thus reduces power consumption. The WiBEEM technology
             can be used not inly for WBAN not also many core services that U-Cities want to provide.]
Purpose: [Technical Contributions on the IEEE 802.15 SG-WBAN Standard]
Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for
discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this
document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right
to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.
Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE
and may be made publicly available by P802.15.
      Submission                         Slide 1                         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




       WiBEEM Technology for
       BAN (Body Area Network)
       and U-City Core Services
               Ho-In Jeon (1) and Jin-Seok Bae (2)
                 (1)   Kyung-Won University, and
(2) KATS       (Korea Agency for Technology and Standards)
                          Republic of Korea

Submission                 Slide 2            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                      Contents
•   Introduction to U-City and U-City Core Services
•   Ubiquitous Networking Technologies for U-City Services
•   Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15.4 Low Rate WPAN, and ZigBee
•   WiBEEM Technology: The one of the best architectures
    for WBAN and U-City Core Services
    – New MAC with Multiple Beacons in One Superframe and
      Beacon Scheduling for Power Saving
    – NAA-based Addressing Mode for Efficient Address Space
    – Device Mobility Supported.
    – WiBEEM Fast Routing Supported.
• Conclusions
    Submission          Slide 3            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                   Goals of U-City
• Construction of
     – Integrated, Taylored,
     – Intelligent, Context-Aware, and thus
     – Innovative City


• Based on U-IT Technologies that can provide the
  following features:
     – Always Connected
     – Broadband Network
     – Every Device in One Network
Submission               Slide 4              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 3 Keywords of Ubiquitous Networking
• Always Connected
  –   Shall support roaming and fast handoff.
  –   Shall support mobility and ad-hoc networking.
  –   Shall support seamless connections.
  –   Shall support real-time discovery and control of devices.
  –   Shall support barrier-free interfaces.
• Broadband Network
  – Shall support QoS to some level.
  – Shall support A/V streaming for VOD.
• Every Device in one Network
  – Shall support IPv6 for high-end devices.
  – Shall support USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks).
  – Shall support possible applications for RFID Tags
  Submission              Slide 5              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                 U-City Core Services
• U-Public Services
• U-Governance Service
• U-Environment Management Services
• U-Facility Management Services (Underground as well)
• U-Disaster Protection
• U-ITS Service
• U-Telematics Service

• U-Healthcare Service
  Submission          Slide 6        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



               U-City Additional Services
• U-Healthcare Service           • VoIP Service
• VoD and U-Education            • Wireless Internet Service
• Home Viewer Service            • Telematics Service with
• Home Appliances and              Car Remote Ignition
  Lights Control                 • U-Parking Lot Service
• Elevator Call Service          • Kids and Patients Care
• AMR Service                    • Senile Dementia Control
• Gas Valve Shut Down            • Digital Hospital with HL7
• Guest / Intruder Control       • Theme Park Management
  Submission           Slide 7              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 Technologies and Infrastructure for U-City
• Transport Layer: BcN, IPv6, MPLS
• Broadcasting: D-TV, T-DMB, S-DMB
• Wired Access Network: xDSL / FTTx / HFC
• Wireless Access: IS-95C, CDMA 2000-1x, IMT-2000, 4G,
  MBWA, WiBro/WiMax, HSDPA, HSUDA
• Local Area Network: Ethernet
• WLAN: IEEE 802.11a, b, g, n, e, f, i, n, r, s, u, v, w, y
• WPAN: WiBEEM, WiMedia, 802.15.4 + ZigBee, 4a, 5
• Terminal Interface: WWAN, RFID, IPv6
   Submission          Slide 8            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


  Evolution Roadmap of Cellular Tech.
1995                       2000                         2005                   2007                     2010

             CDMA                                              CDMA2000-1X
            (IS-95A)                                                EV-DV
           14.4 Kbps                                            (3.1/1.8)Mbps


             CDMA                            CDMA2000-1X       CDMA2000-1X          CDMA2000-1X
 Sync.      (IS-95B)
                          CDMA2000-1X
                                              EV-DO Rev.0      EV-DO Rev.A           EV-DO Rev.B
                            144 Kbps
 (NA)       56 Kbps                         (2.4 M/153K)bps     (3.1/1.8)Mbps       N × 3.1 Mbps


 1G
AMPS
                 2G            2.5 G              3G                          3.5 G                      4G

Async.           GSM        GPRS            EDGE
 (EU)           10 Kbps    144 Kbps        474 Kbps


                                           WCDMA         WCDMA           WCDMA            WCDMA
              PDC
                                           Release 3      Release 5       Release 6      Release 7/8
            28.8 Kbps
                                          (2.3/2.3) M   (14.4/2.3) M    (14.4/5.8) M     30 ~ 100 M

                                                        (HSDPA) (HSUPA)
   Submission                         Slide 9                          Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

Evolutions of WWAN Technologies
Moving Speed
                   2000                  2005       2010 and Later

 Cellular Tech.
                                                                      4G
      2G/2.5G               3G                   3.5G              Or Wired/
 GSM/cdmaOne              W-CDMA/               HSDPA               Wireless
                          cdma-2000                                Converged
WLL
        Wireless
                                                 WiBro              Network
        Access

IEEE 802.3                 WLAN                 IEEE 802.16e

         Ethernet          IEEE 802.11

 Internet Tech.                                                                                t
Submission                    Slide 10                    Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




             Some Service
      Scenarios with
               WiBEEM
Submission      Slide 11     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    U-Healthcare Service Scenario
                                                                                 U-Healthcare Center
               Home             4. Transmit the
                                                                Internet
 2. Data Collection
 3. Emergency Alert                Collected Data
                                                            FTTH
                             1. Subscription of U-Healthcare Service
                  RG(AP)
                                                                                 5. Store Data
                WiBEEM                                         Wireless          6. Analyze the Data
                                                               Internet

4. Transmit the                                   8. Emergency Service                   Hospital
   Collected Data
                WiBEEM                             WWAN
                                         10. Provision of Contents Subscribed
                           Cellular
                            Phone

                         2. Data                                                7. Call the Emergency Service
                            Collection
                         3. Emergency                                           9. Periodic Monitoring
                            Alert
  Submission                          Slide 12                           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


U-Healthcare Services and U-Terminal
• U-Terminal
• U-Healthcare Watch




 Submission       Slide 13     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


  U-Healthcare System Configuration
        Transfer the sensed bio-data from
           the healthcare watch to IDC
Healthcare                                             Base
                                                      Station
 Watch                                         2 Km
                              WiBEEM
                 < 20 m       Module                                        Interne
                             U-Terminal                                        t
          WiBEEM
          Module
                                                         Transmission of
                          < 20 m                        Analyzed Health
                                                        Status to the User

                                   WiBEEM                Algorithm for
                                   Module                  Analyzing
                               Residential                Health Data
                                Gateway
                                                                             IDC Server
                                                                              for CDSS
  Submission                        Slide 14                Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


       U-Healthcare Service Modules
                                                                           CDMA
                                           WiBEEM
                                                                          (or GSM)
Sensor1                                    RF Chip
                         WiBEEM                                            Module
                         RF Chip
Sensor2                                                    CPU              GPS
                                           ROM            (ARM9            Module
                CPU       RTC
                (Atmel                                       or
Sensorn                                                    Atmel
                 AVR                       RAM
                                                           AVR              LCD
                 128)     ROM
Device1                                                                   Controller
                                                            128)
                                            DSP
                                           (VoIP)                        Touch Pad
                          RAM
Devicen                                                                     and
                                            LCD                          Controller
    WiBEEM Module with
     Sensors or Devices                                 U-Terminal
   Submission                   Slide 15               Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

   U-Home with WiBEEM Technology
Utility     Washer                  Gas                                   Room
Room WiBEEM                  WiBEEM Meter                                            WiBEEM
                                                      WiBEEM               #3
                                                                                        PC
                                                      VPhone
  DTV WiBEEM               Gas Oven WiBEEM                        Bath-                PDA
                                                      Refrig.
   PC     Room #2                                         Oven    room                 DTV
                           Microwave                                                   STB
 DCam.                       Oven    WiBEEM

    : IEEE1394                    Kitchen
    : WiBEEM WiBEEM                                                        WiBEEM
                              VPhone             Living           Association Point                Door
                                                                                                  Phone
                                DTV              Room      WiBEEM
                                                            MPC                                   Meter
                                PVR                                                  WiBEEM       Reader
 WiBEEM          Room #1                  WiBEEM                                                  Power
                              DCam.                                                     PC
   DTV                                                      VDSL          Room                    Meter
                               DAM                         MODEM                       PDA
   PVR                                                                     #4                     Water
                   Phone        HS/                       Phone                      Printer      Meter
                                    AP or
   PDA             Jack       MMRG PNC
                                                          Jack                        DCam.
Cable, Satellite, Terrestrial           FTTH                         DSLAM
                                                                                    ONU         Internet
    Submission                        Slide 16                        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

U-Parking Lot Service with WiBEEM
Wired Network                        WiBEEM Gateway     U-Parking Lot
                  WiBEEM MRC           with/without       Controller
Wireless Mesh                         Gate Controller
Assoc. Relation   WiBEEM Sensor Node                                     Interne
    WiBEEM
                                                                            t



Basement 2
                                                                     U-Parking
                                                                     Lot Server
   WiBEEM                                     WiBEEM Gateway




                                                                            U-City
                                                                            Control
Basement 3                                                                  Center
                                                            Basement 4
                          WiBEEM
Submission               Slide 17                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Characteristics of U-Parking Lot Service (1/2)
• One MPC will take care of all the MRD’s, the sensor
  nodes as well as moving cars with U-terminal.
• The gate controller functioning as the Gateway could be
  the best position of MPC.
• Association point seems to be always the same.
   – The MPC appears to be the best Association point for all the
     incoming cars.
   – The PNC could be the best short address assigner.
• The limitation of the maximum number of children for
  any router of the wireless network may seriously limit the
  applicability of the protocol.
   Submission            Slide 18            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 Characteristics of U-Parking Lot Service (2/2)
• Devices are moving fast! (at least 30 Km/h)
   – Reassociation should be avoided due to the fact that there can be
     heavy unnecessary association request traffic.
   – The network address shall be the same for any position.
• Traffic Directions
   – Every traffic from both sensor nodes and the mobile terminal is
     toward the MPC.
   – The delivery of the traffic from the MPC to the incoming cars
     requires fast routing using the RREP type of AODV-like
     simplified reactive routing algorithm is required and possible.
   – No need to send RREQ by MPC, rather RREP sent directly by
     the moving cars.
• Disassociation request before leaving the network will be
  very important for address space reusability.
  Submission             Slide 19             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                      Telematics Service
• U-Terminal Interfaced with Car ECU through WiBEEM


                           Satellite

          Home
         Network

 Satellite
  DMB                    WiBEEM

                                       WiBro



         Telematics


  Submission               Slide 20      Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                   U-ITS Service
     U-Terminal      Traffic Controller
                  with WiBEEM Module
   WiBEEM MRC      (WiBEEM Gateway)       Interne
                                             t                   U-City Control
                                                                    Center




Submission                Slide 21               Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                 U-Gas Station Service
Internet
                  MPC                    Mesh                     Mesh
                  Gas                     Gas                     Gas
                                         Pump                    Pump
                 Station
                 Office


                 Mesh                   Mesh                    Mesh
                  Gas                    Gas                     Gas
                 Pump                   Pump                    Pump




                 Mesh                   Mesh                    Mesh
                  Gas                    Gas                     Gas
          OUT    Pump                   Pump                    Pump
                   Disassociation                           Association IN
                       Point                                  Point
  Submission                 Slide 22             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                  U-Restaurant Service
Internet
                  MPC
                                          WiBEEM                       WiBEEM
                Restaurant
                                          Table 1                       Table 2
                  Office




                   WiBEEM                 WiBEEM                       WiBEEM
                    Table 3                Table 4                       Table 5




                   WiBEEM                 WiBEEM                        WiBEEM
                     Table 6              Table 7                        Table 8
        OUT
                    Disassociation                               Association IN
                        Point                                      Point
 Submission                    Slide 23                Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Characteristics of U-Restaurant Services
• One MPC at the restaurant office will take care of all the
  MRDs, the sensor nodes and U-terminals.
• The restaurant office could be the best position of MPC
  with MEU Gateway functionality.
• The U-Payment service shall also be available.
• The characteristics of the U-Restaurant service is almost
  same as the U-Gas Station service, while it can be a very
  dense mode environment.




   Submission         Slide 24           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               U-Tourism/Cultural

                                    U-Terminal                  U-City
                WWAN                                         Control Center




                                         WiBEEM




      Museum
                              Monariza           Historical Tower
Submission         Slide 25                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Dense Mode in a Subway Station
                          R            R       R            R         R
R     R         R                                                                   R
                    R              R       R
                                                   12
                                                                13          R
R       R  R       R                      9
                          R        8             11
                                                         R
       R     RF Range R
              R               5       7       10           R
R        R                                          R
     R          R       2       4        6     R
   R   R   R                                      R R
                   R        1      3        R
     R   R    R                                       R     R
R                     R MPC            R       R
       R   R     R              14                       R
   R                                     R        R
         R    R    R                R                      R
 R   R                                      R        R
           R     R    R 15 R           R
   R   R
                        R
                                               R         R R
         R    R    R             R        R         R
     R                     R                               R
        R R     R     R              R         R       R
 Submission             Slide 26                        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



     Characteristics of Dense Mode
• Dense mode means that there are a lot of nodes within
  the RF range of each other.
• If there are limitations of maximum number of children
  that can associate, there may be a ridiculous tree
  topology for the tree routing.
• Unnecessary routing will also be needed even if the
  blue routable device (node 13) may directly want to
  send his data to the MPC device.

 Submission          Slide 27           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



Environment Management with Mesh
                        Sensor Nodes           Sensor Gateway               U-City
                                                                          Management
                                                                            Center

        N         N-1   N-2    N-3             2         1        0


                                   20 Km

• A scenario in which the device 1 wishes to send its sensed data to
  device N which is the sensor gateway located 20 Km apart.
• Assumptions
   – The RF range of each device is assumed to be 20m.
   – Multi-hop topology has been used for the propagation of data
   – Each device is assumed to use beacon to reduce power consumption.

   Submission                 Slide 28               Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Fundamental Philosophies for U-City
• Adopt as many standardized technologies as possible.
• Apply minimum number of technologies.
• Minimize the number of terminals to be used.
• Provide maximum number of services.
• Guarantee the Interoperability for different services in
  the U-City
• Guarantee the Interoperability for different/Similar
  services in different U-Cities.
• One of the solutions could be WiBEEM
  technology and Broadband WWAN.
    Submission       Slide 29          Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


WiBEEM: the Solution for These Issues
• Mesh Networking Capabilities with very Low Power
  Consumptions: Multiple Beacons in BOP with Beacon Scheduling
• Fast Mobility Support of New Devices: RREP
• Single Association Point without Limitation on the Maximum
  Number of Children: Efficient Address Allocation with NAA
• Fast Association of New Device with Dynamic Topology
• Fast Routing: RREP-like packet transmitted by the mobile device
• Fast Device and Service Discovery: NAA
• Disassociation Notifications for Address Space Reusability
• QoS Support: Needs more research
• Apply WiBEEM technology to all the services!!!
  Submission            Slide 30            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




               Bluetooth
               Technology
Submission       Slide 31     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


     Bluetooth V1.1 = IEEE 802.15.1
                      • Forget Plug and Play - Just Play
                      • 723.2Kbps (Async) (v1.1)
                      • 3 Mbps (v2.0 EDR)
                      • 2.4GHz ISM band
                      • 3 Voice Channels
                      • 8 Participants in a Piconet
                      • Crucial component for the
                        wireless world!
                      • Simple Cable Replacement

Submission     Slide 32              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Piconet and Scatternet of Bluetooth

                   Slave 3
      Slave 2                              Slave 2           Slave 3


                       Master                             Master               Slave 4



                                                                               Slave 5
             Slave 1                           Slave 1

    Bluetooth Piconet: BT1.1                   Bluetooth Scatternet: BT1.2
   (Most Bluetooth devices are BT1.1            (Being defined in BT1.2, but not
 compliant, and only 8 active nodes can         stabilized yet, and only CSR has
participate in wireless communications.)       announced the basic functionality.)

    Submission                  Slide 33                   Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Fundamentals of Bluetooth Technology
• Long Association Time: 3 seconds
   – Scanning the whole channel take a long time.
   – Mobility cannot be supported.
   – The FHS (Frequency Hopping Sequence) must be downloaded.
• Bandwidth vs. Data Rate
   – 723.2 Kbps using 83.5 MHz Band
   – Data conflicts with 1/79 whenever new PAN joins the network.
• Limited Number of Active Participants: 8
   – Limits the applicability drastically.
• Scatternet is not supported yet.
   – Network Expandability problem.
  Submission              Slide 34             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                      Bluetooth Profiles
    Generic Access Profile
                                           TCS-BIN-based Profiles
      Service Discovery                    Cordless Phone        Intercom
      Application Profile                  Profile               Profile

        Serial Port Profile
         Dial-up Networking Profile               Generic Object Exchange
                                                  Profile
                  Fax Profile                       File Transfer Profile
                Headset Profile
                                                     Object Push Profile
               LAN Access Profile
                                                   Synchronization Profile
                  Car Profile


Submission                      Slide 35                    Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




               ZigBee over

      IEEE 802.15.4
Submission        Slide 36     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Superframe Structure of 802.15.4
Beacon                                                                                          Beacon
                  CAP                       CFP

                                         GTS        GTS
                                          #1         #2                  Inactive

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15                                                                0 1 2
                 SlotD (Slot Duration)
    SlotD = aBaseSlotDuration × 2SO [symbols]
          = 60 × 2SO [symbols] = 0.96 × 2SO [msec]


                 SD (Superframe Duration)
   SD = aBaseSuperframeDuration * 2SO [symbols]
      = 960 * 2SO [symbols] = 15.36 * 2SO [msec]


                           BI (Beacon Interval) = aBaseSuperframeDuration * 2BO [symbols]
                                                = 960 * 2BO [symbols] = 15.36 * 2BO [msec]




    Submission                           Slide 37                         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


ZigBee over 802.15.4 Protocol Stack
                                        Application (APL) Layer
                       Application Framework                             ZigBee Device Object (ZDO)
                                                                              Device              Security




                                                           ZDO Public
                                                            Interfaces
                                                                            Management           Management
                  Application           Application
                  Object 240       …                                          Binding              Network
                                         Object 1
                                                                             Management           Management

                 Endpoint 240            Endpoint 1                                 Endpoint 0
                                                                                                                                            ZigBee
                 APSDE-SAP              APSDE-SAP                                  APSDE-SAP                                                Alliance




                                                                                                                     ZDO Management Plane
                                                                                                         APSME-SAP
                                Application Support Sublayer (APS)

                  APS Security          APS Message               Reflector            Discovery
Security          Management              Broker                 Management           Management

                   NLDE-SAP
Service
                                       Network (NWK) Layer




                                                                                                      NLME-SAP
                                                                                                          -
Provider         NWK Security            Network                 Routing               Network
                 Management            Message Broker           Management            Management

                   MLDE-SAP                                                              MLME-SAP

                             Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer
                    PD-SAP                                                                PLME-SAP                                          IEEE 802.
                                       Physical (PHY) Layer                                                                                   15.4
                                2.4 GHz Radio                             868/915 MHz Radio


  Submission                                    Slide 38                                         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Mesh of ZB Works at Non-Beacon Mode
                            3          52
                4                                              36
                            0          5
                0                                              1
                                                     35                           21
                        2                            5                            0
        5               1
        0                                       0
                                                17                                           20
                    6                                     18               19                0
                    0           1           ZBC           5                1
                                5
                                                17
            7                                   1                                          22
                                12                        24             23
            1                   1                         1              0                 0
                                          13
                                          0

• All the intermediate nodes have to be awake all the time.
   – There is no synchronization mechanism for wake up.
   – The router devices wastes battery very fast.
   – It has been reported that 2 AA batteries last only 3 hours.
  Submission                         Slide 39                       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


         Beacon Scheduling in ZigBee
• Beacon scheduling in ZigBee can be applied only for low
  duty cycle, e.g., 1%.
Parent
                                                : Beacon       : CAP

                  Beacon Tracking
Child



                     Beacon Tx Offset
Grand
Child


Grand
                             Beacon Tx Offset
Grand
Child

   Submission                    Slide 40         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 Problems of Beacon Scheduling in ZigBee
• Serious Propagation Delay with the Increasing Depth
    – The delay is computed to be (n – 1) × Superframe Length
    : Beacon
    : CAP          Depth = 4, Data Transfer Path: 5 → 4 → 3 → 2 → 1
         Superframe #1   Superframe #2    Superframe #3       Superframe #4
1
2

3

4

5
         Data Transfer    Data Transfer   Data Transfer        Data Transfer
          from 5 to 4      from 4 to 3     from 3 to 2          from 2 to 1
    Submission                Slide 41               Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Basic Parameters for Addressing in ZBA
• Hierarchical block addressing for Tree Routing.
• The tree topology is specified by three parameters:
   – Lm = Maximum Tree Depth.
   – Cm = Maximum Number of Children per Node
   – Rm = Maximum Number of Routable Devices
• Total size of Address Block allocated to the tree:
                                Lm + 1
                        1–    Cm
           Bsize =
                            1 – Cm
• Size of the block allocated to a child at level Li+1:
                                                 L –d–1
                            1 + Cm – Rm – Cm × Rm m
               Cskip(d) =
                                       1 – Rm
  Submission                     Slide 42             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
        January 2007                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


            Logical Address Block Assignment
        4
                       3        52                          36       Cm = 4, Rm = 3, Lm = 3
                       0        5
        0                                                   1
                                                  35                         21
                 2                                5                          0
5                1
0                                    0
                                     17                                                 20
             6                                         18           19                  0
             0             1                           5            1
                           5

    7                                 17               24          23                22
    1                                 1                1           0                 0
                           12                                                       Lm – d – 1
                           1                           1 + Cm – Rm – Cm × Rm
                                     Cskip(d) =
                     13
                                                                 1 – Rm
                     0
                                     An = Aparent + Cskip(d) × Rm + n is the address of the
                                          end device when it associates at the nth order.

        Submission                     Slide 43                           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

Limitations of ZigBee Hierarchical Addressing
                                                                 70000
• It wastes the address




                                Number of Addresses Allocated
                                                                 60000
                                                                                                                           ZigBee(2, 2)
  space too quickly.                                             50000




                                           주소할당개수
                                                                                                                           ZigBee(3, 2)
                                                                 40000                                                     ZigBee(4, 2)
• It limits the network                                          30000                                                     ZigBee(3, 3)
                                                                                                                           ZigBee(4, 3)
  expandability.                                                 20000
                                                                 10000
                                                                                                                           ZigBee(5, 3)

• It does not provide                                               0
                                                                             1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  device mobility due                                                                          깊이
                                                                                              Depth
  to the limitation of                                            35000
  the maximum                    Number of Addresses Allocated    30000
                                                                                                                        ZigBee(4,   4)
  number of children                                              25000
                                            주소할당개수

                                                                                                                        ZigBee(5,   4)
                                                                  20000                                                 ZigBee(6,   4)
  that can associate.                                             15000                                                 ZigBee(5,   5)
                                                                                                                        ZigBee(6,   5)
• Some devices cannot                                             10000

                                                                   5000
                                                                                                                        ZigBee(7,   5)


  allow new devices to                                                   0
                                                                               1   2    3     4    5    6   7    8
  associate.                                                                                  Depth
                                                                                              깊이

  Submission         Slide 44                                                               Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


HiLow: Hierarchical Routing for 6LoWPAN
• Address Assignment:                      • Route Computation
    C  MC  AP  N  1                        AP  ( AC  1) / MC 
   – MC : Maximum Number of Children          – AP : Parent’s Address
   – AP : Parent’s Address                    – AC : Current Node’s Address
   – N : The number of children that the      – MC : Maximum Number of
         current parent has.                    Children
   – C : The address of the new node.




  Submission               Slide 45                Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               Limitations of HiLow Routing
• It wastes the address space too quickly.
• It limits the network expandability, and thus applicability.
• It does not provide device mobility due to the limitation of the
  maximum number of children that can associate.

                                               70000
               Number of Addresses Allocated




                                               60000
                                                                                                 MC = 2
                                               50000
                         할당주소개수




                                                                                                 MC = 3
                                               40000                                             MC = 4
                                               30000                                             MC = 5
                                                                                                 MC = 6
                                               20000
                                                                                                 MC = 7
                                               10000
                                                  0
                                                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 13 14 15 16
                                                                           Depth
                                                                            깊이


  Submission                                                    Slide 46                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Adaptive Block Addressing of 802.15.5
• Stage 1: Association                                   [children#][children#]=[8][6]
                                                   A     resv’ed: [beg,end]=[0,9000]
• Stage 2: Children                                      branch1: [beg,end]=[9001,41000]
                                                         branch2: [beg,end]=[41001,65000]
  number collection                        B   [5][2]
                                               [9001,13000]
                                                            J    [5]
                                                                 [41001,45000]
• Stage 3: Address                             [13001,33000]
                                               [33001,41000]
                                                                 [45001,65000]
                                       [1][2][1]                    [3][1]
                                   C                H         K
  assignment                                       [1]
                                       [13001,17000]                 [45001,49000]
                                                   [33001,37000] [49001,61000]
                                       [17001,21000]
                                                   [37001,41000] [61001,65000]
   – An adaptive tree                  [21001,29000]
                                                  [0]
                                       [29001,33000]
                                                  [37001,41000]          [0]
                         D      E      G [0]    I         L           O
     (AT) is formed.    [0]       [1]    [29001,33000]
                                                             [1][1]      [61001,65000]
                                                              [49001,53000]
   – Additional     [17001,21000] [21001,25000]
                                  [25001,29000]
                                                              [53001,57000]
                                                              [57001,61000]
                                   F                         M         N
     addresses are                     [0]
                                                          [0]
                                                                        [0]
                                       [25001,29000]                    [57001,61000]
     reserved.                                            [53001,57000]



  Submission            Slide 47                        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




        WiBEEM Protocol

               for WBAN and

   U-City Core Services
Submission        Slide 48     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


   Overview of the WiBEEM Specification
• Features of WiBEEM             • Target market
  – Consumes very low power        – U-Healthcare
  – Ease of installation           – Information Infrastructure
  – Reliable data transfer           for Digital Hospital
    from 250 Kbps to 4 Mbps        – WBAN (Body Area Network)
  – 1-hop comm. within 30 m        – U-Home Networking
    and expandable to several      – Automatic Meter Reading
    kilometers via Mesh.           – Universal Remote Controller
  – Mesh topology for beacon-      – Automotive Networks
    enabled sensor networks        – Industrial Networks
  – Extremely low-cost             – Facility Management of a City
  – A very long battery life       – Sensor Network
  – A simple and flexible          – Audio/Video capable
    protocol
  Submission          Slide 49              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


             WiBEEM Protocol Stack
                                     Higher Layer
     NLDE-SAP                                                         NLME-SAP
                            WiBEEM NWK Layer
                        Network                 Network              Routing
      Security
                       Management             Message Broker        Management

     MLDE-SAP                                                        MLME-SAP
                                WiBEEM MAC Layer
     PLDE-SAP                                                         PLME-SAP
                       WiBEEM Physical (PHY) Layer
  2.4 GHz          2.4 GHz             2.4 GHz                             2.4 GHz
Radio (Ch.1)     Radio (Ch.2)        Radio (Ch.3)                        Radio (Ch.16)


Submission                      Slide 50                Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


     PHY Overview of the WiBEEM
• Data Rate
   – Minimum 250 Kbps when just one channel is used.
   – Maximum 4 Mbps for Isochronous Data using 16 channels
• Channels
   – Max 16, Min 1 channel in the 2.4GHz ISM band
   – ACA (Adaptive Channel Aggregation) concept is used.
• Modulation
   – O-QPSK at 2.4GHz
• Coexistence with
   –   802.11b DSSS and 802.11g OFDM of WLAN
   –   802.15.1 FHSS of Bluetooth
   –   802.15.3 DSSS of High-Rate WPAN
   –   802.15.4 O-QPSK of Low-Rate WPAN
  Submission          Slide 51            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                       PPDU: 133 Bytes
      Octets: 4          1       1                         8 to 127
                      Start of
      Preamble                 Frame
                      Frame                     MPDU (MAC Protocol Data Unit)
      Sequence                 Length
                     Delimiter


       SHR (Synchronization   PHR ( PHY           PSDU (PHY Service Data Unit)
             Header)           Header )


                                 PPDU (PHY Protocol Data Unit)


• Bigger PPDU size would be preferable.
   – Large file synchronizations.
   – PACS applications in the hospital
• Data contention and delay may cause some problems.
  Submission                    Slide 52                   Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
    January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


      MAC Overview of the WiBEEM
• Multiple Beacons in one Superframe
• Low Power Consumption due to the Perfect Synchroni-
  zation all over the Network by using Beacon Scheduling
• Dynamic Channel Selection
• Network Topology
     –   Star Topology
     –   P2P Topology
     –   Cluster-tree Network Topology
     –   Mesh Topology for Beacon as well as Beaconless Network
• 65,536 = 216 devices per MPID (Mesh Piconet ID)
• Data Security Support with AES-128 Security

    Submission            Slide 53            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


              WiBEEM MAC Services
• MAC Data Service
• MAC Management Service
• Beacon Management
• Channel Access based on CSMA/CA
• CFP Management
• Frame Validation
• Acknowledged Frame Delivery
• Association/Disassociation
• Data aggregation from multiple PHYs
 Submission          Slide 54       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
     January 2007                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



      WiBEEM Superframe Structure
Beacon #1     Beacon #n
                                                                                                Beacon #1
  Beacon #2


       BOP            CAP               CFP                                DSP
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

     BOPL
   BOPL = BTTSL × maxBeaconNumber [symbols]



            SD (Superframe Duration)
     SD = aBaseSuperframeDuration × 2SO [symbols]
        = 960 × 2SO [symbols]

                                     BI (Beacon Interval)
                            BI = aBaseSuperframeDuration × 2BO [symbols]
                               = 960 × 2BO [symbols]

     Submission                        Slide 55                       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
     January 2007                                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


      Beacon Frame Format and Payload
Bits : 0-3         4-7         8-11           12               13         14             15
                               Final
Beacon Superframe                         Battery life             PAN     Association
                               CAP                     Reserved
Order    Order                            Extension             Coordinator Permit
                               Slot

  Octets: 2              1        4/10                 2              k     m            Variable             2
                   Beacon  Source                         Pending
   Frame                             Superframe CFP                                       Beacon
                  Sequence Address                        Address                                           FCS
   Control                           Specification Fields                                 Payload
                  Number Information                       Field


          MHR (MAC Header)                                     MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit)              MFR
                                                                                                      (MAC Footer)


         1
 Octets: 1               1            1         1          2          2         2          1         1            1

                   My BTTS                                           Child  Parent                Child        My
                                                                                    HOP
   BOPL           (BeaconTx     BTTSL Depth NAA                      Short   Short                Device      Profile
                                                                                    Count
                   TimeSlot)                                        Address Address                Type         ID

     Submission                             Slide 56                            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                                    CFP Fields
• WiBEEM allows only 1 CFP.


                        Octets : 1                   0/1            3
                           CFP                      CFP           CFP
                       Specification              Directions      List



  Bits : 0       1-6         7            Bits : 0-6       7   Bits : 0-15    16-19       20-23

   CFP                                      CFP                  Device       CFP
                            CFP                                                           CFP
 Descriptor Reserved                     Directions Reserved      Short      Starting
                           Permit                                                        Length
  Count                                    Mask                  Address       Slot




  Submission                           Slide 57                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                 Pending Address Field
• WiBEEM allows 7 pending addresses.

                             Octets : 1            variable
                              Pending
                                                   Address
                              Address
                                                     list
                            Specification




   Bits : 0-2       3            4-6           7                                  Octets : 2

  Number of                 MAX Size of
                                                                                    Short
 Short Address   Reserved   Short Address   Reserved
                                                                                   Address
   Pending                    Pending

  Submission                    Slide 58                        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                      MAC Commands
   Command Identifier                   Command name
               0x01                    Association request
               0x02                   Association response
               0x03                Disassociation notification
               0x04                       Data request
               0x05                PAN ID conflict notification
               0x06                    Orphan notification
               0x07                      Beacon request
               0x08                 Coordinator realignment
               0x09                       CFP request
Submission              Slide 59              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


  Operating Principles of WiBEEM Devices
• Devices are associated sequentially, one by one.
• The relation between parent and children are
  characterized by association request and response.
   – My parent and children are my neighbors.
   – All devices I can hear are my neighbors.
• When an association request is granted by multiple
  nodes, the new node decides to associate with the node
  which has the lowest depth.
• When depth information is the same, he decides to
  associate with the node which transmits his beacon
  earlier than others.
  Submission           Slide 60            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


  Assoc. and Direct Links Relations
                   2                          5
               1
          PNC                                         6           8
                                      4
                       3                  7


• Blue line: Association relations between parent and child
• Red Line: Direct Communication Capable
• Association Policy
   – New nodes are trying to get associated with the node which is
     as close to the PNC and possible.
   – So, a device with lower depth is the highest priority.

  Submission               Slide 61                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                 Association Policy
• New nodes are trying to get associated with the node
  which is as close to the PNC and possible.
• So, a device with lower depth is the highest priority..
• If RSSI is not high enough for reliable communications,
  then it can choose other node as its parent.
• When an association request is granted by multiple
  nodes, the new node decides to associate with the node
  which has the lowest depth.
• When depth information is the same, he decides to
  associate with the node which transmits his beacon
  earlier than others.
  Submission         Slide 62          Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



Assoc. and Direct Links Relations
                 2                          5
                                    9
             1
        PNC                                         6           8
                                    4
                     3                  7

                 2                          5
                                    9
             1
        PNC                                         6           8
                                    4
                     3                  7

                 2                          5
                                    9
             1
        PNC                                         6           8
                                    4
                     3                  7
Submission               Slide 63                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


              Beacon Scheduling Concept
                                                                                           Node 17
                               14                               16
                                                                              Neighbor Nodes 11,13,14,16
                                                      17
          12
                                                                                Neighbor's
                                                                                             2, 5, 9, 12
                                                           13                 Neighbor Nodes
                                11                                                  Depth                   3
15
                                                                               Beacon Time              1, 2, 3, 4,
                       2                                                       Slots to Avoid           5, 7, 9, 10
                                                                     5
                                                  9                                My BTTS                  6
     1
                                                                         6
    MPC                                           4                                  8             10

                           3                                    7

                               BOP                              CAP          CFP           Deep Sleep               BOP
1    2    3    4   5       6   7     8   9   10                                                                 1    2

     10 12 14          15      11            13                                                                      10
     16                17                                                                                            16

 Submission                                       Slide 64                     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
         January 2007                                                                                                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

                Beacon Scheduling for 40 Nodes
                                                                                                                        14                          16
                                                                                             8                              11
                                                                                                                                         17         12
                                                                                                  12                                                         13
                                                                                                                                     9
               29                                                                                                                                                 18
                    12                                                                                                                        13
                                  10                                                6                                                    10
     11                                                                                                                 11                                                  11
                                       26                                               15                                   7
    27                   9
                                                                             22                                                                                                  19
                25                                   23                            7
                                                                                                           2                                         5
                                                              8
     39                                                                                                            2             9
                                                                                                                                                         5             10
          13             6                                                              1                                                9                                  20
                              24                     28                                      1                                                                6
                                                12                       5                                                       4
                                                                             21                                                                                   6              8         10
           14                                                                            MPC                   3                         4
                                                                                                                                                                            8
     38                                                                                                            3                                 7                                 9
                                                              10
                                                                                        15
                7                     13                                                                                                                 7
                                                                    30                       34
           37                              32
                                                    16                                                             40
                    15                                                        11                                        5
                                               36
                             35                               14                   31                                            BTTS
                                                                  33                    BTTSL
1    2     3    4         5       6        7     8       9     10      11    12    13   14   15       16                                                      Deep Sleep
                                                                                                                        CAP                   CFP                                     BOP
1    2     3    4        5        6        7    8        9     13      14    16    18   33   34       36

                     21       15       11       12       10   20       19    28    32   38       35

                         40   24           22   23       17   26       27    29    39
                                       37                25    30      31

         Submission                                                          Slide 65                                                     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    NWK Overview of the WiBEEM
• Network Formation by Passive and Active Scan
• Network Growing and Network Management
• Efficient Real-Time Short Address Allocations
   – Addressing mechanism based on NAA (Next Address
     Available) algorithm for Efficient Address Space Usage
   – The short address can be assigned in real-time.
• Low Latency Routing Mechanism
   – WiBEEM Routing based on simplified AODV-like routing
   – Different from the ZigBee routing
• Network Message Broker
• High speed mobility support
• Data Fragmentation
  Submission           Slide 66             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
        January 2007                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



             NWK General Frame Format
Octets: 2    2         2         2    0/2               0/1        0/1      0/1        Var         Var      Variable

                Origi-      Max.                               Fragmen- Fragmen- Fragmen- Fragmen-
        Target                                     Broadcast                                                 Frame
                nator TTL Broadcast                              tation   tation   tation   tation
Frame Address                                     ID Number                                                 Payload
               Address    Hop Count                             Length      ID    Count    Number
Control

                            Routing Fields                               Fragmentation Fields
                                                                                                             NWK
                                                NWK Header                                                  Payload




    Bits : 0-1             2-5              6                  7              8              9            10-15

      Frame            Protocol      Discover                             Multicast
                                                        Fragmentation                   Security         Reserved
      Type             Version        Route                                Flag

        Submission                           Slide 67                        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                NWK Command Identifier
Command Frame
                     Command name                 0x0c                  Routing Table request
   Identifier
     0x01              Route request              0x0d                 Routing Table response

     0x02               Route reply               0x0e                   NAA Grant Request
                                                  0x0f                  NAA Grant Response
     0x03               Route Error
                                                  0x10                BTTSL Change Request
     0x04          Network Check Request
                                                  0x11               BTTSL Change Response
     0x05         Network Check Response
                                                  0x12            Device Wake Time Update (opt.)
     0x06         Neighbor’s BTTS request
                                                                        Device SP Request
     0x07         Neighbor’s BTTS response        0x13
                                                                    (Request Data format) (opt.)
                     Parent Relationship                               Device SP Response
     0x08                                         0x14
                         Change request                            (Response Data format) (opt.)
                     Parent Relationship          0x15              Device Reserve Period (opt.)
     0x09
                        Change response           0x16               POS Range Request (opt.)
     0x0a           Parent Change Notify          0x17              POS Range Response (opt.)
     0x0b                Still Alive         0x00, 0x18~0xff                   Reserved
   Submission                     Slide 68                     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 Short Address Allocation Mechanisms
• CAA (Centralized Address Allocations)
   – The new device waits until the PNC allocates one.
   – It may take too much time for the address allocation.
• LBA (Logical Block Addressing)
   – Waste of address space
• Hi-Low (Hierarchical Routing for 6LoWPAN: IETF)
   – Waste of address space
• ABA (Adaptive Block Addressing: IEEE 802.15.5)
• NAA (Next Address Available)
   – Possible address conflicts but can be resolved.
   – Perfect 16-bit address space reusability
 Submission             Slide 69             Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


  NAA Informartion in Beacon Payload
        Bits : 0-3          4-7       8-11            12            13             14              15
                                      Final
         Beacon Superframe                        Battery life             PAN     Association
                                      CAP                      Reserved
         Order    Order                           Extension             Coordinator Permit
                                      Slot

Octets: 2          1          4/10                2            k         m              Variable           2
                Beacon  Source                         Pending
 Frame                            Superframe CFP                                        Beacon
               Sequence Address                        Address                                           FCS
 Control                          Specification Fields                                  Payload
               Number Information                       Field


       MHR (MAC Header)                                   MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit)                MFR
                                                                                                   (MAC Footer)


        1
Octets: 1          1              1        1          2         2            2           1         1           1

                My BTTS                                       Child  Parent                    Child        My
                                                                             HOP
 BOPL          (BeaconTx      BTTSL Depth         NAA         Short   Short
                                                                             Count
                                                                                               Device      Profile
                TimeSlot)                                    Address Address                    Type         ID

  Submission                           Slide 70                              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



Efficient Real-Time Addressing by NAA
   Association Request                        NAA Grant Request
   Association Response                       NAA Grant Response



                                  MPC
                                          A       NAA Value in the
                                                 Beacon Payload is 6




              MRC   B                     C    MRC                 D    MRC

                         NAA Value in the
                        Beacon Payload is 6
                                                            MRC
                                                                    G
 Submission                    Slide 71                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Efficient Real-Time Addressing by NAA
   Association Request                        NAA Grant Request
   Association Response                       NAA Grant Response



                                  MPC
                                          A        NAA Value in the
                          3                       Beacon Payload is 6




              MRC   B                     C    MRC                 D    MRC

              1          NAA Value in the
                        Beacon Payload is 6
                    2
                                                            MRC
          E=6                                                       G
 Submission                    Slide 72                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Efficient Real-Time Addressing by NAA
   Association Request                          NAA Grant Request
   Association Response                         NAA Grant Response



                                 MPC
                                          A          NAA Value in the
                                                    Beacon Payload is 7.



                                 4
              MRC   B                     C      MRC                  D    MRC

                          NAA Value in the
                         Beacon Payload is 7.
                                                               MRC
              E                                                        G
 Submission                   Slide 73                      Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



Efficient Real-Time Addressing by NAA
   Association Request                       NAA Grant Request
   Association Response                      NAA Grant Response


                                               MC
                             MPC
                                         A           NAA Value in the
                                                    Beacon Payload is 7.

                                     3         4

              MRC   B                    C     MRC                   D     MRC


                                     1         2
                                                              MRC
              E                          F=7                          G
 Submission               Slide 74                         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



   Advantages of WiBEEM Addressing
• No address waste.
• Device discovery done when the address is granted.
• The concept of NAA (Next Address Available) allows
  the complete reuse of the 16-bit address space when the
  node has been disassociated.
• Possible address conflicts that can be resolved when
  two nodes join the network at the same time.
• Reasonable delay for resolving the address conflicts.


  Submission          Slide 75          Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                   WiBEEM Routing
• The NAA does not allow the tree routing because of the
  no-systematic addressing mechanism.
• The tree routing, however, limits the applicability of the
  protocol drastically.
   – The number of new devices to join in.
   – Device mobility
• WiBEEM routing has only one mandatory routing
  algorithm:
   –   Does not support Tree routing.
   –   WiBEEM routing with simplified AOVD-like reactive routing.
   –   Different from ZigBee routing
   –   Different from HiLow routing.
   Submission            Slide 76              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


        Comparison of Routing Protocols
                      LOAD        DYMO-low          AODV     TinyAODV          ZigBee       WiBEEM
RERR Message           Use           Use             Use       Use              Use            Use
   Sequence
    Number
                     No Use          Use             Use       Use             No Use        No Use
 Precursor lists     No Use         No Use           Use      No Use           No Use        No Use
Gratuitous RREP      No Use         No Use           Use      No Use           No Use        No Use
  Hop Count            Opt           Opt             Use       Use             No Use          Opt
Hello Messages       No Use         No Use           Use      No Use           No Use        No Use
  Local repair       No Use         No Use           Use      No Use            Use          No Use
 Energy Usage          Low           Low             High      Low              Low            Low
Memory Usage           Low           Low             High      Low              Low            Low
   Mobility        Mobile/Static Mobile/Static      Mobile    Mobile        Mobile/Static    Mobile
 Control Packet
  Aggregation
                     No Use          Use            No Use    No Use           No Use        No Use
   Submission                            Slide 77                      Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




         Implementation of

WiBEEM Technology :

  U-Parking Lot System
Submission     Slide 78     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
   January 2007                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                  Why U-Parking Lot?
• Wide area of parking lot space covering several hundred meters
  with 4 or 5 floors using WiBEEM mesh network.
• When the parking lot is in the underground, there is no location
  information based on GPS processing, and the WPAN mesh will
  be the only mechanism that can provide location information.
• Cars coming into the parking lot can be 32,000 associating with
  one single point of the network, and sensors can be upto 32,536.
• Devices are moving as fast as 30 Km.
• Very similar to the infrastructure of digital hospital.
   – Emergency ambulances are coming rapidly.
   – Need to get information about the car and patient as soon as possible using
     the digital hospital infrastructure.
   – While moving, information has to be updated.
• Once U-Parking Lot service is implemented, almost every service
  can be proved.
   Submission                Slide 79                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

U-Parking Lot Service with WiBEEM
Wired Network                        WiBEEM Gateway     U-Parking Lot
                  WiBEEM MRC           with/without       Controller
Wireless Mesh                         Gate Controller
Assoc. Relation   WiBEEM Sensor Node                                     Interne
    WiBEEM
                                                                            t



Basement 2
                                                                     U-Parking
                                                                     Lot Server
   WiBEEM                                     WiBEEM Gateway




                                                                            U-City
                                                                            Control
Basement 3                                                                  Center
                                                            Basement 4
                          WiBEEM
Submission               Slide 80                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



               MPC Module




Submission      Slide 81     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               MRC Module




Submission      Slide 82     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



               Ultra Sonar Sensor Module




Submission            Slide 83     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


         Terminal Carried in the Car




Submission       Slide 84     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                       PAN Formation
• The WPAN has been formed successfully by associating
  sequentially, one, by one.
   – Initial WiBEEM Network formed.



                                    Sensor




                          MRC

                 MPC
                                         MRC
                          MRC


                                               Sensor

  Submission             Slide 85                       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


     Beacon Scheduling in the BOP
• Beacon Scheduling Performed Successfully
   – Transmission and reception of WiBEEM Devices.
   – Checked the BOP (Beacon Only Period).
   – Checked the Beacon Scheduling in the BOP.


                                       MRC



                                             MRC
                                 MRC

                MPC
                                             MRC
                                 MRC
        MPC                                            MRC
 Submission           Slide 86                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


    Beacon Scheduling in the BOP


               NAA




                                BOP




Submission           Slide 87           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Short Address Allocation based on NAA
• Short address allocation based on NAA has been
  implemented
   – The beacon contains the new address continuously.
   – When there is a address conflict, address reassignement was
     made successfully.
                                   Sensor




                         MRC

                 MPC
                                            MRC
                         MRC


                                                  Sensor

  Submission            Slide 88                           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

               Address Allocation by NAA



                   NAA in Beacon Payload




                                               NAA Update Command



               Assigned Address



                                              BTTS Request Command



Submission                 Slide 89          Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



                   WiBEEM Routing
• Checked that the optimal route has been found.
   – Checked the validity of WiBEEM routing algorithm.


                                  MRC




                                        MRC
                          MRC


                 MPC
                                        MRC
                          MRC
      MRC
                                                   MRC


  Submission           Slide 90                 Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


 WiBEEM Routing Table in each MRC
• The routing tables of each device has been shown
• Format:        0x0001 : 0x0005 : 0x0005
                 Destination     Next-hop
                  Address                                Depth
                                 Address




  Submission          Slide 91              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

 Parent-Child Relationship Change
• When the overall network has been formed and a
  device is moving, there is the disconnection between
  the parent and child device.
• By using Parent-Child Relationship Change command,
  the mesh network works without reconfiguration.
   – This confirms the mobility support of WiBEEM devices

                                  Sensor 1




                       MRC 2
                 MPC
                                        MRC 3
                        MRC 1

                                                Sensor 2
  Submission           Slide 92                       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Parent-Child Relationship Change




                          Relationship Change Command




Submission     Slide 93     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               Photo of Basement 1




Submission         Slide 94     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               Photo of Basement 2




Submission         Slide 95     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

               Diagram of Masement 1
                                                               MPC
                                                                MR
                                                          S8     C
                                                               Sensor

                                 Area 1
                            S8
                              11

         Area 2   S9
                  S9



                       12


                            10


1
                   9

Submission                  Slide 96        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                 Diagram of Basement 2
                                                                                  Area 4
                                                                     S7
                                                                              8
                  Area 2


                 S4
                 S4

                               13              14
                       S3
                        S3                                                        7
                           3
                 Area 1                                         Area 3

                 S2
                 S2
                                      4                         S6
                                                                S6


                          2                         5                6
                          S1
                          S1                                             S5
                                                                         S5




         1 MPC
       Gate to
      Basement
          2
Submission                          Slide 97              Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


               Photo of MRC installed




Submission           Slide 98     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007              doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Photo of Sensor Module Installed




Submission     Slide 99     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


             Photo of MPC and Server




Submission         Slide 100     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Connecting Corridor between B1 and B2




 Submission     Slide 101     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
 January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



Display of Server Program Executed




 Submission     Slide 102     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


Status of Sensor Module Displayed


     Position Information




                                   Number of Cars Parked


               Address Information of
               Sensor Nodes and MRC
Submission             Slide 103           Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



    Display after successful association
• Display when successful association is made.




  Submission      Slide 104       Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


   Display after a space has been allocated.
• The available parking space is B2 in floor




  Submission      Slide 105        Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban

      Parking Space Reassignment
     Due to Unexpected Preemption
• When the parking space that been assigned to park is
  preempted by an unexpected car, the WiBEEM system
  automatically informs the driver where to park.




  Submission        Slide 106         Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban



    Search of driver’s parking space
• The terminal can tell the driver where he parked his car.




<When wrong number entered.>     <When correct number entered.>
  Submission         Slide 107            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007               doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




               5C…


Submission     Slide 108     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                 IEEE 802 Five Criteria
• BROAD MARKET POTENTIAL
   – Broad sets of applicability
   – Multiple vendors, numerous users
• COMPATIBILITY
• DISTINCT IDENTITY
   – Substantially different from other 802 Projects
   – One unique solution per problem (not two solutions to a problem)
• TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
   – Demonstrated system feasibility
   – Proven technology, reasonable testing
• ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
   – Known cost factors, reliable data
   – Reasonable cost for performance
  Submission                Slide 109                  Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
  January 2007                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban


                    Conclusions
• Introduced Concept of U-City and Services
• Networking Technologies for U-City Core Services
• Analyzed the fundamental limitations of Bluetooth and
  ZigBee over IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.
• Introduced WiBEEM (Mesh-Enabled USN) Architecture
   – Multiple beacons in one superframe
   – All the beacons are scheduled to avoid beacon conflicts.
   – Real-time, efficient short address allocation based on NAA.
• WiBEEM Protocol is one of the the best technologies for
  WBAN, Digital Hospital Information Infrastructure, and
  many U-City Core Services.
• It provides best interoperability for the services.
  Submission            Slide 110            Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)
January 2007                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-07-0576-00-0ban




               Acknowledgment
 • This work has been supported by KATS.




Submission        Slide 111     Ho-In Jeon (KWU) and Jin-Seok Bae (KATS)

				
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