"Causes of the Civil War video notes final"
Events leading to the Civil War Erie Canal - an artificial waterway, completed in 1825, that serves as an important northern transportation route linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River. The American System of Manufacturing - a type of business production characterized by the use of interchangeable parts and the factory system that was popularized in America in the early 19th century. market economy - an economic system in which there is a free exchange of goods by individuals and corporations. cash crop - an agricultural product that is produced and sold by farmers in large quantities, i.e. cotton and tobacco. cotton gin - a machine invented by Eli Whitney that separates the seeds and shells from cotton bolls. Its invention resulted in a dramatic rise in the harvesting of southern cotton in the 19th century. The success of the cotton gin also resulted in the further entrenchment of slavery in the south. cotton belt - the name given to the area of the American south where cotton was the main cash crop and the foundation of the economy. Nat Turner's revolt - an 1831 slave insurrection led by Nat Turner that was unsuccessful but dispelled the myth that enslaved Africans were content with their condition. New England Anti-Slavery Society - a northern abolitionist group that William Lloyd Garrison helped found in 1832. abolitionists - anti-slavery reformers who campaigned to emancipate the slaves and to end slavery. Frederick Douglas Sojourner Truth John Brown Underground Railroad - a secret network of stations (locations) maintained by people who were against slavery to help fugitive slaves escape to the north and Canada. Missouri Compromise - an 1820 agreement reached between the north and the south that tried to maintain the balance between free and slave states in America. As part of the compromise, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, while Maine was admitted as a free state. Fugitive Slave Law - a law passed by Congress as part of the Compromise of 1850 that made it illegal for citizens to protect runaway slaves. Uncle Tom's Cabin - a best-selling book written in 1852 by abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe that informed and influenced many Americans on the issue of slavery. Kansas-Nebraska Act - a controversial law passed by Congress that permitted the residents of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether slavery would or would not be permitted in their states. Dred Scott v. Sandford - a critical 1857 Supreme Court decision that further inflamed hostilities between the north and the south regarding slavery. As part of its ruling, the Court stated that Scott, an African American, was not a citizen and did not have the right to sue for his freedom. Dred Scott v. Sandford, (1857), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that ruled that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants—whether or not they were slaves—could never be citizens of the United States, and that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories. Dred Scott was a slave whose owner took him to a free states (Illinois and Minnesota). After he was returned to a slave state (Missouri), he took his case to court to try to become free. The abolitionists in the North are worried about the expansion of slavery into the new states in the West. The pro-slavery people in the South are happy because they can continue owning slaves. John Brown’s attack on Harper’s Ferry armory. John Brown and his associates raid the federal armory in Harpers Ferry, VA. Federal troops attack the fire house where John Brown and his men are killed or captured in 1859. Brown is captured and hung. The South was concerned about the expansion of slave revolts. John Brown is hung for treason The United States Census of 1860 gives a picture of the overall 1860 population of the areas that joined the Confederacy. Note that population-numbers exclude non-assimilated Indian tribes. % of Free Total Total Total Slaves Total Total Total # Population State # of # of Free as % of free Population Slaveholders Owning Slaves Households Population  Population colored Slaves Alabama 964,201 435,080 96,603 529,121 33,730 6% 45% 2,690 Arkansas 435,450 111,115 57,244 324,335 11,481 4% 26% 144 Florida 140,424 61,745 15,090 78,679 5,152 7% 44% 932 Georgia 1,057,286 462,198 109,919 595,088 41,084 7% 44% 3,500 Louisiana 708,002 331,726 74,725 376,276 22,033 6% 47% 18,647 Mississippi 791,305 436,631 63,015 354,674 30,943 9% 55% 773 North Carolina 992,622 331,059 125,090 661,563 34,658 5% 33% 30,463 South Carolina 703,708 402,406 58,642 301,302 26,701 9% 57% 9,914 Tennessee 1,109,801 275,719 149,335 834,082 36,844 4% 25% 7,300 Texas 604,215 182,566 76,781 421,649 21,878 5% 30% 355 Virginia 1,596,318 490,865 201,523 1,105,453 52,128 5% 31% 58,042 Total 9,103,332 3,521,110 1,027,967 5,582,222 316,632 6% 39% 132,760 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas were candidates for President in 1860. They were debating about slavery and other national issues. The people of the country and the voters became more aware about slavery through these debates. The South is concerned about losing power in the national government. In 1860, Lincoln was elected President. The Northern States, California and Oregon voted for Lincoln. The Southern States voted against him. Within a few months, the Confederacy (CSA) was formed by delegates from the states that seceded from the USA in February, 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama. They formed the CSA to protect the way of life in the South, including slavery. The south felt like they had no voice in the national government. The Civil War started in April 1861 when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter. During the next 4 years, 600,000 people died. The Confederacy was fighting to control their way of life and keep slavery. The North is fighting to keep the Union together and to end slavery.