colonization answers by c3aUuWY

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									     Correct Answers for European Exploration and Colonization Study Guide

1. What did exploration and colonization         1. worldwide commercial expansion or
initiate or begin?                               trade
2. What products were exchanged between          2. agricultural products
the Americas and Europe?
3. To what ideas did European colonization       3. ideas of representative government and
in the Americas eventually lead?                 religious toleration that were later copied in
                                                 other parts of the world
4. What does religious toleration mean?          4. that one accepts another person’s
                                                 religion, even though it is different
5. What factors shaped regional economic         5. climate, soil conditions, and other
differences in the American colonies?            natural resources
6. What large group of immigrants to the         6. Africans
New World came involuntarily?
7. Why did the Puritans settle New               7. They were seeking freedom from
England?                                         religious persecution in Europe.
8. Define the term Puritans.                     8. Englishmen who believed the Anglican
                                                 Church should purify or cleanse itself by
                                                 abandoning its ritual and ceremony.
9. What was another name for the Anglican        9. Church of England
Church?
10. Who were the Pilgrims?                       10. a group of extreme Puritans
11. Where did the Pilgrims settle?               11. Plymouth, Massachusetts
12. What is a covenant?                          12. a promise or agreement
13. What was the Mayflower Compact?              13. an agreement signed by the male
                                                 passengers on the Mayflower to respect
                                                 laws agreed upon for the general good of
                                                 the colony
14. Who founded the Massachusetts Bay            14. Puritans
Colony?
15. What basic unit of settlement was used       15. the town
by Puritan church congregations in the
Massachusetts Bay Colony?
16. What is the historical significance of       16. In these town meetings the Puritans
the Puritan town meetings?                       practiced a form of direct democracy.
17. Explain how direct democracy worked          17. Each member of the Puritan church
at New England town meetings.                    could vote at town meetings and thereby
                                                 participate directly in making the laws for
                                                 that town. In other words, each Puritan
                                                 church member helped make the laws for
                                                 their town.
18. Name the four New England colonies.          18. Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
                                                 Connecticut, and Rhode Island
19. What ancient model did New England           19. direct democracy in ancient Athens; the
town meetings follow?                            “Athenian” direct democracy model



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20. What were the two major reasons why           20. religious freedom and economic
the Puritans settled in New England?              opportunity
21. What European groups chiefly settled          21. English, Dutch, and Germans
the Middle Atlantic region?
22. Why did European immigrants settle in         22) religious freedom and economic
the Middle Atlantic region?                       opportunity
23. What served as the major reason for the       23. economic opportunity
settlement of Virginia and the other
Southern colonies?
24. Who were the Virginia “cavaliers”?            24. English nobility, who received large
                                                  land grants in eastern Virginia from the
                                                  King of England
25. What was the occupation of many poor          25. Small farmers or artisans; they settled
English immigrants to Virginia and in what        in the Shenandoah Valley or western
part of the colony did many of them settle?       Virginia
26. Define the term artisans.                     26. skilled craftsmen
27. Define the term indentured servant.           27. people who agreed to work for a master
                                                  for a fixed period of time in order to pay
                                                  for passage to the New World
28. Who were these indentured servants            28. poor people from England, Scotland,
and from where did they often come?               and Ireland
29. What was the first permanent English          29. Jamestown; 1607
settlement in North America, and when
was it settled?
30. What was the Virginia House of                30. Virginia’s lawmaking body; it was the
Burgesses, and why was it important?              first elected assembly in the New World
31. What has been the name of Virginia’s          31. the General Assembly
lawmaking body, since independence from
Great Britain?
32. What regions of the Western                   32. the Caribbean, Central America, and
Hemisphere did the Spanish explore and            South America
settle?
33. How did European colonization affect          33. 1) Violent conflicts, 2) Indians lost
the American Indians?                             their land, 3) Indians died of European
                                                  diseases like smallpox
34. What region of the Western                    34. Canada
Hemisphere did the French explore?
35. How did the effects of French                 35. 1) no large-scale immigration from
exploration differ from those of English          France, 2) French had better relations with
exploration?                                      the Indians
36. What institution was introduced into          36. African slavery
the New World as a result of the
agricultural economy which developed in
the Southern colonies and the Caribbean
Sea?
37. What was the result of European               37. Europeans forced millions of Africans



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introduction of African slavery in the New         to come to the Americas against their will.
World?
38. What were the three regions of English         38. 1) New England colonies, 2) the middle
settlement along the Atlantic coast?               colonies, 3) the Southern colonies
39. What formed the economic basis of              39. shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-
colonial New England?                              scale subsistence farming, and eventually,
                                                   manufacturing
40. Define subsistence farming.                    40. growing only enough food to feed
                                                   one’s family
41. What Puritan values were reflected in          41. Puritans’ strong belief in hard work and
the prosperity of the New England                  thrift
colonies?
42. Name the middle colonies.                      42. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
                                                   and Delaware
43. What formed the basis of the middle            43. shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and
colonies’ economy?                                 trading
44. What two cities in the middle colonies         44. New York and Philadelphia
began to grow as seaports and commercial
(trade) centers?
45. What was the basis of the economies in         45. large plantations that grew cash crops
the eastern coastal lowlands of Virginia and       (tobacco, rice, and indigo) for export to
the other Southern colonies?                       Europe
46. What are Virginia’s eastern coastal            46. Tidewater
lowlands called?
47. Name the Southern colonies.                    47. Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina,
                                                   North Carolina, and Georgia
48. What was the case crop of colonial             48. tobacco
Virginia?
49. What were the two cash crops of                49. rice and indigo
colonial South Carolina?
50. What formed the basis of the economy           50. subsistence farming, hunting, and
of the Southern colonies in the mountains          trading
and valleys of the Appalachian foothills?
51. What strong belief regarding property          51. a strong belief in private ownership of
rights was shared by all the English               property and free enterprise
colonies in North America?
52. What two labor systems supplied the            52. indentured servants and African slaves
labor needs of the plantation economy
which developed in the Southern colonies?
53. What was the origin of most of the             53. poor people from England, Scotland, or
indentured servants in colonial America?           Ireland
54. Where and when did the first Africans          54. Jamestown; 1619
arrive in colonial America?
55. What is believed to have been the legal        55. indentured servants; over time Africans
status of the first Africans brought to the        were treated as “servants for life” and later
New World? How did the status of                   slaves



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Africans change over time?
56. Define the term Middle Passage.                56. the cruel and inhuman transportation of
                                                   African slaves by ship from Africa to the
                                                   New World
57. What two developments resulted from            57. the African slave trade and a slave
plantation economies and labor shortages           labor system
in the English colonies?
58. Eventually what war was caused by the          58. the American Civil War
development of a slavery-based agricultural
economy in the Southern colonies?
59. What served as the basis of society in         59. religious standing
colonial New England?
60. What was the Puritans’ attitude towards        60. grew increasingly intolerant of
religious dissenters?                              (prejudiced against) dissenters who
                                                   challenged Puritan beliefs
61. Define the term religious dissenters.          61. people who disagree with the dominant
                                                   religion
62. What dissenter founded the colony of           62. Roger Williams; to flee persecution by
Rhode Island, and why did he start a new           Puritans in Massachusetts
colony?
63. What religious groups settled in the           63. Quakers in Pennsylvania; Presbyterians
middle colonies and in which colony did            in New Jersey; Jews and Huguenots in
each group settle?                                 New York
64. Who were the Huguenots?                        64. French Protestants
65. What religious groups generally                65. Quakers, Presbyterians, Huguenots, and
believed in religious tolerance?                   Jews
66. What socio-economic class developed            66. a middle class of skilled artisans,
in the middle colonies and in what ways            entrepreneurs, and small commercial
did members of this class earn a living?           farmers
67. Define the term entrepreneur.                  67. business owners
68. What formed the basis of the social            68. family status and land ownership
structure in Virginia and the other Southern
colonies?
69. Who dominated the colonial                     69. Large landowners
government and society in the Southern
colonies?
70. What was the most important church in          70. the Church of England
Virginia and the other Southern colonies?
71. Which region of the American colonies          71. the Southern colonies
generally maintained stronger ties with
Great Britain: the Southern colonies, the
New England colonies, or the middle
colonies?
72. Who played leading roles in the                72. planters
colonial legislatures of the Southern
colonies?



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73. Who made up society in the mountains    73. small subsistence farmers, hunters, and
and valleys of the inland South?            traders of Scots-Irish and English
                                            background
74. Define the term Scots-Irish.            74. Scottish Protestants, who settled in the
                                            northern part of Ireland as part of
                                            England’s effort to control Ireland
75. What was the “Great Awakening”?         75. a religious movement that swept both
                                            Europe and the colonies during the mid-
                                            1700s
76. Who was the major leader of the “Great 76. George Whitefield
Awakening”?
77. What two Protestant denominations       77. Baptists and Methodists
experienced rapid growth as a result of the
“Great Awakening”?
78. How did the “Great Awakening” relate 78. It laid one of the social foundations for
to the American Revolution?                 the American Revolution, because it had
                                            challenged the existing religious and
                                            governmental order in the various colonies.




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