COLONIAL DISCOURSE by dffhrtcv3

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									COLONIAL DISCOURSE
 COMPETING NATIONALIST
        VISIONS
     COLONIAL KNOWLEDGE

Colonial conquest was not just a result of the
power of superior arms, military organization
or economic wealth.
It was sustained and strengthened by cultural
techniques of rule.
Colonialism knowledge both enabled conquest
and was produced by it.
     COLONIAL KNOWLEDGE

Through this knowledge new categories were
created to enhance the gap between colonizers
and colonized or modern and traditional or
European and Asian.
There were constitutional question: A private
trading company controlling the largest colony
of Britain. Above all, India had strong political
and cultural roots and indigenous populations
could not be wiped out completely.
     COLONIAL KNOWLEDGE

Legitimization of rule was conceived in
reconstruction of India’ past and instruments
of governance were sought from the past as
well…
Models
Castes
Religion
Region
Language
  THE CATEGORIZATION OF
COMMUNITIES: HINDU/MUSLIM
The British understanding of Hinduism
developed with the discoveries and writing of
the Orientalists and Indologists.
Hinduism remained an incomprehensible and
mysterious religion for the British.
At the onset the Brahmin was perceived as the
focal point of Hindu religion and of the
community.
        “THE HINDU MIND”

The limited vision of Brahmanical Hinduism
was enlarged by the works of German
Indologists Hegel, Schlegal and Max Muller.
Their worldview of the Indian mind as of a
system of dream like knowledge dominated by
created vision (study of the Upanishads and
Puranas).
        “THE HINDU MIND”

This version of a “Hindu mind” was construed
in this way that the ‘spiritual India’ could
never co-exist peacefully with the ‘material
west’.
     THE “HINDU” IDENTITY

The elusiveness of the faith of the majority of
populace of India made the British turn to
alternative way to manage the Indian
population and that was make use of caste and
custom categories to make sense of the
society.
Caste, in particular was favoured for it
provided a way to control the society at the
     THE “HINDU” IDENTITY

local level and was used to categorized the
Hindu community as a whole.
The late nineteenth century ethnographic
enterprise was based upon caste, rather than
sect. In many reports a commonly used
heading was ‘ Caste if Hindu, otherwise
religion’.
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

The British had considerable amount of
knowledge about Islam which had been
increasing from the days of Crusades.
Two contrasting viewpoints about Indian
Muslims: 1) from the European encounter with
Muslim in the Middle East; 2) Oriental
construct of distant Asian lands where a
tropical climate shaped effeminate peoples.
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

The pre-colonial Indian polities were
understood as Islamic it was easy to project the
stereotypes constructed in the Middle East
upon India’s Muslims.
The result was the two communities: Hindus
and Muslims were imagined (first) to be
opposed to each other.
The Indian Muslims were depicted as invaders
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

who had ruled over India with violence and
self-indulgence.
British attitude towards Muslims had been of
suspicion and the revolt of 1857 was perceived
as a conspiracy of Muslim against the British.
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

Such views continued even after the
suppression of the revolt. 1860s and 1870s this
aura of suspicion remained a powerful force in
shaping British conceptions of their Muslim
subjects.
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

Gradually, this monolithic view about Indian
Muslims became to be changed and gave way
to give to the conception of giving them
safeguards as their were in minority.
      THE INDIAN “MUSLIM”

“ By the end of the nineteenth century this
insistence that India was divided into two
opposed religious communities shaped the way
out that only the British, but increasing number
of Indians, viewed their society” (Metcalf p.
148).
        IDEOLOGY OF RULE

At the same by the late nineteenth century the
authoritative conception of the two faiths and
the character of their adherents, had been set
firmly in place.
The British also believed that the religious
beliefs defined membership in a larger
community. To be a Hindu or Muslim
explained the way in which the Indians acted.
        THE ALLIANCES…

The alliances built by the British after the
categorization of their Indian subjects can
also be seen as a balancing act of managing
different and inherently opposed
communities. The process of bridging the
gaps and conciliations also had two things
very clear: A) Mobilize support for the
British Raj. B) Never to repeat the mishap of
1857 (always ready for counter offensive).
 CREATING A “PUBLIC”SPHERE

These various communities participated with
the imperial rulers in a distinctively colonial
public arena. An expanding print media, with
public meetings, and voluntary associations,
gave expression to this autonomous public
discourse.
But the emergence of public arena remained
extremely limited in its scope and
responsibility. For the most part the state itself
           PUBLIC SPHERE

at once created and defined the “public”.
The electoral process did not create the public
sphere as it developed in England, for
example.
In other word the state remained the sole
arbitrator about what was lawful public
discourse and what was not.
It was a mechanism (public arena) through
           PUBLIC SPHERE

which the state could control the society more
effectively.
The communities were included as actors in
the public arena but what their individual
members did remained a “private” matter. The
private affairs included marriage, family life
and also the practice of religion.
The religious observations were confined to
the private sphere and the individuals were
           PUBLIC SPHERE

required to manage it on their own.
The Indians were incapable of managing the
public space because of their irrational attitude
dominated by passion and emotion.
Indian people had no conception of a larger
public sphere except representing their
narrowly constituted communities.
Thereby, any activity undertaken by the self
           PUBLIC SPHERE

appointed leaders was not legitimate.
The claim of the Indian National Congress that
it represented all Indians was dismissed as
preposterous.
John Strachey (India) “ there is not, and never
was, an India possessing any sort of unity,
physical, political, social, or religious, no
Indian nation, no people of India, of which we
hear so much.” (quoted in Metcalf p. 188).
           PUBLIC SPHERE

The same categorization of public and private
was adopted by the nationalists. Their response
was both derivative and different (more in next
class).
The Council Acts can be taken as a graph
showing the institutional development of
public representation in colonial India.
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

The reform movement that made spectacular
advance in late nineteenth century was Arya
Samaj founded by the wandering sanyasi
Dayanand Saraswati (1824-83) and the
movement acquired a strong base in Punjab
and parts of western UP).
Saraswati criticized the existing Hindu
practices such idolatry, polytheism, child
marriage, taboo on widow
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

remarriage, foreign travel and Brahmanical
supremacy. Dayanand also asserted the
supremacy of the Hinduism based on the
infallibility of Vedas over other religions.
From 1900 onwards the Arya Samajis carried
on large scale shuddi or mass purification and
conversion of the lower castes- Rahtias, Odhs,
Meghs, Jats and other trading groups.
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

Revivalism in Bengal was popularized by
Rama Krishna (1836-96) who taught seeking
inspiration from devotional bhakti cult of
Chaitanya.
But it was disciple Swami Vivekananda who
founded the Rama Krishna Mission in 1896
and became an internationally known figure.
 He preached self strengthening and social
service. His teachings acknowledged the
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENT

The reformist and revivalist movements of
Islam started emerging in the late nineteenth
century.
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s educational and
intellectual movement was based in western
United Provinces. He tried to convince the
upper class Muslims to appreciate the virtues
and benefits of English education. He
established the Aligarh Anglo Muhammaden
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

College in 1875. He was a great scholar of
Arabic, Persian, and English. He emphasized
the validity of free inquiry (ijtihad) and the
alleged similarities between Quran and the
laws of nature discovered by modern science.
He encouraged the Muslims to profess their
loyalty towards the British and opposed those
who wanted to join the Indian National
congress. He was the first leader to talk about
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

the separate representation for the Muslims.
Sir Syed’s views (a quote from his speech in
1888), “ Now, suppose that all the English and
the whole English army were to leave India,
taking with them all their canon and their
splendid weapons and everything, then who
would be rulers of India? Is it possible that
REFORM/REVIVAL MOVEMENTS

under these circumstances two nations- the
Muhammadans and the Hindus- could sit on
the same throne and remain equal in power.
Most certainly not”.
    FORMATION OF NATIONAL
         MOVEMENTS
 INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS AND ITS
EARLY PHASE FROM 1885-1905 WILL BE
DISCUSSED.
THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
WAS FIRST POLITICAL ASSOCIATION
WHICH CLAIMED TO REPRESENT ALL
INDIANS WAS FORMED IN 1885.
INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (1885-
             1905)
Indians learnt their positive national
consciousness lesson from the British
examples of political consolidation,
technological integration, administrative unity
and the sublimation of personal interest and
identity to the impersonal laws and “higher”
needs of national purpose.
In 1885, seventy five men came together to
         INDIAN CONGRESS

represent all provinces of India and formed an
association under the guidance Allan Octavian
Hume and the first session was held in
Bombay in December 1885.
The principal demand of the Congress were:
Extension of Indian representation in the
Legislative councils
Give Indian greater powers to discuss budgets
         INDIAN CONGRESS

Indianization of Indian Civil Services by
holding examinations in India.
Higher jobs in army for the Indians and
demand for racial equality.
Inquiry into the endemic poverty and famines
in India by elaborating the Drain of wealth
theory.
The leaders of the congress were mostly
         INDIAN CONGRESS

English educated and believed in the good
government created by the British in India.
Politics for these early leaders was very much
a part time affair and they did not represent the
public opinion (if there was any) at all.
According to United Province Lt. Governor
Auckland Colvin called the congress
“microscopic minority” and tried to obstruct
the congress session in Allahabad in 1888.
PARTITION OF BENGAL (1905-11)

The Indian National Congress leadership
opposed the partition of Bengal through the
conventional methods: press release, meetings
and petitions and conferences.
The evident and total failure of such
techniques led to search for a formal boycott of
British goods. There was appeals of rakhi-
bandhan by Rabindranath Tagore which meant
wristlets of coloured thread were
      PARTITION OF BENGAL

exchanged on Partition Day (October 16) as a
symbol of brotherhood, and the hearth kept
unlit as a sign of mourning.
The British crackdown on student picketers
through threats of withdrawing grants,
scholarships and affiliation from nationalist
dominated institution led to a movement for
boycott of official educational institutions and
     PARTITION OF BENGAL

organization of national schools.
Tensions mounted with further measures of
repression: lathi charge by Gurkha regiment in
Barisal, and arresting the picketers.
How the partition of Bengal affected the
Congress leadership and why?
It was a provincial issue why and how it
became a national issue?
      SWADESHI MOVEMENT

The Swadeshi movement can be seen as the
starting point of how the local and communal
issues became national issues, yet remained
localized.
The agitation against the partition of Bengal
became the largest movement at the time
against the British imperialism.
     PARTITION OF BENGAL

The methods to oppose the Partition of Bengal
led to lot of differences in the Congress
leadership and it became clear that the split
was inevitable.
       EXTREMIST LEADERS

The Extremist leaders such as Bal Gangadhar
Tilak, Bipin Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai (known as
Bal Pal Lal in the nationalist literature/folk
tales) dominated the Congress during this
period. The split with the Congress was
cemented when Dadabhai Naoroji was elected
as President (equally respected by all factions)
in 1908.
      EXTREMISTS LEADERS

But the resolutions of the session marked the
height of Extremist influence with its
resolutions on Boycott, Swadeshi, National
Education, and Self Government (Swaraj).
Tilak’s famous quote: “ Swaraj is my birth
right and I will have it”.
 RISE OF MUSLIM SEPARATISM

The British propaganda that the new province
of East Bengal will create more jobs for the
Muslims did achieve considerable success in
swaying upper and middle class Muslims
against the Swadeshi movement. There were
some memorable scenes of fraternization like
10,000 strong joint student procession in
Calcutta on September 23rd 1905 and presence
of several sincere swadeshi Muslim agitators.
      MUSLIM SEPARATISM

The agitation against the Partition of Bengal
resulted in some harsh realities for Indian
Muslims.
The celebration of religio-political festivals
like Ganapati festival in Maharashtra, the
reverence given to Shivaji (a Marathi zamindar
who had revolted against the Mughals) as a
national hero, cow protection movement,
movement to make Hindi the national
       MUSLIM SEPARATISM

Above all, the British categorization of “Indian
Muslim” was taking a firm shape. The Muslim
elite led by Aligarh group had started agitating
for separate electorates and representation in
excess of numerical strength in view of “the
value of the contribution” Muslims were
making ‘to the defence of the Empire’ (Sumit
Sarkar, p. 140).
          MUSLIM LEAGUE

The Muslim group led by Aga Khan went to
meet the viceroy Minto in Shimla (a hill
station) to plead for separate electorates.
Later on, Muslim League, the political
association for Muslims were established in
Dacca in 1907.
         MUSLIMS LEAGUE

On December 30 1906, the annual meeting of
Muhammadan Educational Conference was
held at Dacca under the chairmanship of
Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. For the first time the
conference lifted its ban on political
discussion, when Nawab Salim Ullah Khan
presented a proposal for establish a political
party to safeguard the interests of the Muslims;
the All India Muslim League.
  POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

As the institutions of the modern state were
elaborated in the colony especially in the
second half of the nineteenth century, the
ruling European groups found it necessary to
lay down- in lawmaking, in the bureaucracy, in
the administration of justice, and in the
recognition by the state of a legitimate domain
of public opinion- the precise difference
between the ruler and the ruled. Ironically,
           COLONIAL RULE

it became the historical task of nationalism,
which insisted on its own marks of cultural
difference with the west, to demand that there
be no rule of difference in the domain of the
state.
The legitimacy of the state in carrying out this
function was to be guaranteed by its
indifference to concrete differences between
  POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

private selves, differences, that is, of race,
language, religion, class and caste.
The production of nation by ignoring or
marginalising communities by the nationalists
left some unresolved issues.
Post colonial problems of South Asia are the
direct by product of this: regionalism, caste,
women issues, linguistic borders, marginal
groups and most importantly, communalism.
   MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS

In 1906, Lord Morley, the Secretary of State
for Indian Affairs, announced in the British
parliament that his government wanted to
introduce new reforms for India, in which the
locals were to be given more powers in
legislative affairs. With this, a series of
correspondences started between him and Lord
Minto, the then Governor General of India.
   MORLEY MINTO REFORMS

A committee was appointed by the
Government of India to propose a scheme of
reforms. The committee submitted its report,
and after the approval of Lord Minto and Lord
Morley, the Act of 1909 was passed by the
British parliament. The Act of 1909 is
commonly known as Morley Minto Reforms.
   MORLEY MINTO REFORMS

The following were the main features of the
Act of 1909:
1. The number of the members of the
Legislative Council at the Center was
increased from 16 to 60. 2. The number of the
members of the Provincial Legislatives was
also increased. It was fixed as 50 in the
provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, and
for the rest of the provinces it was 30.
    MORLEY MINTO REFORM



4. Right of separate electorate was given to
the Muslims.
 CONGRESS/ MUSLIM LEAGUE

There was increasing cooperation between the
Indian National Congress and All India
Muslim League.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah a prominent Bombay
lawyer and staunch supporter and member of
the Indian National Congress joined the
Muslim league at this time and was
      LUCKNOW PACT (1916)

The Lucknow Pact of 1916 saw a negotiation
between the League and the Congress in which
the Congress accepted the principle of separate
electorates. A bargain was struck over the
distribution of seats: Muslim leaders accepted
under representation in Muslim majority areas
(only 40% seats in Bengal), in return for over
representation in provinces like Bombay and
United Provinces where Muslims were in
      LUCKNOW PACT (1916)

minority (30% seats were assigned to them).
Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the main
architect of this pact.
             M K GANDHI

Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was born in
1869 into a bania (merchant trader) family in a
princely state of Porbandar, Gujarat. He went
to England to complete his law degree and
then went to South Africa in 1893.
He worked in Natal for nearly 20 years on
behalf of Indian community against racist
policies of white rulers.
              M K GANDHI

The close of Non-cooperation Movement in
1922 also saw the spread of communal
violence and the assertion of Congress that
only its brand of politics offered representation
to the nation.
It is also critical to keep in mind that Gandhi’s
ethical and political thought emphasized
discipline, self-discipline particularly, but also
             M K GANDHI

by extension, the disciplined mass protest.
While he is associated with mass protest, he
was deeply concerned about the potential
explosiveness of the uncontrollable masses.
Is Gandhi to be considered a new force in
Indian politics, or did he complement the
existing moderate infrastructure?

								
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