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Thought_ Language_ and Intelligence by pptfiles


									Thought, Language, and
               Thinking and Reasoning
•       Cognitive Psychology: The branch of psychology that focuses
        on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking,
        language, memory, problem-solving, knowing, reasoning,
        judging, and decision making.
•       Thinking: the manipulation of mental representations of
        information. Thinking transforms a specific representation of
        information into new and different forms, allowing us to
        answer questions, solve problems and reach goals.
•       Building Blocks of Thoughts
    –      Mental images: representations in the mind that resemble the
           object or event being represented.
    –      Concepts: categorizations of objects, events, or people that
           share common properties.
                          Thinking and Reasoning
•       Algorithms and Heuristics
    –     Algorithm: a rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a
          problem. Ex. Mathematical Formulas
•       Heuristic: A cognitive shortcut that may lead to a
    –     Representativeness Heuristic: a rule we apply when we judge people by
          the degree to which they represent a certain category or group of people.
          Concludes that something belongs in a certain class based on how similar
          it is to other items in that class. EX: given two boxes one with balls and
          the other with block which one would a balloon most likely fit with?
    –     Availability Heuristic: involves judging the probability of an event on the
          basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory. EX: You might
          make a judgment about not wanting to swim in the ocean after seeing the
          news report shark attacks.
• Steps In Problem Solving
  – Preparation: Understanding and Diagnosing Problems
     • A problem may fall into one of three categories:
        1. Arrangement Problems: require the problem solver to
             rearrange or combine elements in a way that will
             satisfy a certain criterion. Ex. Anagrams or Jigsaw
        2. Problems of Inducing Structure: a person must
             identify the existing relationships among the elements
             presented and then construct a new relationship
             among them. Ex. P168
        3. Transformation Problems: an initial state, a goal state,
             and a method for changing the state into the goal
• Production: Generating Solutions
  – Trial and Error
  – Means-Ends Analysis: repeated testing for differences
    between the desired outcome and what currently
    exists. Continuously asking where you are in relation to
    your final goal, and then deciding on the means by which
    you can get one step closer to that goal. EX: Get one main
    goal. Then set sub goals to achieve. Once achieved then
    set the next sub goal towards your main goal to achieve.
    Continue this process until main goal is achieved. Each
    step brings the problem solver closer to a resolution.
• Judgment: Evaluating the Solutions
  – Judging the adequacy of a solution.
  – If the solution is clear then we will know
    immediately whether we have been successful.
  – If the solution is less concrete or if there is no
    single correct solution, evaluating solutions
    become much more difficult. We must decide
    which alternative solution is best.
• Obstacles to Problem Solving
  – Functional Fixedness: the tendency to think of an
    object only in terms of its typical use.
  – Mental Set: the tendency for old patterns of
    problems to persist.
  – Confirmation Bias: the tendency to favor
    information that supports one’s initial hypothesis
    and ignore contradictory information that
    supports alternative hypothesis or solution. Even
    when we find evidence that contradicts a solution
    we have chosen, we are apt to stick with our
    original hypothesis.
• Creativity and Problem Solving
  – Creativity: the ability to generate original ideas or
    solve problems in novel ways.
  – Divergent Thinking: the ability to generate
    unusual, nonetheless appropriate, responses to
    problems or questions. Ex. What can you do with
    a newspaper? You can use it as a dustpan.
  – Convergent Thinking: the ability to produce
    responses that are based primarily on knowledge
    and logic. Ex. What can you do with a newspaper?
    You can read it.
•       Language: The communication of information through symbols
        arranged according to systematic rules.
•       Grammar: The system of rules that determine how our thoughts
        can be expressed. 3 major components of grammar.
    –      Phonology: the study of the smallest basic units of speech that affect
           meaning, and the way we use those sounds to form words, and produce
    –      Syntax: refers to the rules that indicate how words and phrases can be
           combined to form sentences.
    –      Semantics: meanings of words and sentences.
• Theories of Language
  – Learning Theory Approach: suggests that
    language acquisition follows the principles of
    reinforcement and conditioning.
  – Nativist Approach: a genetically determined,
    innate mechanism directs language development.
  – Interactionist Approches: the view that language
    development is produced through a combination
    of genetically determined predispositions and
    environmental circumstances that help teach
                         Diversity to Intelligences
•     Intelligence: the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use
      resources effectively when faced with challenges.
    –     Fluid Intelligence: reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and
    –     Crystallized Intelligence: the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies
          that are learned through experience and can be applied in problem-solving
•     Multiple intelligences
    –     Gardner focused on how people learn and use symbol systems like language,
          mathematics, and music. He believes that everyone possesses a number of
          intellectual potentials. Each has it’s own set of skills.
          a. linguistic intelligence: good vocabulary and reading comprehension.
          b. logical mathematical intelligence: good math and reasoning skills.
          c. Spatial intelligence: understanding relationships between objects.
          d. Musical intelligence: ability to have rhythm, tempo, and sound identification.
          e. Body-Kinesthetic intelligence: skills at dancing, athletics, and eye-hand
          f. Intrapersonal intelligence: self understanding.
          g. Interpersonal intelligence: ability to understand and interact with others.
          h. Naturalistic intelligence: ability to see patterns in nature.
•   Information-Processing Approach: asserts that
    the way people store material in the memory
    and use that material to solve intellectual tasks
    provides the most accurate measure of
•   Practical Intelligence: intelligence related to
    overall success in living.
•   Emotional Intelligence: the set of skills that
    underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation,
    expression, and regulation of emotions.
• Unusual Intelligence
  – IQ: A score that takes into account an individual’s
    mental and chronological age.
     • First Way: IQ Score = (MA/CA) X 100
  – High IQ scores tend to predict success in life but
    extremely high IQ does not guarantee anything!!!
  – People whose IQ is below 70 and who fail to display
    the skills at daily living, communication, and other
    tasks that are expected of those their age have
    traditionally been described as mentally retarded,
    developmentally disabled, or mentally challenged.
     Variations in Intellectual Ability
• Mental Retardation: A condition characterized by
  significant limitations both in intellectual functioning
  and in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.
• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A major cause of mental
  retardation in newborns, occurring when the mother
  uses alcohol during pregnancy.
• Familial Retardation: Mental retardation in which no
  apparent biological defect exists, but there is a history of
  retardation in the family.
• Intellectually Gifted: The 2% to 4% of the population
  who have IQ scores greater than 130.

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