5th Grade Language Arts Standards

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5th Grade Language Arts Standards Powered By Docstoc
					                         5th Grade Language Arts Standards

Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard

Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and
Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard

Informational, Technical, and Persuasive Text Standard

Literary Text Standard

Writing Processes

Writing Applications

Writing Conventions

Research

Communication: Oral and Visual
Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and
Fluency Standard
Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and
decode printed words, developing the skills that are the
foundations for independent reading. They discover the
alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to
use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of
sight words that helps them to read quickly and
accurately with comprehension. By the end of the third
grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying
their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.

Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to
language-rich situations, such as reading books and
other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They
use context clues, as well as direct explanations
provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to
apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own
vocabulary. As students progress through the grades,
they become more proficient in applying their
knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships,
meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids
comprehension.

1. Define the meaning of unknown words by using            Create a web          Students            After choosing a
context clues and the author’s use of definition,          using grocery list    choose a            career of interest,
restatement and example.                                   vocabulary with       favorite after-     students are
                                                           unknown words         school activity     given a story
                                                           in the middle, fill   and list clues as   about a
                                                           in surrounding        to what the         significant person
                                                           ideas/sentences       activity is,        in that field that
                                                           with clues that       other students      they must read
                                                           would help            use those clues     and highlight
                                                           determine word        to guess the        unknown words.
                                                           meaning.              activity.           They then use
                                                                                                     surrounding
                                                                                                     sentences to
                                                                                                     guess at word
                                                                                                     meaning.
2. Use context clues to determine the meaning of           Read a story or a     Students            Students read a
synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and               description about     choose five         passage about a
homographs.                                                a household           characteristics     police officer and
                                                           chore (laundry,       about               then read it again
                                                           cooking, etc.)        themselves          with changed
                                                           Replace familiar      then add            words
                                                           words with other      synonyms and        highlighted. They
                                                           words in a            antonyms.           must determine if
                                                           sentence           Write a            the new words
                                                           (synonyms).        description of     are synonyms or
                                                                              themselves         antonyms.
                                                                              with these
                                                                              words to vary
                                                                              the styles.
3. Identify the connotation and denotation of new words.   Students compare Students will        Students will
                                                           lawn and grounds compare poems        examine job
                                                           keeping products that use key         training manuals
                                                           and services,      identical terms    to identify new
                                                           grouping by        but with           uses of words or
                                                           similar meanings different            unknown words
                                                           and root words     connotations.      and compare
                                                           (garden:           They will then     meanings with
                                                           gardener—not       write their own    more familiar
                                                           related to guard)  poems.             words.
4. Identify and understand new uses of words and           Students create    Students           Students write
phrases in text, such as similes and metaphors.            posters            choose a friend    about a chosen
                                                           advertising a      and create a       career and
                                                           cleaning product card to give to      compare it to
                                                           and telling why    the friend that    something else
                                                           they use it (Lysol uses a simile or   they like (Being a
                                                           is like a warm     metaphor (e.g.,    lawyer is like
                                                           breeze on a        comparing          facing off with
                                                           summer night, for them to an          Mike Tyson, you
                                                           a minute it takes  object in the      never know when
                                                           away the odor of classroom)           the knock-out is
                                                           pollution.).                          coming.).
5. Use word origins to determine the meaning of            Have students      Gather             Using medical
unknown words and phrases.                                 identify root      advertisements     careers as an
                                                           words to make      that use catch     example to talk
                                                           logical guesses    phrases, use       about the
                                                           about word         word origins       meaning of Latin
                                                           meanings when      and roots to       words and how
                                                           reading            determine          they are broken
                                                           instructions to    meanings of        down and used
                                                           assemble or use    the phrases.       today. Examine
                                                           home products.     Have students      Latin names for
                                                                              create a new ad    plants and
                                                                              using their own    animals.
                                                                              words.
6. Apply the knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and roots     Identify safety    Identify           Focusing on a
and their various inflections to analyze the meanings of   precautions that   preferred          career in law,
words.                                                     use prefixes and   resources for      students will
                                                           suffixes. Also,    help with          conduct a mock
                                                           identify           analyzing          trial with
                                                           confusing terms- meanings:            prewritten scripts
                                                           flammable and      include online     focusing on
                                                           inflammable, for   dictionaries,      words and their
                                                           example.           ASL                meanings (i.e.
                                                                              dictionaries,      pretrial, unlawful,
                                                                                 etc.               illegal).
7. Identify the meanings of abbreviations.                 Students use          Students write     Use career
                                                           abbreviations in      a letter to a      oriented
                                                           their address (St.,   neighbor using     abbreviations
                                                           Rt., Apt., State)     Mr./Mrs./Ms.       (Dr., VP, CEO),
                                                           and write out the     etc. introducing   as a matching
                                                           full words and        themselves.        game to pair the
                                                           spellings.            Identify the       abbreviation with
                                                           Identify              meanings of        the picture of the
                                                           abbreviations for     abbreviations      professional.
                                                           other names used      for service
                                                           on street and         agencies and
                                                           highway signs.        resources:
                                                                                 BVR-DVR,
                                                                                 DOT, DOL,
                                                                                 etc. Link these
                                                                                 to their website
                                                                                 Addresses
                                                                                 (often based on
                                                                                 abbreviations).
8. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of            During a              Students will      Students choose a
unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses,          multicultural         find posters,      career or career
glossaries, technology and textual features, such as       lesson on             brochures, or      category and find
definitional footnotes or sidebars.                        cooking, students     websites about     print and web
                                                           will be given a       favorite travel    resources for this
                                                           recipe with words     destination,;      career. They will
                                                           or foods from         they will use      use a variety of
                                                           another culture or    prior              resources to
                                                           country; students     knowledge,         determine word
                                                           will identify         pictures, the      and overall
                                                           resources for         thesaurus, and     meaning, and
                                                           these terms, and      other resources    compare
                                                           for where items       to determine       resources for
                                                           could be              word meaning.      helpfulness.
                                                           purchased.            They will also
                                                                                 compare use of
                                                                                 sidebars,
                                                                                 footnotes and
                                                                                 electric
                                                                                 hyperlink and
                                                                                 glossary
                                                                                 features in
                                                                                 helping them
                                                                                 decipher
                                                                                 meanings.
Reading Process: Concepts of Print,
Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring
Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help
them to comprehend and interpret informational and
literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem
solving processes that require strategies for the reader
to make sense of written language and remain engaged
with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print
(e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work
(e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students
learn to analyze and evaluate texts to demonstrate their
understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to
self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and
answering questions about the text, self-correcting
errors and assessing their own understanding. They
apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-
selected texts read in and out of the classroom.

1. Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including     Have students     Have the class    Have students
to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to   read recipes in   do research on    skim through
solve problems.                                             order to make     a pet or game     categories of
                                                            themselves a      they would        jobs to find job
                                                            snack (peanut     like to own.      descriptions on
                                                            butter and jelly, Use books,        preferred areas,
                                                            popcorn, etc.)    magazines         then highlight
                                                            Students will     and the           specific features
                                                            compare recipe    internet to       or
                                                            reading to        find out          characteristics
                                                            skimming and      information       they prefer.
                                                            scanning          such as the       They will
                                                            through a bus or  cost, where it    summarize
                                                            TV schedule for   can be            these into a
                                                            the correct       purchased         profile of
                                                            day/time, or      etc.) Discuss     preferences.
                                                            through a         different
                                                            newspaper to      reading
                                                            find information  strategies
                                                                              used.
2. Predict and support predictions with specific            Predict from      Predict from      Using job
references to textual examples that may be in widely        titles then find  topics (of        descriptions and
separated sections of text.                                 examples within emails) or          resumes, predict
                                                            text to support   topic             the content of
                                                            re: content of    sentences of      sections and
                                                            news article,     letters and       subsections
                                                            type of grocery other               from titles or
                                                            services,         interpersonal     headings. Then
                                                            recreation        communicatio      analyze the
                                                            activity, job     ns , the nature   sections to
                                                            responsibilities, of the            determine how
                                                            movie type        information.      effectively each
                                                            from              Then find         reflects the title
                                                            description or a examples           or heading.
                                                            review.              within the text
                                                                                 to support the
                                                                                 title. Identify
                                                                                 when content
                                                                                 seems to stray
                                                                                 from topic
                                                                                 and how this
                                                                                 could be more
                                                                                 clearly
                                                                                 identified and
                                                                                 organized.
3. Make critical comparisons across texts.                  Allow students       Give students     Have students
                                                            to read ads in       information       read about a
                                                            the newspaper        on the latest     particular
                                                            and online.          video games,      famous person
                                                            Have them            bikes, etc.       of interest, their
                                                            compare the          Discuss which     careers, and
                                                            reliability of the   sources           career
                                                            information and      provide the       decisions. They
                                                            the credibility      best              then can discuss
                                                            of sources.          information       their best
                                                            Identify both        for the           sources of
                                                            reliable and         consumer.         information on
                                                            unreliable print     Compare           the individual to
                                                            and online           reviews           compare
                                                            sources and          verses ads or     reliability of the
                                                            characteristics      promotions        sources.
                                                            of each.             and where to
                                                                                 get unbiased
                                                                                 critiques.
4. Summarize the information in texts, recognizing that     Have students        Have students     Have students
there may be several important ideas rather than just one   summarize key        practice          summarize
main idea and identifying details that support each.        critical details     summarizing       critical
                                                            of information       key               information
                                                            regarding a          information to    across a career
                                                            range of topic       share with        category of
                                                            preferences:         different         interest: the
                                                            housing,             audiences:        range of careers
                                                            financial            friends,          within the
                                                            priorities,          family            cluster, the
                                                            citizenship          members,          work
                                                            responsibilities,    doctors or        conditions,
                                                            recreation,          service           education and
                                                            friendships,         providers, etc.   training, etc.
                                                            independence.        Have students
                                                                                 practice
                                                                             expanding or
                                                                             shortening
                                                                             according to
                                                                             the nature of
                                                                             the situation
                                                                             (formal vs.
                                                                             informal).
5. Make inferences based on implicit information in          Use housing     Read “Dear        Use
texts, and provide justifications for those inferences.      descriptions,   Abby” or help     job/workplace
                                                             vacation        columns with      descriptions and
                                                             descriptions,   letters.          requirements to
                                                             friendship or   Interpret the     compare with
                                                             relationship    problem           one’s own
                                                             descriptions,   described in      personality
                                                             and interpret   terms of          characteristics.
                                                             how each would explicit versus    Interpret how
                                                             or would not    implicit          each would or
                                                             match well with information.      would not
                                                             your own        Evaluate how      match well with
                                                             personality.    the response      your own
                                                                             used this         personality.
                                                                             information.
6. Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret    Have students   Have students     Students should
textual information.                                         use computers   research and      create a vision
                                                             to make graphic create a          of themselves
                                                             organizers to   graphic           after high
                                                             aid them in     organizer for     school and
                                                             better          making a          create a
                                                             understanding a presentation      description with
                                                             new or          about some        graphic
                                                             complicated     aspect of         organizers for
                                                             recipe, how to  themselves:       each of the
                                                             perform a       personality,      major
                                                             household       hearing loss,     categories of
                                                             chore, a set of physical          aspects of their
                                                             directions for  abilities and     life.
                                                             maintaining, or interests,
                                                             for repairing   academic
                                                             something.      strengths and
                                                                             interests, etc.
7. Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to   Have students   Watch a           Read scenarios
demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print         watch short     movie about       or real-life
texts and electronic and visual media.                       video clips     friendship.       stories about
                                                             about household Summarize         making realistic
                                                             repair,         the facts, and    verses
                                                             appliances and  then interpret    unrealistic
                                                         tools, ADA and      and evaluate     career choices.
                                                         rights, etc. Then   what             Summarize key
                                                         have students       happened in      information and
                                                         summarize key       the movie in     use it to
                                                         issues and/or       comparison       interpret and
                                                         concerns that       with their own   evaluate the
                                                         include             friendships in   differences.
                                                         facts/literal       real life.
                                                         information,
                                                         interpretive, and Together as a
                                                         evaluate          class read a
                                                         information and   about 9/11 or
                                                         conclusions       another
                                                         regarding the     significant
                                                         impact and        day in history.
                                                         importance of     Have students
                                                         each when they    answer and
                                                         are 20-25 yrs.    discuss
                                                         old.              questions that
                                                                           interpret and
                                                                           evaluate the
                                                                           events.
8. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit   Discuss the       Have students      Give students
the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on,       differences       use various        several types of
looking back or summarizing what has been read so far    between reading types of             text that
in text.                                                 and skimming,     reading to         provides
                                                         scanning etc.     find               information on
                                                         Discuss           information        a given job or
                                                         different types   about an           career. Give
                                                         of text and       upcoming           them several
                                                         whether you       event in the       tasks to
                                                         would read,       area. Ask          complete that
                                                         skim, or scan     them to            require different
                                                         (newspaper, an summarize             skills:
                                                         important         the                categorizing
                                                         document such information            jobs according
                                                         as a contract or they read to        to type,
                                                         voting ballot, an the class. Use     identifying
                                                         appliance         the key            salary/wage,
                                                         manual, etc.)     information to     work hours,
                                                                           make a mock        benefits, and
                                                                           flyer or           then
                                                                           invitation.        summarizing
                                                                                              overall
                                                                                              evaluation of
                                                                                              the job. Discuss
                                                                                              which reading
                                                                                              was used (skim,
                                                                                              scan, etc.) to get
                                                                                              the information
                                                                                              necessary for
                                                                                              each task.
9. List questions and search for answers within the text  Identify why      Have students Have students
to construct meaning.                                     forming key       formulate key formulate
                                                          questions helps questions they questions they
                                                          in reading for    need to know have about a
                                                          needed            about an         particular job
                                                          information:      event taking     they are
                                                          you have          place in the     interested in.
                                                          chosen a          area or a place Research to
                                                          computer to       they what to     find the
                                                          buy but you       visit. Have      answers to their
                                                          now are           students         questions.
                                                          comparing         research these Discuss how
                                                          price, you have in order to        the questions
                                                          decided your      answer the       helped them
                                                          opinion on a      questions.       focus their
                                                          voting issue and Discuss           understanding
                                                          want to skim      strategies to    and
                                                          through the       use if they      comprehension
                                                          candidates’       can’t find the processes while
                                                          opinions to find answers and       reading.
                                                          ones who agree which               Discuss how
                                                          with you. Have alternative         types of
                                                          students          sources may      questions
                                                          identify key      help.            should reflect
                                                          questions they                     priorities that
                                                          want answered                      may differ
                                                          about issues,                      across people.
                                                          housing
                                                          communities,
                                                          schools and
                                                          purchases.
10. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials Have students       Have students Have students
(e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres make a list of     list things      list the different
or recommendations from others).                           the things they   they like to do careers they
                                                           like to do at     with their       may be
                                                           home. Have        friends. Are     interested in
                                                           them identify     their reading    when they grow
                                                           types of reading materials they up. Discuss the
                                                           materials that    and their        genres related
                                                           would be          friends can      to these careers
                                                               related to their enjoy                 and where they
                                                               interests to readtogether?             could find these
                                                               in their free    Have students         in a library, a
                                                               time.            investigate           career center,
                                                                                reading genre         and elsewhere.
                                                                                clubs at their
                                                                                school or
                                                                                community.
11. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g.,       Using the list   Using the list        Using the list
for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain                they create from they create           they create from
information or to perform a task).                             #10 above, have from #10               #10 above, have
                                                               students pick    above, have           students
                                                               something to     students read         identify the
                                                               read and then    independently         appropriate
                                                               evaluate how     to learn more         genre for this
                                                               well their       about a               information and
                                                               choice met their mutual                locate the text.
                                                               purpose.         interest, or          Have students
                                                                                read with             evaluate how
                                                                                friends (book         effectively this
                                                                                club).                was in meeting
                                                                                Evaluate how          their purpose.
                                                                                successful this
                                                                                was.

Informational, Technical, and Persuasive Text
Standard
Students gain information from reading for purposes of
learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions
and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the
reading process to various types of informational texts,
including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks,
instruction manuals, consumer and workplace
documents, reference materials, multimedia and
electronic resources. They learn to attend to text
features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make
predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read
diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as
sources of additional information. Students use their
knowledge of text structure to organize content
information, analyze it and draw inferences from it.
Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias,
stereotyping and propaganda in informational text
sources.

1. Use text features, such as chapter titles, headings and     Have students       Have students       Give students
subheadings; parts of books including the index and            use text features   use the internet    career books
table of contents and online tools (search engines) to         to find             to explore and      and have them
locate information.                                        information          find               use text
                                                           about                information        features to
                                                           restaurants and      about places       help find the
                                                           services in the      they might         careers or
                                                           phone book,          want to visit or   information
                                                           clothing or plant    something they     they are
                                                           care on the          want to            interested in
                                                           internet,            purchase and       reading about.
                                                           recreational         compare how
                                                           facilities from a    helpful and
                                                           brochure, etc.       confusing the
                                                                                text features
                                                                                were.
2. Identify, distinguish between and explain examples of   Read consumer        .Read scenarios  Examine
cause and effect in informational text.                    information for      about            some of the
                                                           games, toys,         communication    reasons for
                                                           videos, etc.         or interpersonal workers
                                                           Identify             problems to      getting fired,
                                                           problems and         identify cause   and for
                                                           solutions in the     and effect.      getting
                                                           troubleshooting                       promoted.
                                                           sections to                           Identify the
                                                           identify cause                        cause and
                                                           and effect.                           effects (poor
                                                           (Examine                              vs. good
                                                           warranty to                           attendance,
                                                           compare rights                        punctuality,
                                                           verses                                job
                                                           responsibilities.)                    performance,
                                                                                                 meeting
                                                                                                 expectations,
                                                                                                 etc).
3. Compare important details about a topic, using          Have students        Identify a       Have students
different sources of information, including books,         use several          school,          research a
magazines, newspapers and online resources.                types of text to     community, or career choice
                                                           find information     personal issue   or a role
                                                           about safety or      about which      model. Have
                                                           hygiene.             students need to students
                                                           Discuss the          make a           compare the
                                                           amount of detail     decision.        types of
                                                           and which            Provide a        information
                                                           sources              variety of       found across
                                                           provided the         information and multiple
                                                           clearest             sources about    sources.
                                                           information.         the issue. Have
                                                                                students
                                                                                 compare the
                                                                                 information for
                                                                                 making their
                                                                                 decision.
4. Summarize the main ideas and supporting details.           Have students      Have students      Have students
                                                              read an article    read an article    read an article
                                                              or story about     or story in the    or story about
                                                              bike safety,       newspaper          a particular
                                                              accommodation about an event          business, store
                                                              s equipment,       that took place    or factory
                                                              etc. Discuss the in the school or     located in
                                                              main idea and      community.         their
                                                              supporting         Discuss the        community.
                                                              details,           main idea in       Discuss the
                                                              including key      terms of impact    main idea or
                                                              concerns or        on the             feature of the
                                                              features.          community and      store and
                                                                                 the supporting     supporting
                                                                                 details.           details.
5. Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables,         Have students      Present            Provide
graphs and diagrams.                                          find key           students with a    students with
                                                              information: TV floor plan of         a map of their
                                                              or bus schedule, the school.          city. Locate
                                                              appliance          Discuss all the    key
                                                              diagram, table     information one    employers in
                                                              of schools’        could find on      the area. Use
                                                              annual report      the map            tables to
                                                              card, etc. Use     without even       compare
                                                              utility bills that stepping foot in   salary and
                                                              include charts or the school.         benefits
                                                              graphs of                             across jobs.
                                                              energy usage.                         Use charts to
                                                                                                    understand
                                                                                                    the
                                                                                                    organizational
                                                                                                    structure of
                                                                                                    the school and
                                                                                                    school
                                                                                                    district,
                                                                                                    parents’ place
                                                                                                    of work, etc.
6. Clarify steps in a set of instructions or procedures for   Have students      How students       Have students
proper sequencing and completeness and revise if              write a recipe     write directions   discuss the
necessary.                                                    for how to make    for “how to be     procedures for
                                                              a favorite food.   a good friend”,    finding a job,
                                                              Have students      “how to solve      identifying
                                                           give a partner      an argument or  their skills
                                                           the directions to   problem”, “how  and
                                                           follow. Have        to be D/HH and  preferences,
                                                           partners revise     proud”, etc.    or how to
                                                           the directions as   Present to the  complete a
                                                           needed.             class for       specific
                                                                               constructive    career-related
                                                           Students can        feedback and    task. Have
                                                           share a favorite    revisions.      them revise
                                                           hobby and make                      based on
                                                           something with                      feedback from
                                                           directions to                       teacher, peers,
                                                           follow and                          or other
                                                           revise.                             adults.
7. Analyze the difference between fact and opinion.        Provide students Have students      Have speakers
                                                           with flyers for    create their own from the
                                                           several different ads for an item community
                                                           items (Kool        of choice        come to talk
                                                           Aid, cereal, etc.) (video game,     to the class
                                                           or examine         amusement        (policeman,
                                                           information on     park, etc).      fireman, etc.)
                                                           product            Discuss as a     Have them
                                                           packaging itself. class which       discuss
                                                           Have students      parts of the ads aspects of the
                                                           analyze for facts are fact and      job. Have the
                                                           vs. opinion.       which are        students
                                                                              opinion.         decide which
                                                                                               information
                                                                                               they provided
                                                                                               was fact
                                                                                               (hours, tasks,
                                                                                               etc.) or
                                                                                               opinion. (I
                                                                                               like…,
                                                                                               difficult
                                                                                               things are…)
                                                                                               Discuss how
                                                                                               both fact and
                                                                                               opinion are
                                                                                               part of
                                                                                               making a
                                                                                               good job
                                                                                               choice.
8. Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information in a   Have students      Have students    Give students
text and identify possible points of confusion for the     role play          read a scenario information
reader.                                                    explaining an      about an         about a career
                                                            illness to a       interpersonal     or a person of
                                                            doctor, a          conflict,         interest. Have
                                                            problem to a       including past    some
                                                            repair person,     and present       unnecessary
                                                            etc. Include       feelings of       or confusing
                                                            some               people            information.
                                                            unnecessary and    involved. Have    Have students
                                                            confusing          them determine    work as an
                                                            information.       the core          “editor” to
                                                            Have students      conflict verses   revise-
                                                            decide what is     issues and        determine
                                                            relevant,          feelings that     what is
                                                            confusing and      confuse or are    relevant,
                                                            irrelevant and     irrelevant.       irrelevant,
                                                            why is this so.    Compare this      confusing,
                                                            Have students      with real life    etc.
                                                            practice other     conflict.
                                                            daily living
                                                            issues to
                                                            practice being
                                                            concise and
                                                            clear.
9. Identify and understand an author’s purpose for          Have students      Have students     Examine
writing, including to explain, to entertain or to inform.   read sections of   read various      business –
                                                            the newspaper,     types of media,   related
                                                            magazines, e-      including         conflicts and
                                                            zines, etc. and    propaganda.       information
                                                            discuss the        Discuss the       that results in
                                                            author’s           author’s          the news,
                                                            purpose.           purpose and the   from the
                                                                               desired           business, from
                                                                               emotional         the workers or
                                                                               response of the   unions, etc.
                                                                               reader.           This could
                                                                                                 include
                                                                                                 strikes,
                                                                                                 bankruptcies,
                                                                                                 punitive
                                                                                                 actions
                                                                                                 (illegal
                                                                                                 practices,
                                                                                                 violations of
                                                                                                 worker rights,
                                                                                                 pollution
                                                                                                 laws, etc.)
Literary Text Standard

Students enhance their understanding of the human
story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of
authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the
reading process to the various genres of literature,
including fables, folk tales, short stories, novels, poetry
and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by
describing and discussing the elements of literature
(e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author’s
use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative
language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring
theme and meaning and responding to text in critical
and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain,
analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep
understanding.

1. Explain how a character’s thoughts, words and              Present             Have students      Have students
actions reveal his or her motivations.                        characters such     get in small       read stories
                                                              as Mr. Yuck and     groups and         about
                                                              Crime Dog to        discuss the        different
                                                              students.           actions and        professionals
                                                              Discuss the         motivations of     that they may
                                                              motivations of      their favorite     be familiar
                                                              these characters.   cartoon, TV or     with in the
                                                              What are their      movie              community or
                                                              intentions and      characters.        deaf
                                                              how their           Examine how        professionals
                                                              intentions affect   their              and discuss
                                                              the way you feel    motivations        the actions
                                                              about household     influence          and
                                                              products and        interpersonal      motivation of
                                                              neighborhood        relationships      these
                                                              crime watch?        and                individuals.
                                                                                  communication
                                                                                  style.
2. Explain the influence of setting on the selection.         Identify            Discuss            Read through
                                                              differences in      personal           several job
                                                              daily living and    preferences for    descriptions
                                                              community           living in urban,   that vary by
                                                              resources when      suburban, or       setting-
                                                              living in           rural locations    indoor/outdoo
                                                              different           and compare        r,
                                                              locations. If       this to a          school/office/f
                                                              reading novels      favorite           actory,
                                                              or textbooks,       character in a     northern/south
                                                              identify how        story.             ern climate.
                                                              daily living                           Discuss how
                                                             problems                                this impacts
                                                             influence                               possible job
                                                             people’s                                satisfaction.
                                                             behavior.                               Relate this to
                                                                                                     characters in
                                                                                                     stories.
3. Identify the main incidents of a plot sequence and        Use movies,         Use movies,         Use movies,
explain how they influence future action.                    stories, news       stories, news       stories, news
                                                             articles, etc. to   articles, etc. to   articles,
                                                             point out family    discuss             novels, etc.,
                                                             situations,         interpersonal       about job
                                                             independence        conflict and        choice and
                                                             issues, and         communication       career
                                                             living concerns     problems.           advancement
                                                             with regard to                          sequences.
                                                             events and plot
                                                             sequence.
4. Identify the speaker and explain how point of view        Read and            Read and            Read and
affects the text.                                            discuss stories     discuss stories     discuss news
                                                             that involve        that involve        or other
                                                             family member       interpersonal       stories that
                                                             viewpoints.         conflict            involve job
                                                             Discuss             between friends     conflict:
                                                             viewpoint           or family           worker vs.
                                                             differences         members, and        supervisor,
                                                             between             how each            co-worker vs.
                                                             individuals and     person’s            co-worker,
                                                             government          perspective         etc.
                                                             agencies (e.g.,     differs.
                                                             student vs.
                                                             teacher or
                                                             principal)
5. Summarize stated and implied themes.                      Use movies,         Use movies and      Use movies
                                                             stories etc. to     stories to          and stories to
                                                             demonstrate         identify and        examine
                                                             themes of           discuss themes      themes of
                                                             family living,      such as             career
                                                             becoming            interpersonal       decisions,
                                                             independent,        conflict,           making
                                                             change of life      problem             changes, and
                                                             situation.          solving,            outcome or
                                                                                 communication       satisfaction.
                                                                                 and respect.
6. Describe the defining characteristics of literary forms   Compare             Compare             Compare
and genres, including poetry, drama, chapter books,          videos, text-       videos, text-       videos, text-
biographies, fiction and non-fiction.                        based, internet-    based, internet-    based,
                                                              based text            based           internet-based
                                                              across a variety      selections      text across
                                                              of genres that        across genres   various genres
                                                              address               about self-     about job
                                                              community or          confidence and  conflicts and
                                                              political issues.                     career
                                                                                    self-fulfillment.
                                                                                                    concerns.
7. Interpret how an author’s choice of words appeals to       See #6 above,         See #6 above,   See #6 above,
the senses and suggests mood.                                 analyze genre         analyze genre   analyze genre
                                                              and author by         and author by   and author by
                                                              word choice.          word choice.    word choice.
                                                              Also link to          Also link to    Also link to
                                                              author’s              author’s        author’s
                                                              purpose.              purpose.        purpose.
8. Identify and explain the use of figurative language in     In ads and            Use these forms Read
literary works, including idioms, similes, hyperboles,        infomercials,         as another way corporate
metaphors and personification.                                identify idioms,      to express      pamphlets and
                                                              similes,              emotions or     identify use of
                                                              metaphors, and        descriptions of figurative
                                                              hyperboles            one self.       language and
                                                              (“hype”) used to                      intent.
                                                              sell.

Writing Processes

Students’ writing develops when they regularly
engage in the major phases of the writing process.
The writing process includes the phases of
prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and
publishing. They learn to plan their writing for
different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply
their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways
to create and produce compositions that reflect
effective word and grammatical choices. Students
develop revision strategies to improve the content,
organization and language of their writing. Students
also develop editing skills to improve writing
conventions.

1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with          Have students         Have students     Have students
others and from printed material, and keep a list of        make a list of all    get into small    pick a profession
writing ideas.                                              the purposes          groups and        and list all the
                                                            they have for         discuss what      purposes for
                                                            writing on a          they like         writing for that
                                                            daily basis.          writing about     profession both
                                                            For creative          and why.          informally (notes,
                                                            writing, keep a       Write these       reminders) and
                                                          list of home and     ideas down      formally
                                                          community            and have each   (requests, memos,
                                                          issues that could    student create  concerns).
                                                          be used.             a list of ideas.Practice writing
                                                                                               some of these.
2. Conduct background reading, interviews or              Research and         Have students Hold interview
surveys when appropriate.                                 read product         survey their    sessions between
                                                          information          class in regard classmates,
                                                          before               to what clubs discussing what
                                                          purchasing the       they would      they would like to
                                                          latest video         like to see     be when they
                                                          game or toy.         formed at the grow up.
                                                                               school.         Interview school
                                                                                               and family
                                                                                               members about
                                                                                               these their job
                                                                                               interests at the
                                                                                               same age.
3. State and develop a clear main idea for writing.       Have students        Have students Have students
                                                          pick a topic         pick a group    pick a career and
                                                          of concern for       or club they    write 1-2
                                                          writing to a city    are interested paragraphs with
                                                          official, to a       in and write a clear main ideas
                                                          landlord, or to      main idea for for an article on
                                                          the school           a feature       that profession
                                                          principal, etc.      article about   for a school
                                                          Clearly identify     the group or    newsletter, for a
                                                          the main             club.           presentation to
                                                          concern.                             the class, or for
                                                                                               developing a
                                                                                               portfolio (or for
                                                                                               an e-folio).
4. Determine a purpose and audience.                      Compose the          Determine the For #3 above,
                                                          letter for #3        differences in compare how the
                                                          above; edit to fit   writing a       audience and
                                                          the student’s        news feature    purpose of
                                                          purpose and the      about the club writing impacts
                                                          person’s             verses asking style and word
                                                          position.            the principal   choice: revise
                                                                               for permission accordingly.
                                                                               to start a
                                                                               particular
                                                                               club.
5. Use organizational strategies (e.g., rough outlines,   Use a visual         Organize #4     If planning a
diagrams, maps, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan           strategy to help     above using     portfolio (#3
writing.                                                  plan the letter’s    an outline.     above), develop a
                                                        main concern                        graphic organizer
                                                        with appropriate                    or diagram to
                                                        details and                         plan the elements.
                                                        examples.
6. Organize writing, beginning with an introduction,    Use the           Use the           Use beginning,
body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing    beginning,        beginning,        middle and
statement or a summary of important ideas and           middle and        middle and        closing format for
details.                                                closing format    closing format     #3 above.
                                                        for #4 above.     for #3 above.
7. Vary simple, compound and complex sentence           See #3 above      See #3 above      See #3 above and
structures.                                             and edit          and edit          edit accordingly.
                                                        accordingly.      accordingly.
8. Group related ideas into paragraphs, including       Give students     Develop an        Write several
topic sentences following paragraph form, and           several separated outline of a      paragraphs about
maintain a consistent focus across paragraphs.          paragraphs that   description of    their career
                                                        make up a story   their school or   interests and
                                                        about fire safety.city. Have        explorations (to
                                                        Have students     students work     use in a portfolio
                                                        organize the      individually      if desired). Edit
                                                        story so it makes or in pairs to    for correct
                                                        sense.            write one of      paragraph form
                                                                          the               and focus.
                                                                          paragraphs.
                                                                          Reassemble
                                                                          and edit for
                                                                          consistent
                                                                          focus.
9. Vary language and style as appropriate to audience   Discuss the type Describe           Write an informal
and purpose.                                            of language that situations         request to a co-
                                                        is used at home   where             worker and
                                                        among family.     inappropriate     compare with a
                                                        List for what     language or       formal request to
                                                        purposes          style can         a supervisor.
                                                        families may talk create conflict
                                                        together.         or problems.
                                                        Compare with
                                                        that used with
                                                        repair people,
                                                        community
                                                        agencies, etc.
10. Use available technology to compose text.           Have students     Have students     Have students
                                                        post community email a friend.      type and send a
                                                        resource          Include a text    letter to a
                                                        information to a or graphic         professional in
                                                        school or local   attachment,       the community
                                                        bulletin board or hyperlink, or     asking for
                                                         chat room.          another          information about
                                                                             feature.         their job/career,
                                                         Use the                              using editing
                                                         computer to                          features, spell and
                                                         compose a chart                      grammar check,
                                                         for the                              etc.
                                                         daily/weekly
                                                         chores that the
                                                         student is
                                                         required to do at
                                                         home.
11. Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a       Reread chat and     Proofread        Use writers circle
variety of methods (e.g., writer’s circle or author’s    share with the      emails for       for feedback on
chair).                                                  class; look for     clarity before   the letter from
                                                         instances of        sending.         #10 above.
                                                         irrelevant
                                                         comments and
                                                         confusion.
12. Add and delete information and details to better     Using #9 above,     Print the      Proofread the
elaborate on a stated central idea and to more           compare how         emails         letters students
effectively accomplish purpose.                          much context or     students have  write to
                                                         added               written back   professionals
                                                         information is      and forth (#   prior to mailing
                                                         needed with         10 above);     them out. Have
                                                         families (much      decide if they students add and
                                                         less) in contrast   should have    delete
                                                         to community        added or       information for
                                                         people.             deleted        clarity and
                                                                             information    effectiveness in
                                                                             for clarity.   ensuring a
                                                                                            response.
13. Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs, and       Using #9 and       Examine         Proofread the
add transitional words and phrases to clarify            #12 above,         emails find     letters students
meaning.                                                 identify how       instances       write to
                                                         transitional       when they       professionals (in
                                                         words also assist should           conjunction with
                                                         community and      rearrange their #12) and help
                                                         unfamiliar         ideas in order students identify
                                                         people (with       to clarify      when rearranging
                                                         added context) to meaning.         their ideas or
                                                         understand a                       transition words
                                                         situation clearly.                 would help
                                                                                            clarify meaning.
14. Use resources and reference materials (e.g.,         Have students      While           Have students
dictionaries and thesauruses) to select more effective   experiment with emailing each proofread their
vocabulary.                                              the thesaurus      other, have     letters to
                                                         while typing their    students use     professionals.
                                                         letters home.         the dictionary   Have them
                                                                               to verify        identify common
                                                                               spelling, and    or overused
                                                                               compare with     words and find
                                                                               online           synonyms in a
                                                                               features.        thesaurus or other
                                                                                                reference guide.
15. Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions,      Have students      Have students       Identify work
(e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and                identify living    identify            problems and
capitalization), and identify and correct fragments      situations that    situations that     misconceptions
and run-ons.                                             require            may result in       caused by poor
                                                         proofreading       negative            grammar or
                                                         (formal,           consequences        spelling at work:
                                                         professional, or   if they do not      lack of
                                                         legal              proofread and       intelligence or
                                                         communications)    edit: notes to      education, “poor”
                                                         and those that do  neighbors or        work habits, not
                                                         not (notes to self,“important”         appropriate for
                                                         recipes, etc.).    friends,            promotions, etc.
                                                         Discuss the        community           Discuss ways to
                                                         purpose for        contacts, etc.      self-check and
                                                         doing rough        Identify            monitor writing
                                                         drafts of letters, problems            (formal and
                                                         papers, or         from emails         informal,
                                                         paragraphs and     that are not        including email)
                                                         then looking       reviewed or         at work.
                                                         over them and      thought
                                                         proofreading       though.
                                                         their own work     Discuss
                                                         before             responses that
                                                         composing a        many hearing
                                                         final draft.       people may
                                                                            have to poor
                                                                            grammar or
                                                                            spelling.
16. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback)   This can be used This too can          This too can be
to judge the quality of writing.                         for a variety of   be used for a       used for a variety
                                                         the activities     variety of the      of the activities
                                                         listed previously. activities          listed previously
                                                         First give the     listed              by including this
                                                         students a rubric previously.          in a rubric or
                                                         or checklist of    Include in a        checklist for their
                                                         things to include rubric or            assignment.
                                                         in their           checklist.
                                                         assignments.
17. Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for      Have students        Have students     Create a series of
sharing with others), writing that follows a format        write an             publish a flyer   posters across the
appropriate to the purpose, using techniques such as       autobiography        for a club or     different career
electronic resources and graphics to enhance the final     which they can       extracurricular   categories, or to
product.                                                   prepare for          activity at       show variety
                                                           publication or       school.           within one
                                                           their e-portfolio.                     category, with
                                                                                                  various text and
                                                                                                  graphic displays.

Writing Applications

Students need to understand that various types of
writing require different language, formatting and
special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes
across the curriculum and takes various forms.
Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of
writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar
forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to
select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They
can explain why some text forms are more suited to a
purpose than others and begin to use content-specific
vocabulary to achieve their communication goals.
Proficient writers control effectively the language and
structural features of a large repertoire of text forms.
They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text
and structure in their writing according to audience
and purpose.

1. Write narratives with a consistent point of view,        Have students       Have students     Have students
using sensory details and dialogue to develop               identify            examine an        write a narrative
characters and setting.                                     specific            interpersonal     with dialogue
                                                            experiences         conflict from     that pertains to a
                                                            and sensory         one of their      potential
                                                            impressions         stories and add   professional
                                                            related to          a dialogue.       problem they
                                                            daily life, to      Have them take    might encounter
                                                            improve a           one person’s      (e.g., hearing vs.
                                                            story they          point of view     deaf conflict).
                                                            have written        versus taking a   Dialogue should
                                                            previously.         neutral view in   be appropriate to
                                                            Have students       the story and     the profession
                                                            explore             compare the       and the
                                                            sensations          impact on         occupational rank
                                                            related to          audience          of the characters.
                                                            “mundane” or        involvement.
                                                            ‘trivial” daily     Edit and revise
                                                            activities.         story as
                                                                            needed.
2. Write responses to novels, stories and poems that        Read about      Read about         Read about
organize an interpretation around several clear ideas,      daily life      other students’    personal and
and justify the interpretation through the use of           conditions and growing self-       societal values and
examples and specific textual evidence.                     make            awareness and      perceptions of
                                                                                               work and choose a
                                                            comparisons     compare this to
                                                                                               position—to agree
                                                            to their own    one’s own self     or disagree with
                                                            life. Examine awareness.           the author’s view
                                                            the impact      Also compare       and give clear
                                                            that deafness   self-esteem.       examples.
                                                            or hearing loss                    Respond to
                                                            has and                            readings about
                                                            organize this                      deaf and hard-of-
                                                            around key                         hearing people in
                                                            accommodatio                       a hearing world
                                                            n issues.                          of work and
                                                                                               justify the
                                                                                               interpretations.
3. Write letters that state the purpose, make requests or   Have students    Have students     Have students
give compliments and use business letter format.            write a letter   write a letter to write formal
                                                            to their         their friends’    letters to
                                                            parents          parents           members of the
                                                            making a         requesting their work community
                                                            request for a    friends to        requesting that
                                                            new game,        attend a party,   they visit their
                                                            clothing, or     a sleepover, or classroom.
                                                            some             to attend a       Include a clear
                                                            equipment.       camp together. purpose and
                                                            Use a clear                        nature of the visit
                                                            style that                         or presentation
                                                            provides                           (what to include),
                                                            reasons.                           and why they are
                                                            Write to the                       a helpful choice
                                                            principal and                      to the class
                                                            ask for a                          (compliment
                                                            change or                          them).
                                                            improvement
                                                            of some type
                                                            that provides
                                                            clear reasons.
4. Write informational essays or reports, including         Have the class   Have students     Have students
research, that organize information with a clear            identify and     research a        research and
introduction, body and conclusion following common          describe         variety of        describe at least
expository structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-        recreational,    conflict          two positions
effect, comparison-contrast) and include facts, details     disability, or   resolution        they are
and examples to illustrate important ideas.                 community
                                                                             strategies and    interested in.
                                                            resources in
                                                            their area to     formulate into     Have the class (or
                                                            compile into a    a report for the   teacher)
                                                            “resource guide   class.             determine the
                                                            for students”.    Establish a        format to follow
                                                            Determine the     format with a      and provide a
                                                            format for each
                                                                              rubric; have       rubric for
                                                            resource, types
                                                            or facts and      students           grading.
                                                            details.          compile
                                                                              information
                                                                              into a chart to
                                                                              compare the
                                                                              strengths of
                                                                              each.
5. Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and     Have students     Have the           Have students
poems) for various purposes.                                write notes to    students write a   keep a journal of
                                                            themselves to     poem about         future career
                                                            remind them       themselves and     plans and goals.
                                                            of homework       include things     Have them reread
                                                            assignments       such as their      these at a later
                                                            and after         interests,         time to see how
                                                            school plans.     preferences,       their opinions
                                                                              etc. expressing    and values have
                                                                              their feelings.    changed.
                                                                              Use ASL
                                                                              poetry, ABC or
                                                                              number stories
                                                                              to express
                                                                              ideas and
                                                                              feelings.

Writing Conventions

Students learn to master writing conventions through         Students will     Students will     Students will
exposure to good models and opportunities for practice.      apply the         apply the         apply the
Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation,           following         following         following skills
grammar and other conventions associated with forms          skills across     skills across     across prior
of written text. They learn the purposes of punctuation:
                                                             prior             prior             activities.
to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how
writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend
                                                             activities.       activities.               ↓
their understanding of the spelling system, using a range           ↓                ↓
of strategies for spelling words correctly and using
newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow
more skillful at using the grammatical structures of
English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and
to express themselves.

1. Spell high-frequency words correctly.                            ↓                ↓                   ↓
2. Spell contractions correctly.                                    ↓                  ↓                    ↓
3. Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly.                    ↓                  ↓                    ↓
4. Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation
marks correctly.
                                                                    ↓                  ↓                    ↓

5. Use correct capitalization.                                      ↓                  ↓                    ↓
6. Use various parts of speech, such as nouns, pronouns
and verbs (regular and irregular).
                                                                    ↓                  ↓                    ↓

7. Use prepositions and prepositional phrases.                      ↓                  ↓                    ↓
8. Use adverbs.                                                     ↓                  ↓                    ↓
9. Use objective and nominative case pronouns.                      ↓                  ↓                    ↓
10. Use indefinite and relative pronouns.                           ↓                  ↓                    ↓
11. Use conjunctions and interjections.                             ↓                  ↓                    ↓

Research

Students define and investigate self-selected or
assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate,
select and make use of relevant information from a
variety of media, reference and technological
sources. Students use an appropriate form to
communicate their findings.

1. Generate a topic, assigned or personal interest, and   Research types      Students choose a    Students will each
open-ended questions for research and develop a plan      of public           school related       choose a career
for gathering information.                                transportation,     topic and            area to research.
                                                          (gas, diesel,       generate three       Class will identify
                                                          hybrid, electric,   questions they       research questions
                                                          energy efficient,   believe are          to answer across all
                                                          etc.). As a class   important. Then      careers. Class will
                                                          develop key         give that topic to   develop a plan for
                                                          questions to        a partner and        identifying type
                                                          compare across      have the partner     and number of
                                                          each about how      think of three       resources, note
                                                          you use it, how     questions            taking, formats, and
                                                          much it costs,      regarding the        criteria for final
                                                          what is             topic that he/she    report, paper or
                                                          available, etc.     feels are            presentation.
                                                          Develop a plan      important. Add       Teacher will
                                                          with steps,         any new              develop a grading
                                                          resources, and a    questions from       rubric based on
                                                          rubric for          the partner then     these criteria.
                                                          grading.            discuss together
                                                                              ways to best
                                                                              answer the
                                                                              questions.
2. Locate sources and gather relevant information         Choose a            Use the internet     Investigate the
from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs,     household           to find              local job market for
online databases, electronic resources and Internet-      appliance that      information about    your preferred
based resources).                                         your family         Deaf Community       career. Compare
                                                          needs or needs      organizations or     this to the national
                                                          to replace.         activities in your   job market. Find
                                                          Compile             area.                the best region for
                                                          information                              your career.
                                                          about costs,                             Examine hard copy
                                                          repairs,                                 versus internet
                                                          longevity,                               sources are able to
                                                          energy                                   be timely, and
                                                          efficiency.                              limitations of each.
                                                          Investigate any
                                                          accommodation
                                                          s needed.
3. Identify important information found in sources        Choose a safety     Choose an article    Create a chart
and paraphrase the findings in a systematic way (e.g.,    issue (fire,        from a newspaper     listing the different
notes, outlines, charts, tables or graphic organizers).   tornado,            or magazine          steps for finding,
                                                          drowning, etc.).    about friendships,   getting,
                                                          Research the        dating tips, or      maintaining a job,
                                                          topic and create    another topic of     and getting
                                                          a chart listing     interest. Take       promoted for the
                                                          the procedures      notes as you read    student’s preferred
                                                          for dealing with    or reread.           career. Organize
                                                          the situation. Or   Organize these       into steps trough a
                                                          choose a health     into an outline or   table or chart, or
                                                          or medical          a web. Share the     with graphic
                                                          concern and         information in       organizers
                                                          how to respond.     small groups.
4. Compare and contrast important findings and            Given a             Students use         Students are given
select sources to support central ideas, concepts and     medical, health,    current events       two careers; they
themes.                                                   or safety issue,    and a variety of     must compare
                                                          students will       sources to gather    information on the
                                                          research            different opinions   careers, list
                                                          different options   about an event.      similarities and
                                                          for addressing      Class will           differences, using a
                                                          the issue.          compare              variety of sources.
                                                          Students will       findings. Each
                                                          compare various     student will write
                                                          sources and         about his/her
                                                          perspectives to     central concern
                                                          conclude which      or idea and
                                                          is best and why.    compare and
                                                                              contrast with
                                                                              other ideas from
                                                                             class discussion..
5. Define plagiarism and acknowledge sources of          Use activities      Use activities          Use activities from
information.                                             from #4 above       from #4 above.          #4 above to
                                                         to discussion       Use citations to        identify how and
                                                         plagiarism.         attribute differing     when to cite or
                                                         Students will       ideas accurately.       paraphrase.
                                                         correctly cite      to identify how to
                                                         across different    cite, paraphrase,
                                                         sources, and        etc.
                                                         how and when
                                                         to paraphrase.
6. Use a variety of communication techniques,            In small groups,    Write a letter to a     Research a selected
including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports,   choose one          friend telling          career and find
to present information gathered.                         household task      them about a            pictures as well as
                                                         and develop a       recent vacation or      graphic information
                                                         video guide for     trip you have           about the career.
                                                         accomplishing       taken. Print out        Present the
                                                         the task.           digital photos or       information to the
                                                                             video stills that       class in a
                                                                             you took as part        multimedia format.
                                                                             of the body of the
                                                                             letter.

Communication: Oral and Visual

Students learn to communicate effectively through
exposure to good models and opportunities for
practice. By speaking, listening and providing and
interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their
communication skills in increasingly sophisticated
ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that
effectively convey information and persuade or
entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control
language and deliberately choose vocabulary to
clarify points and adjust presentations according to
audience and purpose.

1. Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g.,        Present medical     Give students time        Students choose
asking focused questions, responding to cues,            safety              in class to talk with     between three
making visual contact).                                  information         a partner discussing      guest speakers,
                                                         about common        topics such as what       research their
                                                         illnesses and       they did that             career before
                                                         their treatments.   weekend. Have             they come and
                                                         Have students in    each rate the other       develop
                                                         the audience use    for “active               questions to ask
                                                         active listening    listening”. Have          the speaker.
                                                         to ask questions    students apply this       Have students
                                                         to relate it to     skill to resolving an     use active
                                                         their own           argument.                 listening during
                                                         experiences and     Give students a           the presentation
                                                         clarify what        scenario with roles    Evaluate their
                                                         they/their family   and perspectives to    use of active
                                                         should and          take regarding an      listening
                                                         should not do.      argument. Have         strategies.
                                                                             them use active
                                                                             listening and
                                                                             describe the other
                                                                             person’s
                                                                             perspective.
2. Interpret the main idea and draw conclusions from     Read an article     Watch “The Sound       Invite a guest
oral presentations and visual media.                     or watch a news     and Fury” about        speaker to talk
                                                         clip and have       cochlear implants.     about a career.
                                                         students discuss    Identify each          Have students
                                                         the main idea.      family’s beliefs and   identify the key
                                                         Choose              why each made          benefits,
                                                         controversial       their decision..       advantages and
                                                         topics and                                 disadvantages of
                                                         identify key                               this career.
                                                         aspects.
3. Identify the speaker’s purpose in presentations and   View different    Use everyday             Compare
visual media (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to          videos (news,     reading materials        occupational
persuade).                                               commercials, TV   (newspaper,              promotional
                                                         shows) and have   magazines) and           literature verses
                                                         students place    present to class the     factual and
                                                         each clip under   article/advertiseme      government-
                                                         the appropriate   nt and its purpose.      based
                                                         category          Examine Deaf             information.
                                                         (inform,          products and             Compare job
                                                         entertain,        information,             market
                                                         persuade).        advertisements, etc.     information
                                                                           and discuss how          presented by
                                                                           well each media or       businesses
                                                                           ad presentation          versus
                                                                           fulfilled its            government.
                                                                           purpose.
4. Discuss how facts and opinions are used to shape      Use commercials Students create ads        Invite guest
the opinions of listeners and viewers.                   for different     on poster board for      speakers to talk
                                                         services/products different                about specific
                                                         to decide which   amusement parks          careers,
                                                         is more           they enjoy using         afterward
                                                         appealing and     both fact and            discuss and
                                                         how facts are     opinion. Discuss         research what is
                                                         and are not       the differences in       actual fact
                                                         included.         each.                    versus the
                                                                                                    speaker’s
                                                                                                    opinion.
5. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the      Have students       Have students          Students choose
English language and select language appropriate to      give a              present a play to      an issue to
purpose and audience.                                    presentation        different groups of    present as if 1.)
                                                         about how to        people (nursing        to a co-worker
                                                       make/do               home, parents,          2.) to a
                                                       something             students) adjusting     supervisor and
                                                       around the            it slightly each time   modify each
                                                       house. Identify       to suit the             accordingly
                                                       audience              particular audience.    (e.g., why a
                                                       background and        Discuss how choice      specific
                                                       make                  of words and style      accommodation
                                                       terminology and       is important to the     is important, or
                                                       organizational        audience.               how they should
                                                       choices                                       use it with the
                                                       accordingly.                                  D/HH
                                                       Monitor the                                   employee).
                                                       audience for                                  Identify how
                                                       comprehension                                 non-standard
                                                       and ask for                                   English can
                                                       feedback.                                     impact each
                                                                                                     person.
6. Use clear diction, pitch, tempo and tone, and       Students give a       Place students in       Present to class
adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas.     presentation to       different situations    on student’s
                                                       the class on          that require            career of choice.
                                                       chosen topic.         different               Discuss why
                                                       Videotape and         conversational          clarity, pace,
                                                       reviewed with         styles (e.g. talking    and tempo are
                                                       the student,          to teachers,            important, then
                                                       using a checklist     principal, other        have students
                                                       to assess the         students). List         practice their
                                                       presentation          different styles and    public speaking
                                                       (e.g., sign clarity   ways that they          skills on the
                                                       & tempo, if           should adjust           topic.
                                                       voice is not          conversation.
                                                       used).                Discuss sign
                                                                             differences by
                                                                             gender, age, region,
                                                                             social position,
                                                                             education, etc.
7. Adjust speaking content according to the needs of   Students write        Give students           Invite
the situation, setting and audience.                   two different         different scenarios     community
                                                       scripts about a       and role plays of       members to
                                                       safety issue that     interpersonal           classroom and
                                                       concerns them,        situations. Have        present on
                                                       one if talking to     them practice           specific careers.
                                                       younger children      modifying their         Have students
                                                       and one if            interactions for:       note any special
                                                       talking to adults.    talking to parents,     language used
                                                       Discuss               friends, etc.           and how it is
                                                       differences in        Discuss the use of      different from
                                                       explaining the        different words and     what they might
                                                       issue to two          content to describe     read in a book.
                                                       different             why deafness is or      Have them
                                                       audiences.            is not a                identify any
                                                                             “disability”, and       unfamiliar terms
                                                                              how audience           due to their age
                                                                              (familiarity with      or lack of
                                                                              deafness) impacts      background.
                                                                              choices.
8. Deliver informational presentations (e.g.,            Choose a task at     Present to class on    Students choose
expository, research) that:                              home: laundry,       how to organize a      a career and
a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic and         cleaning room,       meeting or a           research how
present events or ideas in a logical sequence;           etc. List steps      practice session for   many years for
b. support the main idea with relevant facts, details,   and tell why you     different school       school, average
examples, quotations, statistics, stories and            follow a specific    activities i.e.        salary, what the
anecdotes;                                               order in a           extracurricular,       job involves and
c. organize information, including a clear               presentation to      clubs. Provide         where they
introduction, body and conclusion and follow             the class. Use       anecdotes, charts,     might work.
common organizational structures when appropriate        anecdotes to         and relevant facts     Present to class
(e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast);                  support these        with a clear main      using a rubric of
d. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams,     steps, and use       idea.                  related criteria.
charts, illustrations) and available technology; and     charts to help
e. draw from several sources and identify sources        describe the         Use earlier            Use earlier
used.                                                    process.             activities in this     activities in this
                                                                              section and            section and
                                                         Use earlier          evaluate according     evaluate
                                                         activities in this   to these criteria.     according to
                                                         section and                                 these criteria.
                                                         evaluate
                                                         according to
                                                         these criteria.
9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive               Present to class     Students keep a        Students form
presentations recalling an event or personal             about a time         journal and spend      small groups
experience that convey relevant information and          when you had to      time at home           and talk about
descriptive details.                                     go to an             telling family and     an experience
                                                         appointment          friends about one      they have had
                                                         (doctor, dentist,    thing that helped      with specific
                                                         audiologist, etc.)   them develop more      careers (meeting
                                                         and what the         self-confidence.       firemen,
                                                         experience was                              policemen,
                                                         like.                                       parent’s career).
10. Deliver persuasive presentations that:               Have students        Have students          Students present
a. establish a clear position;                           present to class     conduct debates        to the class on a
b. include relevant evidence to support a position and   about their          about current          career of their
to address potential concerns of listeners; and          favorite hobby or    events or disability   choice and list
c. follow common organizational structures when          park and why it      issues and why         reasons why it is
appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast,       is their favorite.   they developed         appropriate for
problem-solution).                                       Use these            certain opinions       their hearing
                                                         techniques to be     about them. Have       loss and
                                                         persuasive and       students include       “disability”
                                                         evaluate how         relevant evidence      based on clear
                                                         many others are      that supports their    evidence that
                                                         now interested in    opinion.               addresses
                                                         this.                                       potential
                                                                                                     concerns.

				
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