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Making poverty history is a global acampaign by 5mtcWP8



        Hotel Africana, Kampala Uganda

                 15th - 16th July 2005



                         Organized by:

                          Supported by

United Reformed Church      Uganda Government   UNIDO

The Centre for African Development (CfAD) organised a Conference on Making Poverty History in
Africa using domestic means that was held from July 15 to July 16, 2005 at Hotel Africana in Kampala,
Uganda. It attracted over 250 participants from different parts of Africa and majority of Ugandan
participants represented a cross-section of socio-economic backgrounds that came to discuss
solutions to the rampant poverty using domestic means.

Keynote address on making poverty history using domestic means- by Mr. Frank Mugyenyi –
Executive Director CfAD

In his keynote address, the Executive Director of CfAD, pointed out that the conference on making
poverty history had been organised by CfAD in response to the Global Campaign that is calling for
more & better AID, Debt Cancellation and Trade Justice. He said that the underlying question was:
Can “Debt Cancellation” and “More AID” eradicate poverty in Africa? According to him, there was need
to critically analyse the developments at the global level and how they impact on Africa. He added that
there is need to have a paradigm shift and look at domestic means to eradicate poverty in Africa. This
is why the Centre for African Development had organised this conference to encourage and promote
discourse on how best domestic means can be used to make poverty history.

At the moment there is a huge debate contrasting the hypothesis originated by the proponents of aid
the likes of Burnside and Dollar (2000), and picked up by the media, academic and development
agencies such as DfID, The World bank etc arguing that aid has a positive impact on growth in
developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence
of poor policies. However, the new consensus seems to suggest the contrary, for example; William
Easterly argues that “Economic research on foreign aid effectiveness and economic growth frequently
becomes a political football. But when a regression result is passed from one source to the next,
context is often stripped away so that what the result means in public discussion is different than what
the original research actually demonstrated”

He noted that aid comes in various forms such as loans (bilateral, multilateral & commercial), grants,
technical assistance (experts, consultants, short courses for civil servants, etc but that the percentage
of grants in the composition of aid was minimal and thus the definition of aid was in itself misleading.
He also sighted the different names of aid e.g. the most recently launched ‘International Finance
Facility’ proposed and promoted by Gordon Brown as the new effective aid package for Africa. Mr.
Mugyenyi warned saying that much of these aid packages should be critically analysed before taken
on by African countries because at worst they contribute to illegitimate and odious debts.

Why is Aid ineffective?

Mr. Mugyenyi highlighted a number of reasons why for years aid has been ineffective in Africa.
Although the major blame is now thrown at “Corrupt African Leaders”, there was a need to look at
other factors. What is corruption? Corruption is defined as "the abuse of public power for private gain."
Alexander Sack, the author and legal scholar of the doctrine of odious debts, included in his definition
of odious debts, "loans incurred by members of the government or by persons or groups associated
with the government to serve interests manifestly personal -- interests that are unrelated to the
interests of the State." One can therefore argue that any unethical aid which comes in packages of
reform policies and illegitimate debts and loans funding poorly designed projects which are of no
economic or social benefits to majority of the people is a form of corruption. Mr. Mugyenyi listed a
number of reasons why aid has not worked for Africa and the following were noted as major:

    “AID” does not reach the poor it comes back in form of salaries for NGOs’ “Consultants”, and
    “expatriates”, at the same time Aid has created parallel structures where the “aid system has often
    underwritten the creation of a dual bureaucracy, whereby nationals of a country work in underpaid
    and under-resourced national systems while a more privileged segment works for the international
    organisations” (Ashraf Ghani et al)”1. In most instances there is a brain drain from the managerial

 Ashraf Ghani, Clare Lockhart & Michael Carnahan, Closing the Sovereignty Gap: an Approach to Sate
Building, ODI Working Paper 253, September 2005
    tier of the government to menial positions in the aid systems thus robbing the country a cream of
    their human resources.

    Fuelling corruption:

    Repatriations through profit heaven for private foreign investment and loans for funding poorly
    designed & inflated projects (Kick –backs, facilitation fees, export credit guarantees). Corruption a
    double edged sword there is a giver and a receiver: Is it ok for the briber to go scotch free and put
    all the blame to the bribed? (Chasing a petty thief and live the big thieves (MNC).

       It comes in packages (tied) which are not in Africa’s interest. One – size-fits all
        macroeconomic conditions: (Policies & conditionalities):

       Africa is forced to open up its markets to western cheap subsidised products while their
        markets are protected. Unfavourable policies (cost sharing in health and education etc)

       It does not reduce poverty it can cause poverty (apathy, complacency, corruption, “easy come
        easy go”)

    Impact of Aid on Sovereignty:

    Aid destroys sovereignty of African countries and creates dependency. During that cold war, aid
    was used to reward rulers on the basis of their foreign policies for being with or against one of the
    superpowers rather than their pursuit of a developmental agenda. Of recent, however, there has
    been a paradigm shift and aid is used as a “direct substitution for the state in the delivery of
    services or the management of resources as a response by the international community to the
    situation in failed and failing states. Poor countries are often the sites where international financial
    organisations and bilateral donors contract UN agencies and NGOs to perform functions that are
    normally performed by the state”. For instance Ashraf Ghani (Ashraf Ghani et al, ODI working
    paper 253) argues that “confronted with a state increasingly failing to perform the basic state
    functions such as delivery of services, the aid system has attempted to address the symptoms
    rather than the causes of that failure. these good intentions undermine the creation of a sovereign
    state capable of performing the core state functions in several systemic ways” and that . The
    delivery of services by these groups leads to a higher cost structure and the creation of financially
    unsustainable and unaccountable practices. Arguably of even more concern is the negative
    impact of this non-state provision of core state functions on the legitimacy and sovereignty of the

       Contributes to bad governance (accountability is to donors rather than to people)

       More importantly past pledges show more aid is unachievable. He said that 35 years ago in
        1969, the Pearson Commission called for 0.7% of GNP of OECD donors to AID, 25 years ago
        in 1980, the Brandt Report reinforced the 0.7% GNP target and also called for advancing this
        to 1% GNP by 2000. 5 years ago (2000) the MDGs were born and in 2005 we have
        “Commission for Africa” also calling for more AID. He thought it plausible that 2015 (the year
        of MDG Maturity), CfA +10 will give birth to yet other African initiatives..

Mr. Mugyenyi argued that Africa may need less aid If the following facts are considered:

       Africa is rich and that its resources are plundered by the commercialisation of poverty through
        AID and DEBT
       That Africa has been at the centre of Globalisation for the past 600 years
       Africa as a Net Creditor (profit repatriation and capital flight)

 Ashraf Ghani, Clare Lockhart & Michael Carnahan, Closing the Sovereignty Gap: an Approach to Sate
Building, ODI Working Paper 253, September 2005
         Freeing the Markets and removing all trade barriers while focusing on building productive
          capacity in Africa in order to improve trade through market access (especially goods &
          services e.g. Labour Markets)

EXAMPLE:          Africa & Globalisation from 1400 – present day (over 600 years)

Africa has been at the heart of Globalisation for the past 600 years; first slave trade (1400s – 1860s)
more than 450 years. While it officially ended 1807, smuggling continued for another 60 years, then
colonialism (1830s to date) close to 200 years continuing from where slave trade ended. Colonialism
came packaged with the scramble for Africa (1880s – to date). For almost 150 years Africa has been
torn apart by Multinational Companies from the time the likes of Imperial British East African Company
curved up parts of Africa. With colonialism came corruption which was inherited by the colonial trained
African elite class who replaced colonial masters in the name of “Independence”. Corruption is
therefore not an African phenomenon and it has been looming over Africa for the last 5 decades (from
1950s – to date) over 40 years (“independence” process was in itself corrupt: handing over power to
only those who agreed to serve interests colonial masters) and this manifested itself through the cold
war and continues through imposition of unfair reforms policies and tied AID. Last but not least the
looting & squandering of Africa’s Natural and Human Resources by Multinational Companies etc
clearly shows that Africa is not poor but that the commercialisation of poverty has a lot to play in
keeping colonialism in place.

How much worth was slave trade?

There is a school of thought that Africans should not keep using history as an excuse for their current
problems. I do not subscribe to this school of thought and I find it rather odd as to how one can forget
or just delete his/her history in order to progress. The past shapes the future, and it is vital that we
should look back in order to shape our future. It is however equally important that we should use the
negative past to build a positive future. Learning from our mistakes is the best strategy, and it is well
documented that Africans were themselves at the heart of slave trade as they were the ones rounding
up villages and selling their fellow brothers and sisters.

It is difficult to put a figure at the value of slave trade. On the one hand there was a high magnitude of
economic gain from human trade as in exchange of goods, and on the other hand was even a much
more and immense gain (priceless) through free labour that the slaves and their descendants provided
for free on the plantations for over 450 years some few estimates have been given by a few scholars
e.g. one estimate gives vast increase from: £291m in 1805 (only 2 years before it was declared illegal)
to more than £3bn in 1860, a ten-fold increase in just 55 years. So one wonders how much was 400
years worth i.e. 1400 – 1805? Yet when slave trade campaign reached its peak (thanks to Sir William
Wilberforce and his team) , resulting in illegalising slave trade in 1807 by an act of parliament, it was
the Slave Merchants who were compensated to a massive tune of £20m for their loses. Africa was
never compensated.

Africa as a net creditor

There are numerous studies and empirical evidence which suggest that Africa is a net creditor. James
K. Boyce & Léonce Ndikumana3, presents estimates of capital flight from 25 low-income heavily
indebted Sub – Saharan African countries in the period 1970 – 1996 and shows that Africa is a net
creditor. Taking capital flight as a measure of private external assets, and calculating net external
assets or net capital flight, as private external assets minus public external debts, Africa appears to be
a net creditor vis-à-vis the rest of the world.

Between 1970 & 1996 capital flight totalled more than $193 billion (in 1996 dollars), without interest
and with imputed interest earnings, the accumulated stock of capital flight amounts to $285 billion.
Compared to external debt; the combined external debt of these countries stood at $178 billion in
1996. Capital Flight– Debt or net capital flight (1970 -1996) without interest $193 - $178 = $15bn and
with interest $285 - $178 = $107b. Without even considering the legitimacy of African debts, debt-
cancellation should not be begged for it should be demanded.

    A Working Paper series N0. 5 University of Massachusetts by James K. Boyce & Léonce Ndikumana
Trade (Goods Market)

This is extended at length bans on the industrial policies that led to successful development in the
west, the imposition of patents on drugs and copyrights on computer software and recorded material,
inappropriate macro-economic policies imposed by the IMF and the World Bank. There is therefore
dependency on traditional primary unprocessed products, conditional & restricted market access
where rules of origin operate. For example AGOA requires that the raw materials and technology are
imported from America.

However, in some instances “removing rich countries' subsidies may not level the playing field -- and
therefore may not save African countries from economic and social upheavals.

    1.   First Africa still lacks productive capacity that would march the demands of the global

    2.   Secondly Africa is not allowed to apply selective protection polices that continue to be applied
         in the west – e.g. if countries who need to protect their domestic agricultural sector are
         allowed to impose tariffs on western cheap highly subsidized agriculture imports without fear
         of retaliation from rich nations could help African Industrial sectors to grow.

    3.   Thirdly there is a need to move away from the traditional Agricultural cash crops such as
         Coffee, cotton etc and/or diversify into other tradable instant cash crops.

Alternative solutions should consider the following

Mr. Mugyenyi argued that to fight poverty, Africans need to look inwards first and come up with
dynamic and alternative solutions. We need to take advantage of the rich endowments and create
wealth locally, nationally, regionally and then internationally.

Trade/Goods Market

        Alternative Products (agro-processed, horticulture, apiculture, Arts & Crafts, services)
        Alternative Markets (consider products which have local, national & Regional as well as
        Competitiveness (Innovation)
        Productive capacity
        Value added (processing)
        Selective Industrial Protectionism

Services Markets - Labour

        Negotiated skilled and unskilled labour transfer rather than pouching through agencies
        Assist in Reversing Brain Drain
        Facilitate Diaspora in knowledge & technological transfer along side financial remittances

There are alternative or complementary development initiatives by Africans in Diaspora that need to be
supported in the development panacea; such as:

        Financial Remittances
        Markets creation and research
        Export Promotion of new products
        Private Foreign Investment
        Reverse Brain Drain (e.g. IOM)
        knowledge & technological transfer (Investor In People)
        Information dissemination

Remittances from Africans living abroad are seen as a lifeline for impoverished communities at home,
where there is little hope that the government will be able to meet their daily needs such as, education,
health, and water, setting up in businesses, building and other developmental initiatives.

What is the value of the African Diaspora Remittances to Africa?

A recent study on the importance of remittances to Africa shoed that the continent received 15% of all
formal and recorded remittances (US $80 billion) sent to poor countries in 2002 counting to 1.3% of
GDP (far ahead of official development assistance).and that the "informal transfers and formal but
unrecorded transfers bring the estimated total to as much as $200 billion - more than foreign direct
investment”. For a capital-poor continent like Africa you can't ignore this source of income - it's a stable
flow of income, unlike Aid, Loans and private capital inflows, which can be volatile.”

Domestic Initiatives
        Community Empowerment (Mobilisation, sensitisation and change of the mindset).
        Wealth creation through trade as it is the driver of all economies
        Micro-Enterprise (Entrepreneurship) Development.
        Capacity Building, Training, Continuous Support, Monitoring, Financing; etc. (high value
         chains will require appropriate skills)
        Build Domestic Micro-Credit & Saving Schemes
        Resource mobilisation (human, capital, savings)
        Stop all forms of exploitation

He noted that there is an urgent need to act now because to make poverty history, Africa needs a
growth rate of 10%++ constantly for the next 30 – 40 years and this requires a RADICAL approach. He
further urged the participants to look beyond MDGs (2015) and Commission for Africa. (2010). This is
because in Africa 80% of the population live in rural areas, representing the poorest mostly women
and youth whose expenditure is marginal but yet unaffordable. The remaining 20% is the consumer
base and 90% of consumer base are civil servants who earn meagre monthly wages and work below
capacity with salaries delaying on average for two months. The remainder 10% of the consumer base
is composed of businessmen and businesswomen, high rank civil servants who are the "privileged"
people. This represents the it is inadequate to spur growth, the result is low productivity, low
purchasing power and thus low savings rates.

Prerequisites for packaging the solution

    1.   Choosing an economic operation, which has products that can be (industrially processed)
         and which have a reservoir of local, national, and regional consumers' base. That is the only
         way to fight against the international market's dictatorial pricing law while lobbying for Trade

    2.    Establishing an economic activity that generates cash on a monthly basis. Cash crops such
         as cocoa, coffee, tea do no have that advantage. (Increase Purchasing Power)

    3.   To setup and operate the economic activity on a strict professional basis and managed by
         professionals. Productivity objectives being clearly defined and monitored by an Enterprise
         Resource Planning system (ERP).

    4.   To explore and implement all the avenues of processing the products. In brief, it is an
         absolute necessity to valorize all wastes not leaving a single stone unturned to harvest to the
         fullest the potential of the economic operation.

    N.B This MUST be a BOTTOM - UP Process

How to generate economic activity

Noted that there are plenty of economic operations to promote in order to boost up the economy on
local, national, regional and international levels and that choice of an economic activity needs to be
based on the following criteria:

i) Comparative Advantage: The local existing traditional & non- traditional agricultural and pastoral
activities, tourism,  cultural  talents    in   Music,     Drama,      and    artifacts,   handcrafts

ii) Competitive Advantage: to improve productivity and to increase added value.
iii) Protect young domestic industries especially agro-industries (against highly subsidised western
cheap imports) i.e. protecting domestic agricultural sector by imposing tariffs without fear of retaliation
from rich nations.

THE TASK OF THE SOUTH (Brandt Report, 1980)

Mr Mugyenyi the concluded by highlighting some of the recommendations of the 1980 Brandt Report:

    1.   Redistribution of productive resources and incomes is necessary. A broader package of policy
         improvements would include expansion of social services to the poor, agrarian reform,
         increased development expenditures in rural areas, stimulation of small scale enterprises, and
         better tax administration. Such measures are necessary for satisfying elementary needs and
         for increasing productivity, particularly in rural areas.
    2.   The strengthening of indigenous technological capacity the encouragement of a domestic
         engineering industry, increased emphasis on intermediate technology and the sharing of
    3.   Improved economic management and the increased mobilization of domestic resources are
         essential to the promotion of development.
    4.   Wider participation in the development process should be encouraged; measures to achieve
         this include decentralised governmental administrative systems and support for relevant
         voluntary organisations.
    5.   Regional and sub regional integration, or other forms of closer cooperation, offer a viable
         strategy for accelerated economic development and structural transformation among
         developing countries, especially the smaller ones. It supports industrialization and trade
         expansion and provides opportunities for multi-country ventures.

Mr. Frank Mugyenyi ended his presentation by pointing out that poverty in Africa can be eradicated if
we think local and act global.

Official opening of the conference by Prof. Peter Kasenene Minister of state for Finance in
charge of Privatisation

The Chief Guest in this conference was Dr. Ezra Suruma, Minister of Finance for Finance, Planning
and Economic Development who was represented by Prof. Peter Kasenene, the state Minister for
Finance in charge of Privatisation. Prof. Kasenene requested to make his own remarks before reading
the speech from the Guest of Honour.

Prof. Kasenene’s own comments and remarks

He said that Human beings are governed by laws and when you violate these laws, you are punished
and when you obey them you are rewarded and if you do the reverse and violate them, you are

He gave the example of the law of gravity, and also gave an example of law on driving on the left is
supposed to be followed and noted that in Uganda if you drive on the right, the traffic police will arrest

Law of cause and effect

He said that everything that happens has a cause, nothing happens by accident. He noted that if you
are poor, there is a cause. He gave the example of when he traveled to Singapore which is a rich
country yet at one time before independence Uganda was ahead of Singapore. He pondered on this
scenario and he got perplexed.

Implications of the law of cause and effect

To change the effect, you must change the cause. In other words, if you are poor, you must know what
caused your poverty and you must dig down and establish the root cause other than looking at

He further noted that you can’t do the same thing in the same way and expect a different result. If you
want to get out of poverty you must do 2 things:

    a)   You must change what you are doing
    b)   Continue doing the same thing and do it in a different way

He added that the poor countries and poor individuals have remained poor irrespective of the various
efforts, because we have not tackled the appropriate root causes of their poverty. The diagnosis of the
problem of poverty has not been correct and in some ways has been flawed.

What are the causes of poverty?

According to Prof. Kasenene, there are three types/categories of causes of poverty:

    i)   Natural causes – for example having a predominantly rural country, infertility of land , bad
         weather, drought, etc
    ii) Socio-structural causes– for example lack of employment, lack of credit, poor technology, etc
    iii) Personal causes – factors which are within an individual – attitudinal factors

If we are to deal with these problems, we need to establish the type of the cause and address it
appropriately. For example, the national, and multi national institutions are addressing the socio-
structural causes of poverty.

If we have not dealt with the third cause of poverty, we shall not make headway in eradication poverty.
In his view, we cannot make much progress if we don’t deal with attitudinal problems. According to
him, you cannot be rich in your pocket if you are poor in your head. It is for this reason that we have
micro finance institutions that are making people poor.

He added that to change the outside of the person, you must change the inside of that individual. This
is fundamentally critical in our quest for poverty eradication. He gave the example of corruption which
is fundamentally a problem of the attitude of the mind and is manifested externally.

He stressed the fact that there is need to change people’s minds and put a prosperity mindset. He
pointed out that we are poor not because we lack resources and capital; we have not yet developed
the proper mindset that is a prerequisite for wealth creation. We have to strive to transform Ugandans
and instill in them a proper mindset that will take them from the poverty spirit to the prosperity spirit.

He therefore suggested that the first domestic means of dealing with poverty are the poor people
themselves. We need to involve the poor people in poverty eradication initiatives. If the right set of
mindset is developed, we should be able to move Uganda from poverty to wealth.

Dr. Ezra Suruma’s speech

 “Distinguished guests, Honourable Members of Parliament present, heads of diplomatic missions,
representatives from various ministries, conference organizers, delegates, protocol observed, ladies
and gentlemen, it gives me great pleasure to officiate on this historical and timely function where we
are prescribing solutions to the endemic poverty that pervades all sectors of life not only in this country
but in the entire continent.

I am glad that we are advancing in creativity and we are coming back home to mobilize the local
resources – human, financial, economic and all the others to ensure that we get ourselves out of the
pit of poverty. It is only us the Ugandans and Africans to get ourselves out of the pit. The onus is on us
to work out ways of getting rid of poverty.

The conference theme: Making poverty history using domestic means triggers some critical thinking in
my mind. It points to the fact that if we are to get meaningful, relevant and sustainable solutions to the
prevalent poverty in this country, we need to rethink our current approaches to poverty eradication. We
need to challenge ourselves to think of local and homegrown ways to fight poverty and make it history.
We need to take certain steps in this journey of writing a poverty free history for this country:

First, we need to liberate our minds and rethink our approaches to poverty reduction at the individual
level. Fellow countrymen and all combatants in the battle against poverty, the first step on the road to a
poverty free country is changing our mindsets. We need to have a paradigm shift and realize that it is
our attitudes that determine our altitude as far as poverty elimination is concerned. If you think that you
were condemned to be poor and you fold your hand, I guarantee you, poverty will strike and cripple
you beyond recognition.

On the other hand, if you believe in abundance of opportunities to harness so as to overcome poverty,
you will succeed. One thing I would like to challenge you to do is to look around you in your local
community and see what needs to be done. You will be surprised to find juicy opportunities to be

In addition, we need to stop the blame-shifting attitude that some of us have. We think that some
people are responsible for our poverty. Some people say the government retrenched people and they
became poorer. But I say to you, people who effectively use their minds and expertise get richer
outside government service because they focus all their minds on survival. We need to realize that the
more we focus on blaming, the less constructive work we do and the more we get entangled in the
vicious cycle of poverty.

At the same time we need to take advantage of the conducive government policy to overcome poverty.
Let me tell you today; once there is stability in this country, we can make poverty history. So the
government is tirelessly working to see that stability reigns so that Ugandans can enjoy the fruits of
their labour.

It would be great if at the end of this conference, clear strategies are drawn of how to overcome
poverty. Lets look at the needs of our society and how we can respond to them. It is important that we
look at mutually beneficial strategies than thinking of exploitative avenues of enriching some sections
of society at the expense of others. I hope that in this conference we shall reflect on the different
policies operating at the African continent and how they impact on our quest for poverty eradication at
the national level. I would also be very happy if this conference reflected on increasing incomes at the
family level, and how this links to the national level.

It is important that we are realistic and desist from theorizing that characterizes a number of
conferences. Lets think more of the applicability beyond this room of the suggestions we shall give in
this conference. Our meeting here should yield results that will help our generation to write a farewell
song to poverty.

I would like to thank the Centre for African Development for organizing this conference and I wish you
fruitful deliberations. As a government we shall remain committed to ensuring that poverty in this
country is history. With these few remarks, it is my honour and pleasure to officially declare this
conference open”.

Presentation on Good Governance –by Prof. George Kirya

Prof. Kirya began his presentation by pointing out that if one undertakes careful scrutiny, one notes
that none of the colonial masters practiced good governance that they passionately talk about; some
became dictators while others adopted Marxist policies that worked to the detriment of African

He further noted that for Africa to overcome its challenges, it has to realize that the Africans have to do
things differently. Africans should take responsibility to create solutions to their problems. According to
him, being poor doesn’t mean that we cannot think for ourselves; the ordinary Africans value
democracy and always strive uphold it.

He called upon participants to recognise that Africans must address the issues of governance in a way
that is unique to Africa. He added that Democracy should not be for confrontational politics. He called
for a win-win situation where there is consensus between the concerned parties.

Nationalism and Patriotism

He said that Africans need to become nationalistic and take pride in being African and we should
prioritise the interests of our continent if we are to come out of abject poverty. He added that we should
not forget the African culture where freedom and where interests are not ideologies but realities
imbedded in the way we live life and govern ourselves.
He further noted that the Winner takes it all ideology has been responsible for the chaos that we are
experiencing in this continent. Over 300 million Africans live in abject poverty and over 20million live
with HIV. When this is coupled with insecurity and war in most African countries, it is an insult added to
an injury.

He suggested that African countries should address their existing problems in a holistic manner

    i.   strengthening of continental peace initiatives
   ii.   emphasis of fighting communicable diseases
  iii.   market access for African products
  iv.    addressing supply constraints
   v.    achieving universal primary education and increasing participation in secondary education
  vi.    strengthening the indigenous private sector


He said that the rampant corruption is visible expression of the moral decadence that pervades the
entire continent and is deeply entrenched in Uganda where it is seen as a means of survival for some
sections of society. He said that there is massive and large scale corruption and embezzlement that is
practiced with impunity.

Corruption creates a negative image for the country and is a menace to society. He said that for the
country to make headway in fighting poverty there should be zero tolerance to corruption and the
culprits should be seriously punished. Since corruption involves two parties (the one who gives and
one who receives), there is need to sensitise the entire population to get involved in fighting corruption.
He further suggested that we should strengthen accountability at all levels in an effort to curb


Prof. Kirya said that for Africa to compete effectively, it must be able to employ its resources to take
advantage of the lucrative market abroad. This calls for an enabling environment and harmonization of
the fiscal and monetary policies in the respective countries.

In the wake of globalisation, domestic protectionist policies also need to be strategically employed and
strengthened to shield local infant industries from being suffocated by cheap products from developed

Challenge ahead of us

He noted that some of Africa’s enormous challenges are traced to the years of colonialism and others
can be addressed by the Africans themselves. We should think of utilizing the available resources to
overcome poverty. There is need for entrenching the principles of democracy such as the respect for
human rights. We should also exercise the responsibility for promoting and pushing for values that we
cherish as Africans. He noted that the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is a step in the right
direction towards Africans taking charge of their own affairs. He ended by challenging participants to
think of where we want Africa to be in the next 20 years.

Presentation on Ethics and Integrity by Ms Charlotte M. Bagorogoza

Madam Bagorogoza began her presentation by defining ethics and integrity. She referred to the former
as morality concepts and beliefs and the latter as honesty and consistence. It also measures one’s
sense of responsibility, which is you either have highest integrity or have no integrity at all because
there is no middle ground.

She wondered how much of morality influence our macro and economic policies in African in the quest
to make poverty history and how do we make ethics and integrity critical in the fight against poverty.
She noted that poverty eradication calls for mobilisation of both domestic and foreign resources. In the
first place, we should be able to provide the basic needs before thinking of other people. According to
her, the dependency syndrome/ system is one the basic moral hazards today.

Moral implication of the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)

She said that the 17 years of structural adjustment programs in Uganda have many moral implications
that deserve careful scrutiny. For example, retrenchment without alternative solution resulted into
reduced incomes following incompetence of people trying to compete with foreign direct investors. She
further noted that liberalisation formed a new policy of survival of the fittest and elimination of the unfit.
She wondered whether economists calculated the opportunity costs of the SAPs before introducing

She said that the expected results are not realized because of corruption and embezzlement which are
moral issues/dilemmas. The choice of investment is an added issue that needs to be analysed and the
level as well as duration of return.

Additionally, donors can’t be held accountable for their words because of power relations. Once they
say something, they can turn around and change it or implement it to further their interests.

Suggested solutions

In order to foster ethics and integrity in the fight against poverty, there is need to empower people to
equally become resourceful at various levels. Accountability should be promoted and corruption should
not be tolerated. In cases where there has been fraud the government spends money to investigate
and in the end there is no prosecution of the culprits thus creating a double loss.

The challenge is to think about today and tomorrow for maximum output. There is need to have
practical reform of the institutions that enforce integrity. Instead having a multiplicity of anti-graft
institutions, we should ensure that results of commissions of inquiry are followed. If we are to make
poverty history, we need to promote ethics and integrity in both the private and public sectors.

Presentation on Domestic Resource Mobilization Role of capital markets – By Mr. Japheth Kato

He noted at the beginning of his presentation that people fail to save not because they lack resources
because facilities are abundant to promote capital formation.

                             Why domestic savings?


                 ECONOMIC GROWTH

In the fight against poverty, it is critical for one have discipline. How you spend your money and how
you save determines your altitude in capital formation. This is because saving will lead to investment
and development and economic growth follows.

Comparision of GNI and Savings Levels of Selected Countries

Country              GNI (PPP in million International USD- Gross National Savings %
                     )                                      of GNI (2000)

Uganda               26,776                                   11%

Kenya                30,357                                   11%

South Africa         392,011                                  15%

Malaysia             193,914                                  42%

Bangladesh           208,944                                  23%

China                4,951,233                                40%

Saving is available for one to invest so as to lead to economic growth. Countries like Malaysia,
Bangladesh and China have high levels of discipline and this contributes to their saving culture.

Why domestic savings?

       Increased domestic capital accumulation
       Provide long term savings for increased investment in public infrastructure with knock on
       Positive impact on the fiscal and monetary indicators
       Financing future expenditure e.g. School fees
       Retirement income
       Income security for individual savers
       Reduction in donor dependency!

Role of capital markets

Provide products and avenues for savings
    Debt and equity instruments: Equity are shares and debt is where government and institutions
       borrow money
    Government securities (Bonds and T-Bills)
    Collective Investment Schemes; these mobilize small savings and invest them in whole. They
       manage the money and it is secure because they manage it for you. Africa Network is
       licensed to handle this.
    Legal and regulatory framework for investor protection

What strategy/ policy?

            Tax incentives to both issuers and investors
            Liberalization of the pension sector
            Through privatizing/divesting companies through capital markets
            Having a deliberate national savings policy


            Non monetized savings
            Non - availability of savings channels in rural areas
            Lack of a proper savings policy
            Lack of awareness
            Poor savings culture


            We need a national savings policy
            Increased access to financial services for the rural areas
            Tax incentives for both issuers and investors
            Pension sector liberalization
            Diversifying products and services
            Investment in public education and awareness

He emphasized that poverty eradication policies should be geared at inducing the entry, assuring
sustainability, facilitating inter-linkages and reaching the rural areas. He ended by noting that the
recent budget’s emphasis on savings and investment is a move in the right direction but more needs to
be done.

Presentation on the impact of micro finance institutions (MFIs) on poverty eradication in
Uganda – by Mr. Titus Mpanga

He began by defining poverty is a situation where individuals or group of individuals fail to attain the
necessary required minimum standards of life such as shelter, food, medication, clothing and
sanitation and other needs of life. He went ahead to give the poverty profile in Uganda and thereafter
gave the origin of microfinance institutions in Uganda.

The government of Uganda succumbed to pressure from the Word bank and IMF by taking up
Structural Adjustment Policies which were packages aimed at restructuring the economy and
liberalising the financial sector. The SAPs created a vacuum in financing of micro economic activities.
Thus Micro finance institutions were cited as possible remedy to support micro enterprises run by the
civil society which had been most hit by poverty caused by structural adjustment programs e.g.
retrenchment, privatization and other calamites.

 Critical examination of the operations of MFIs in Uganda

    1)   Micro finances operate with a very high interest rate most of them charging between 26% and
         41% per annum. This is too high for poor societies.
    2)   The security required for accessing micro finance loans ranges from household items such as
         TV, music systems, furniture to immovable property such as plots of land.
    3)   The grace period given after accessing the loans is abnormally very small given the fact that
         one is required to start paying back within seven days. There are no women led micro
         enterprises such as pancake baking, mushroom growing; poultry keeping will be able to
         produce profit with the first week hence the very capital support will be used to pay the loan
         thus not eradicating poverty.
    4)   Some micro finance institutions promote consumer commodity selling companies as a
         condition to access a loan e.g. one MFI forcefully imposed a mosquito net on each
    5)   Some of the micro finance institutions take control over the accounts of women enterprises
         and hence a credit officer is signatory on those accounts which does not permit them to
         withdraw any amount of money for other activities.

A critical look at the above conditions especially the high interest rates and short grace periods points
to the fact that defaulting becomes inevitable. In the event that the beneficiary defaults, the only basic
property in any form is confiscated leaving the unfortunate victim in abject poverty.

In addition, the MFIs have also created a dependency syndrome where the beneficiary can’t run self
sustained micro enterprises where at the end of every cycle they will have go back to the micro finance
institution for more funds. The beneficiary thus remains in perpetual indebtedness to the MFI.

Most of the micro finance profits are repatriated to the owners of the business. If the women retained
the profits, with time they would become self sustaining. The presenter ended by noting that the
current mode of operation of micro finance institutions is not targeted at eradicating poverty; it only
impoverishes those below the poverty line. If micro finance is to be a way of making poverty history,
there is need for a practical and drastic overhaul and reform of the status quo with regard to MFIs.

Presentaion on the Africa Productive Capacity Initiative and its Flexible Facility -By Dr. Yves
Ekoue Amaizo – UNIDO

The presenter explained that the AFRICA PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY INITIATIVE (APCI) is based on
the value chain approach and defined a value chain as the sequence of production or value added
activities leading to and supporting end users of a particular product: From inception to final

Productive Capacity is the ability:

                To produce goods that meet the quality requirements of present markets, and to
                 upgrade in order to tap future markets.

                 Mastering the above through Public-Private Sector Partnerships should enable Africa
                  to ensure its sustainable participation in the new global production settings based on
                  production networks.

     Diversification and structural change            are fundamental to get out of a vicious cycle of
     poverty, conflict, poor economic growth and dependence on few commodities:
             1. Improvement in productive capacity, technological and social capabilities with the
                  private sector (ending rules of origin)
             2. Mastering first and second levels of the value chain process : Increasing productivity
                  at priority sectors using “dynamic products” as a criteria Promoting Clustering
                  approaches at the sectoral level (From co-operatives to intra-firms activity)
             3. Access to foreign market through trade capacity, quality and timely delivery
             4. Renewed support to private sector development (support institutions) as well as
                  conducive infrastructure (ICT)
             5. Need to offer incentives, review regulatory frameworks, renewed importance to public
                  goods (technological and physical infrastructure, business environment, information,
                  communication, human capital upgrading)

     Ensuring on a more predictable basis the Reduction of Risks, Volatility and Transaction
     Costs in a focused manner
             1. Inter-connections
             2. Intra/inter-regional production and trade
             3. Capability formation and clustering of productive entities (cooperatives, micro-firms,
                  SMEs, Large firms…)

     Why Measuring Productive Capacity is Needed?

     To provide governments, industries and support institutions with an analytical tool to support
     structural transformation of the production process


     1.   Measure the performances of national industries at the sub-regional, sectoral or global levels
          with “index and indices”
     2.   Use a selected number of drivers of industrial and technological capabilities
     3.   Commitment to improve industrial performance based on Peer Review Mechanism

     From Linear To Complex Value Chain

     a)   The embedded power asymmetry;
     b)   The complexity of transactions;
     c)   The control over the codification of the transactions;
     d)   The absorption capacity of countries and professionals participating in the production network
          process, and
     e)   The level of the functioning of facilitating institutions (including governments).

2)   Governments could become a major constraint to competitiveness if there are confusions over the
     function of “regulator” or “facilitator” (i e. state interference) and direct management of the
     production system

APCI acknowledged by the UK Commission for Africa

         Structural change in commodity dependent economies
         AU/NEPAD African Productive Capacity Initiative as the policy framework for Africa’s
          industrialization effort
         Shifting production into more value added activities and promoting diversification
         Two main common priorities: sub-regional and sectoral approaches: (agro-processing,

        Involvement of the private sector and upgrading through diffusion of science, technology and
       Success depends on sound policies/governance and large scale investment in infrastructure
       Accessing new “locomotive markets” such as India, China, South Africa, Brazil…
       A flexible African Productive Capacity Facility requested
        At least $ US 70 millions (excluding loans and guarantees) requested from Donors as seed
        money (1 million per country, 2 millions for REC, 6 millions NEPAD/AU and CAMI/UNIDO
        (tentative distribution: 54 + 10 + 6 millions)

       APCI and the flexible APCF will be part of the discussions at G8 and European Union
        (International Finance Facility)
       UNIDO’s participation in the implementation committee of the UK Commission for Africa


A set of resources dedicated to the support of regional and sectoral productive capacity
                  •  Loans
                  •  Loans guarantees
                  •  Grants
                  •  Technical assistance and expertise
                  •  Fiscal measures
                  •  Contribution in kind

    Marketing each identified financial stakeholders

                     •   Financial institutions (starting with IDB, WADB, ADB, BADEA…)
                     •   Private sector’s contributions
                     •   Supportive Donors (Starting with Blair Commission, TICAD/Japan)
                     •   International organizations (UNIDO (seed money), UNDP, ILO, ACBF…)
                     •   Venture Capital
                     •   Governments’ contribution (Cameroon, Nigeria)

Innovative approach to operate the flexible APCF

           MOU: Signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Funding institutions and
           Ensuring that Programmes/projects acknowledged by NEPAD and RECs – Bottom Up
            Approach through Regional and sectoral Road Maps/Actions Plans
           Integration and up-grading of existing Programmes/Projects from a Bottom-up-approach
           Signing of a bidding contract (Trust Fund Agreement)

            1.   Two parties (Donors and Joint UN agencies (ILO, UNCTAD,UNIDO)
            2.   Three parties (Donors, Government, Joint UN agencies)
            3.   Multi parties (Donors, Financial institutions, Governments, Private Sectors, Joint UN

Ending TINA syndrome: Making Wealth Creation History in Africa

Initial endowments and geographical opportunities: Landlocked (L), Coastal (C) and Natural-resource

           GDP growth rates required to achieve MDG goals 1 (halving income poverty by 2015)
            different for three groups of SSA countries: Growth rate required is between 3.9% and 4.9
            % per year

            Improvement in productive capacity, technological and social capability with the private
            Increasing productivity at the primary sectors (first levels of the value chain)
            Access to foreign market through trade capacity building and removing rules of origin and
             unfair subsidies
            Renewed support to Private sector development (support institutions)
            Need to offer incentives, review regulatory frameworks, renewed importance to public
             goods (technological and physical infrastructure, business environment, Information,
             communication, human capital upgrading)


    1. Implementing Bottom-Up Approaches with 5 RECs, national Governments and Non-State
    •   Sectoral Actions Plans,
    •   Road Maps
    •   Integrated Programmes
    •   Stand alone support projects

    2. Becoming a member of the Implementation committee of the UK commission for Africa
    •   Building Productive Capacity in AGOA, EBA, MCA…
    •   Involving bilateral donors
    •   Involving Multinational firms

3. Building a chapter on Productive Capacity in national Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers (Joint
ILO/UNCTAD/UNIDO Team missions)

4. Clear commitment of Africa’s Governments as well as Donors to support a flexible APCF
    •     Islamic Development Bank
    •     African Development Bank
    •     Regional Development Banks
    •     Regional Economic communities (RECs)
    •     Private sector and Non State Actors

    Alternative to TINA: Structuring the organisation of Strategic Changes in Africa: Looking
    forward for receiving Stakeholders’ support to Flexible Productive Capacity Facilities

    1.   ADVOCACY: Joint Fund mobilization with Africa core groups (including NEPAD, UNIDO,
         UNCTAD, ILO,CAMI, RECs, Representatives of Donors, the Private sector, Non-State Actors,
         Development finance or related institutions) towards a special chapter on the Development of
         Productive Capacities in PRSPs
    2.   JOINT ACTIONS: Reducing commodities dependencies through the establishment of Flexible
         Productive Capacity Facilities: UNIDO/UNCTAD/ILO+ LICs included in the Implementation
         Committee of the Commission for Africa, AGOA, Millennium Challenge Account, EU/EBA,
         World Bank
    3.   PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AND TRADE: Involving WTO through a gradual removing of
         subsidies and rules of origin (Doha Development Agenda)


The discussion session consisted of questions and comments from the participants seeking
clarifications, making remarks or questioning the validity of view points presented by the facilitators.
During the question time, it was noted that the politics of the day and political actors play a role in
poverty eradication. Another issue that emerged from the discussion was the fact that there is need to
consider both comparative advantage and competitive advantage in deciding an economic activity and
it is critical that we identify dynamic points of contact.

It was also noted from this sessions that Africans in the Diaspora are a critical link that need to be
utilised in the quest to overcome poverty. It was further argued that individuals need to identify
economic activities to get involved in to fight poverty.

The issue of micro finance was very controversial with some people claiming that micro finance
institutions have been instrumental in fighting poverty. It was clarified that the concept of micro finance
is not the problem but how it is operated is what is causing untold poverty instead of eliminating it. If
micro finance is to empower people, then a new model needs to be invented that is meaningful and
mutually beneficial.

Presentation on Value Chains:- by Ms May Ssengendo

In her presentation Ms Ssengendo illustrated value chains using a research done on Export Trade &
Provision of Market Services/resources in Uganda's Horticultural Industry: Implications for Female and
Male Farmers and Exporters with Limited Resources.
What is happening at policy level?

       Agricultural export diversification: the production of Non Traditional Export Crops, especially
        the high value horticultural products such as Vanila, Hot-pepper, Okra
       WTO agreements provide a framework of market access (what standards are needed, what
        products, where the markets are)
       However, structural and institutional limitations hinder poor women and men to participate.
       The private sector has taken the lead in the provision of market infrastructure services and
        resource provision.
       Trade Liberalisation: operation of free trade, abolition of government-controlled commodity
        marketing boards; reduction in government provision of market infrastructure service and
        encouragement of private sector led service providers.

Noted that whereas the above situation had created opportunities for small-scale resource poor
farmers especially women to engage in production of crops sold directly to the international market,
meeting quality standards in global markets, actors in export trade needs appropriate institutional
arrangements that can provide efficient services under the current liberalised Ugandan economy.

What should be assessed in order to find out what the poor experience?

       Examine the promoting and constraining factors of the institutional arrangements for the
        provision of market infrastructure services along the commodity supply chain/Value chain.
       Involve both female and male farmers as well as exporters in planning in order to find out how
        the existing social and economic systems in Uganda do influence accessibility to utilisation of
        market infrastructure resources.

Some of the issues we need focus on in the value chain

       What are Institutional Arrangements? These are systems, forms or ways through which
        market infrastructure services are provided to farmers and exporters.
       How do farmers obtain Market Infrastructure services/resources? They need these in order to
        participate and be able to penetrate the international market.
       But do they get such information easily? Why is there a delay? Who is responsible for this

What do we need to do?

       Where the NAADS, other NGOs, companies. Let us find out the types of existing providers of
        market infrastructure services that producers and exporters of the products use(e.g vanilla,
        okra and hot pepper).
       Let us find out how some of the available institutional arrangements for the provision of
        market infrastructure services enable horticultural producers and exporters to have access to
        services and resources they need

        Do these providers of services and resources promote or hinder participation of female and
         male farmers and exporters in horticultural trade? What can we do to make the provision more


        So many private sector resource providers, especially in terms of market information
         provision, credit and extension service, have come up to help the farmers and exporters. This
         has enabled dissemination of resources through various institutions that are nearer to the
         farmers and exporters who need them.
        However, these institutions should have regulatory requirements that ensure effective and
         efficient delivery systems to the farmers as well as exporters.

What can we do with the value chain actors

        There is need to streamline the actors. Enable the farmers to know how to negotiate for higher
         prices so that they can get value for their produce
        Establish contracts between farmers and exporters
        Establish policy provisions that safe guard the exporters when they get losses due to the
         importing uncertainties

Revisiting the Millenium Development Goals after 5 years. Is it necessary to revisit the MDGs
now? By James.P Kiwolu

What are the millennium development goals?

These are the minimum basic development benchmarks to follow and measure development in the
189 countries that signed the UN declaration in the year 2000 as the world was entering the new
millennium hence the name “Millennium Development Goals”. The goals provide a framework of
implementation, accessing development progress and fighting poverty. They embrace a lot of different
UN summits’ action plans, treaties, commitments, covenants. There are 8 goals, 18 targets and 48
development indicators that are time bound. They are important tools for accountability by the people
who made the commitments in areas that foster improving the standards of living for human beings.
They place commitment to both developing and developed countries in making sure they create
another world without poverty.

The MDGs are a part of the Millennium Declaration, in which states reaffirmed their commitment hence
they provide a framework to eradicating poverty, promoting global partnership, mobilizing resources
and protecting human rights. They also provide framework for implementation, citizens’ participation
and demand for accountability from their governments
It is necessary to revisit MDGs now after five years down the road of implementation. This process will
identify gaps, create new opportunities and explore alternatives to fighting poverty

Today the number of people living on less than one dollar a day in sub-Saharan Africa rose by 86
million from 1990 to 313 million in 2001. It is projected that 5.1 million African children will die in 2015
due to diseases, poor health and hunger. The death of mothers in childbirth, infant mortality is still high
and yet these deaths can be prevented by the availability of a simple healthcare. Millions people don’t
have access to safe water.

Therefore no country in the world can now proudly talk of protection and promotion of human rights
when poverty is leading factor to violation of human rights on a massive scale. The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights protects the rights of all people to an adequate standard of living and well
being including food, clothing, housing and medical care.

Drawing lessons from America in 1964, making poverty history on the continent of Africa is possible
when we can start now tackling this moister using various interventions that are properly coordinated
on the continent.

The theme for this conference “Poverty Eradication Using Domestic Means” at this time when 183
heads of state are going to review the world development strategies (Millennium Development Goals)
in September 2005, provides good opportunity and hope for suggesting alternative strategies of
achieving MDGs

Significance of Millennium Development Goals to poverty eradication in Africa

First and foremost, African countries were party to the Millennium Declaration, in which States
reaffirmed their commitment to eradicating poverty, promoting global partnership and protecting human
rights. African governments clearly understood that MDGs are benchmarks that can serve as basis for
an effective poverty eradication strategy, resource mobilization tool and a mirror for assessing the
performance of our governments in the 8 board areas stated as goals. Each country was free to
domesticate the goals according to their own conditions. Countries developed Poverty Reduction
Strategy Plans (PRSPs) with purpose of addressing MDGs in different ways.

To be able to access the significance of Millennium Development Goals to poverty eradication in
Africa, there is need therefore to link the different Poverty Reduction Strategy Plans (PRSPs) African
countries are using to address poverty within the context of the millennium development goals. For
example in Uganda, Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) provides a framework of eradicating
poverty but at the same time provides a mirror for viewing Uganda’s performance on the MDGs.
Uganda through PEAP, aims at reducing the total number of people living in absolute poverty to less
than 10% of the population by 2017 whereas the MDG eradication translates into a target of 28% by
2015. This target is considered less ambitious than the PEAP target. In the past decade before 1992,
poverty in Uganda declined from 56% to 34% in 2002/2003. Although there was decline of 20% in the
past decades, it increased from 34% to 38 % in 2002/3

There are areas where we have to applaud a country like Uganda on Universal Primary Education
where enrolment rate increased from 62% in 1992 to 86% by 2002/3. This is good progress
performance but the main concerned now is the quality of service provision under UPE.

 The MDG target is to halt and begin reversing the current prevalence spread rate of HIV/AIDS by
2015. Uganda accomplished this target through concerted national effort that caused substantial
decline in the national HIV prevalence rate from 20% in 1991 to 6.5% in 2001 and it is aiming at
achieving prevalence rate of 5% by 2005.
Safe water cover both in rural and urban areas was at 55% and 65% respectively by 2002/3. This is
good performance according to PEAP targets compared to the translated MDG target of 62% by 2015

However, this is not enough for us to sit back and clap too much when the issues like child mortality
rate remains the highest by international standards e.g between 1995 – 2000 infant mortality rate
increased from 81 to 88 deaths per 1000 births, under five increased from 147 to 152 deaths per
100,000 live birth. In 2002 Uganda missed its target of 78 deaths per 1000 live births when the rate
remain at (88 deaths). At this rate, Uganda is likely to miss the 2005 PEAP target of 68 deaths per
1000 live birth and more ambitious MDG target of 31 deaths per 1000 live birth by 2015.

These positive performances for Uganda are small compared to the set MDG targets hence the
unachieved targets in the five years lead to diminishing hope of eradicating poverty in Uganda and
Ugandan government achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

It has emerged that most African Governments are claiming that they will not meet many of the MDG
targets by 2015. A number of factors have been fronted to justify the causes of the emerging failure of
performance to achieve all the MDGs targets. These causes can be categorized into international,
national and institutional (both local and International).

At international level, the fronted causes are trade injustice, debts; conditionality attached to
development aid or loans given to African countries, quantity and quality of aid given to African

In Africa at country level, corruption, conflicts, wars and bad governance have been pointed out as the
root cause of failure to achieve MDGs. In addition, institutional constraints to address issues of

absorption and productivity capacity, staffing, curb corruption, accountability and delivery of effective
and efficient services to the people remain challenges to the achievement of MDGs.

Looking at the international, national and institutional barriers to the implementation of MDGs in the
last five years, African countries will not fully achieved MDGs by 2015

This therefore calls for revisiting the MDGs now. This give us an opportunity for African countries to
rethink the MDGs when they are sober, learning from the past implementation strategy weaknesses
and strengths, when debt relief is being done by the international community and when the rate of
acquiring more debts is on the increase. The following are some the silent issues to look at when we
are revisiting the MDGs. I will not point out goal by goal but I am going to point out general issues


MDG 8 targets were not quantified so this leaves a loophole for development partners not to define
their commitment to supporting developing countries like those in Africa. It also makes it difficult to
follow up their pledges because any non-quantifiable target does not bind them.

MDGs failure to crystallize good governance and security as an independent goal with measurable
indicators contributes to increasing poverty in the world especially in Africa. Lack of clear and
independent goal and defined targets on governance creates a room for manipulation and failure by
citizens to access good governance in any country and even to make leaders accountable to
participatory democracy. This in many cases leads to policies that are developed not be pro people,
they are discriminatory on basis of gender and other special groups

MDGs failure to crystallize an employment especially among the youth and women has left the issue of
differential remuneration to increase and discriminatory in developing countries. Failure to clearly
define measurable indicators of employment has created no clear policies on minimum living wage,
employment conditions, difference between local and foreign experts even if the local & foreign experts
have the attended the same schools, have same qualifications, experiences and color. This has
increased poverty in Africa when other people earn five times better in the same country and world.

MDGs failure to crystallize clear indictors for women labor at home that contribute to national economic
growth of this world has perpetuated poverty for this special group whose labor contribution is never
recognized and rewarded.

MDGs do not take in account population growth. For example by 2015 what will be the population of
Africa so that sustainable classrooms construction for UPE is invested for the future. Failure to address
the gaps leaves Africa to continue depending on borrowing, hence acquiring more debts

The way forward to enable Africa break free of its tragic and utterly unnecessary downward spiral of
poverty, diseases and environment degradation is to develop practical solutions.

Key elements to be mixed are boldness, practicality and honesty on all sides of African Governments
and development partners.

Boldness requires Africa and its development partners to set ambitious targets and then pursue them
vividly and steadfastly. Enough of small projects here and there to dig a few wells, or distribute a few
anti malaria bed nets, few hospital tool kits or provide a few school classrooms or few Kilometers of
tarmac roads. This is the time to revisit MDGs and set realistic targets so that Africa can confront
sustainable development on continental scale. This boldness will help African countries to borrow once
and plan for the future rather than these small piece meals borrowing which actually is the root cause
of our failure.

Practicality requires Africa to dispense with empty rhetoric or more lectures to the poor and dying
people instead to focus on real investment in education from primary to University level, agriculture,
health facilities and medicine, roads and communication, create Africa continental market rather than
regional markets and real African grown private sector investment not subsidiary companies from other

The third vital component is honesty from the donors as well as the recipient countries. The developed
countries have promised to help Africa for decades and indeed to give 0.7% of their GNP in official
assistance, but they have not delivered in most cases, those that have tried have reached 0.3% not
even close to it. If development partners are not honest, then MDG 8 will be meaningless hence
African countries will not achieve the rest of the 7 goals.

All future aid programs should be practical and monitorable, with specific inputs, outputs, milestones
and timetable. African leadership should fight corruption with honesty so that we can save other
peoples’ taxes sent to us as development aid.

Presentation on Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management (MDG 1&7 )
– By Mr. Mugabi Simon Levin

He began by defining environment as referring to human beings and all things that surround us
including; air (Atmosphere, Sound), animals (domestic and wild), water / wetlands, plants (cultivated
and wild), build up environment .He then defined poverty as the status of life where by one is unable to
meet his/her most basic needs, i.e. food, shelter, clothing, Medicare and other necessities of life.
Sustainable development is another concept that he defined as the harnessing of Environmental
Natural Resources without compromising the future generations’ ability to meet their needs.

He defined MDGs as Declarations of 147 Heads of States intended to reduce poverty and advance
social development. MDG 1: Eradicate extreme Poverty and Hunger and
MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability and PEAP: Poverty Eradication Action Plan.

Environment and Natural Resources (ENR)

He noted that Uganda is endowed with both renewable and non renewable resources i.e. forests,
wetlands, Soils, wildlife, rich biodiversity, good climate, water resources - rivers and lakes with rich
aquatic life ,water falls and minerals. He added that the ENR sector provides goods and services that
are essential for the well being of the People esp. youth, women, elderly & unemployed

MDG 7 & its linkages to MDG 1:

    •    MDG 1, targets eradication of extreme poverty and hunger by year 2015.

    •    MDG 7 aims at ensuring Environmental sustainability by the year 2015

    •    Environmental Natural Resource as a Sector and other sectors, are enter-twined
    •    Poverty in the country is attributed to the degradation and unsustainable exploitation of ENR.

Environment & people living in poverty

    •    People depend directly on ENR for their livelihoods.

    •    Consequently, man suffers from unclean water, indoor air pollution and exposure to toxic
         chemicals .They are also particularly vulnerable to environmental hazards i.e. floods

How to achieve goal 1& 7


    •    Government needs to end conflicts in the country
    •    Government needs to fight corruption, and reduce waste in public expenditure
        Development partners need to provide more resources to support pro-poor development.

Goal 7

    •    Government need to channel more resources through Civil Society Organizations
        Government, Donors, civil society and citizens need to demand more value for money in the
         ENR sector.

         Government and Civil society and citizens must ensure sustainable use of Natural resources.

What has Government done?

      •   Developed the Poverty Eradication Action Plan [PEAP] 1997.
      •   Revised the PEAP [2004 / 2005 – 2007 / 2008]
      •   Developed the Plan for Modernizations of Agriculture [PMA].
      •   Developed environment statute 1995.
      •   Set up the authority to manage the environment [NEMA].
      •   Implemented [UPE]

MDGs Implementation Barriers

      •   Lack of access to information
      •   Inadequate involvement of the public in the planning and policy formulation processes
      •   Inadequate participation of Civil Society organizations in the planning and implementation


1.    Improve governance to create more enabling policy and institutional environment for addressing
      the poverty-environment concerns of the poor, with particular attention to the needs of women and
2.    Integrate poverty-environment issues into national development frameworks
3.    Strengthen decentralization for environmental management
4.    Empower civil society, in particular poor and marginalized groups,
5.    Address gender dimensions of poverty-environment issues
6.    Strengthen anti-corruption efforts to protect the environment and the poor
7.    Reducing environment related conflict by improving conflict resolution mechanisms
8.    Improve poverty/environment monitoring and assessment
9.    Enhance the assets of the poor to expand sustainable livelihood opportunities
10.   Enhance the Poor’s capacity to manage the environment
11.   Expand access to environmentally sound and locally appropriate technology
12.   Reduce the environmental vulnerability of the poor
13.   Increase the use of environmental valuation in adjusting national income accounts
14.   Encouraging appropriate private sector involvement
15.   Implementing pro-poor environmental fiscal reform by pricing natural resources appropriately
16.   Improve international and national trade policies
17.   Make foreign direct investment more pro-poor and pro-environment

He concluded by pointing out that Government has to be more responsive in managing environmental
resources and pose practical actions of reducing poverty. In addition there is need to demonstrate
sound and equitable management of the environment, as an integral concept to achieving the
Millennium Development Goals and its corresponding PEAP targets.


The major issues that emerged from the discussion revolved around market for products. It was
emphasized that we need to organise ourselves to produce items that are marketable and the value
chain helps in production according to market requirements. The issue of information flow and
information sharing was pointed out as being critical. Education for effective consumption was also
alluded to and addressing institutional weaknesses was emphasized. With regard to the MDGs, it was
pointed out that there is need for solidarity among African leaders to ensure that issues related to
Africans are given priority.


Presentation on Commission for Africa – Do we need it? – By Mr. Frank Mugyenyi

What was happening in UK in 2005

    •     Elections Seeking 3rd Term of Premiership
    •     G8 Summit in Scotland
    •     EU Presidency
    •     A counter effect for the Iraq Mess

Political, NGOs & Celebs Extravaganza

    •     Pressure from NGOs
    •     Pressure from Celebrities (Bob Geldof)
    •     Gordon’s Brown Marshal Plan

Was it necessary given the existence of NEPAD, African Union and Economic Commission for Africa?

Commission for Africa

    •     2004 Tony Blair’s staff hand picked Commissioners paid for by DFID
    •     To come up with a report by the beginning of 2005, before elections

Some of the Recommendations

    •     Strong support for the African Union and the acceptance that it is the prime body through
          which the outside world should engage with Africa.
    •     Recognition that the impact of HIV/AIDS is still in its early stages.
    •     Emphasis on the education of girls and support for tertiary education in Africa.
    •     The lowering of trade barriers and tariffs for African goods and no obligation on Africa to
          reciprocate immediately.
    •     Action against corruption. Transparency not just in Africa but in the world’s dealings with
          Africa including from the IMF and the World Bank.
    •     Suspension of budgetary ceilings imposed by the IMF on countries emerging from conflict.
    •     Improved systems for retrieving corrupt or stolen money deposited in western banks.
    •     Greater control of small arms.
    •     Doubling of AID

On Aid

    •     On aid the Commission report calls for doubling the aid to Africa to US$ 50 billion per year by
    •     To commit rich countries to spend 0.7% of their GDP on overseas assistance.


    The report assumes a top down approach to development and speaks of working with Africa but
    assumes an agenda that has been largely drawn up outside the continent. Its language is that of
    Western NGOs rather than Africa though a consultation process has taken place in Africa. In
    addition, it makes no analysis of Africa’s conditions but bases its call to action on certain

Can we use it?
Yes we can pick ‘n’ mix and use the contents in favour of Africa to commit the west to their

Presentation on Implementing the Commission for Africa- by Dr. Yves Ekoué Amaïzo, UNIDO

He alluded to the origin of the Commission for Africa: the Monterrey Consensus:
The International Conference on Financing for Development, in Monterey, Mexico, from 18 to 22
March, 2002.

Two Resolutions:

    1.   Adopts the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference for Financing for
    2.   Recommends to the United Nations General Assembly that it endorses the Monterrey
         Consensus as adopted by the Conference

Background of a “collective interest” for: “Financing for Development”

    1.   Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): 189 countries agree to join forces to reduce by half
         the number of extreme poor people by 2015 (more powerful than G8 or CfA)
    2.   Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: two regions which will experience a net increase in the
         number of people leaving with less than $ US 2 per day by 2015
    3.   Consensus on “additional financial resources required (in addition to present level of Official
         Development Aid (ODA in 2005 = 0.4 % of GDP of OECD countries)
    4.   No clear consensus on “How to make this additional financing for Development available to
         the people of Developing countries”
    5.   Misunderstandings on “financing development in Africa” and “financing Development Aid for

Challenges of Financing for Development: a global response and commitments

   Interconnected systemic challenges of Financing for Development
   Shared vision of the future based on Peace, Security and Development
   Full and effective participation of Developing countries in the globalization process
   Increasing effective use of existing financial resources to achieve international economic
    conditions needed to fulfill internationally agreed upon goals, including the MDGs
   Trade and Financing packages (Trade, additional international financial and technical cooperation
    for development, sustainable financing and external debt relief)

Mobilizing Domestic Financial Resources

   Enhancing macroeconomic policies to increase productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging
    private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and aid
   Good governance: sound economic policies, solid democratic institutions, improved infrastructure
    are basis for sustainable economic growth, poverty eradication and employment creation
   Fighting corruption at all levels
   Establishing development banks and other financial institutions can facilitate access to finance for
    small and medium-sized enterprises
   Governments need to be strongly involved in capacity-building in areas such as infrastructure,
    human resource development, education, public administration, and social and gender issues

Mobilizing International Resources: FDI and Other Private Flows

   Use Foreign direct investment (FDI) to sustain economic growth because of its potential of
    technology and knowledge transfer and diffusion
   Create the necessary domestic and international conditions to facilitate direct investment flows by
    achieving a transparent, stable and predictable domestic investment climate
   Reduce the digital divide through export credits, co-financing, venture capital, risk guarantees
    leveraging aid resources, information on investment opportunities, etc…
   Promote Inter-enterprise partnership: a powerful mean for technology dissemination.
   Strengthen existing Development financial institutions (multilateral and regional financial and
    development institutions)

International Trade as an Engine for Development

   Commitment to trade liberalization reaffirming the role of trade in promoting economic growth
   Issues of concern for Low income countries (LICs), such as trade barriers, trade-distorting
    subsidies in particular sectors of interest including agriculture, abuse of anti-dumping measures,
    technical barriers becoming more precise, effective and operational

   Calls for all developed countries to permit duty-free and quota-free access to their market for all
    LICs (Low income countries)
   Calls for Least industrialized countries to reduce trade barriers among themselves
   Recommends multilateral aid agencies to empower developing countries’ commodity producers to
    protect against risk, including natural disasters, and strengthen their support to export

Increasing International Financial and Technical Cooperation for Development

   Official development assistance (ODA) can help reach an adequate level of resource mobilization,
    while human capital, productive and export capacities are enhanced
   Increasing the ODA is fundamental if LICs are to achieve the internationally agreed upon
    development goals. Industrialized countries were requested to make concrete efforts to devote the
    agreed 0.7 % of GDP for development purposes
   Enhancing the absorptive capacity and financial management of the recipient country to utilize aid
    in order to promote the most suitable aid delivery instrument in response to that country’s needs
   Enable the recipient to input into the ownership of the design and increase the effective use of
    local technical assistance resources
   Promote the use of ODA to leverage additional financing for development such as FDI, trade and
    domestic resources

External Debt relief

   Shared responsibilities of Debtors and Creditors for preventing and resolving unsustainable debt
    situations: technical assistance for external debt management and tracking should be
   External debt relief measures can liberate resources that can be then directed towards activities
    contributing to sustainable growth, and must be therefore continue to be vigorously pursued
   The criteria for eligibility for debt relief must continue to be flexible
   Debt relief arrangements should seek to avoid imposing any unfair burdens on other developing
   Donors countries should take steps to ensure that resources provided for debt relief do not detract
    from ODA
   Innovative mechanisms to comprehensively address debt problems of LICs should be explored;
    Resource mobilization is facilitated when human capital, productive and export capacities and
    capabilities are enhanced

Systemic issues

   Urgent need to enhance the coherence, governance and consistency of the international
    monetary, financial and trading systems
   Similarly, efforts should be strengthened at the national and levels to enhance coordination among
    all relevant ministers
   Strong coordination of macroeconomic policies among leading industrial countries is critical for
    greater global stability and reduced exchange rate volatility, essential for predictable financial
    flows and economic growth. This could be managed at multilateral financial institutions, such as
    the IMF
   It is essential to ensure the effective and equitable participation of developing countries in the
    formulation of financial standards and codes
   Noting the impact of financial crisis and risks of contagion in LICs, international financial
    institutions are urged to respond in a timely manner with the suitable array of financial facilities
   Systemic risks related to lack of commitment on environment related issues (Kyoto protocols, etc.)

Call for a Follow-up Conference

   The Monterrey Consensus urges a international conference, within the UN system to follow- up on
    the agreements and commitments reached in this Conference and ensure effective secretariat

   The follow-up international conference will ensure a continued building of bridges and cooperation
    between international development, finance and trade organizations and initiatives
   It will also keep the financing for development process on the agenda of the intergovernmental
    bodies of all main stakeholders
   The follow-up conference will measure development progress and help guide development
    priorities (no date, no place were provided).

Towards an African collective debt policy

   Total cancellation of SSA debt with priority for countries unable to service their debt
   Redefinition of the calculation of interest rate for “development activities”
   Limiting the debt service to the appropriate level which does not neutralize any policy on health,
    education and social security…
   Ensuring that NEPAD is clearly included in Commission for Africa, (UK, G8, and EU), Millennium
    Challenge Account/AGOA of USA, TICAD/Asia-Africa Partnerships/Japan, Africa/Arab
   Alternative financing for development
   Ensuring full payment to local private sector (often creditors on public institutions)

The Paradox of selected Development Finance Institutions so-called support

       To much dependency over multilateral Development financial institutions (DFIs)
       Prerequisites: signing agreements (conditionalities) with DFIs before bilateral initiatives could
        take place (example of PRSP in Africa)
       Africa’s participation in DFIs Board and in the decision making process almost marginal
        (OECD usually between 60% and 75%: one country/one vote bypassed)
       Often the main conditionalities are: Buying products, hiring experts… for countries providing
        funds (international bidding procedures are weaken, corruption are facilitated…)
       Using Development Assistance funds to increase influence over weak African Governments?

Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus:

Follow-up International Conference not yet taken place and G 8 and Commission for Africa cannot
replace the Monterrey Consensus. What about African Union, NEPAD and the African Business
Round Table (private sector representatives) and civil society organizations (including trade unions)?

Addressing systemic participation of Africans in the decision process

   Equitable participation of Africa’s representatives including Diaspora, Civil Society Organizations,
    Private Sector representatives in the decision making process
   Increase Africa’s involvement at decision’s level in multilateral institutions
   Effective participation of Africa’s representatives (public, private and informal sector) in the
    Implementation committee of the Donors initiative such as the Commission for Africa

Alternative solutions to “Financing for Development”

       Additional financial resources:
        1. Creation of additional wealth,
        2. Redistribution (voluntary or compulsory)
        3. Using loans and having the next generation paid
       International Finance Facility (Commission for Africa) (mixing 3 and 2 – loans guaranteed by
        Donors’ future compulsory contributions to be paid by African next generation – but a better
       Global Taxes versus Regional Taxes
       CfA: 40 billions debt cancellation for 18 LDCs, nothing for non-LDCs and implementation
        delayed 2010… and more

        African Union, NEPAD, Regional Economic Communities, African Business Round Table and
         African Diaspora should be invited to participate in the implementation Committee of the G 8
         Action plans as well as the Commission for Africa
        New spirit of mutual respect for collective actions

He ended by emphasising that Africans should not work in isolation and should keep in mind that the
overall objective of “financing for Africa” is to enable Africa to access freely and directly the capital
market. It is the collective efficiency that will help Africa overcome poverty.

Presentation on the Blair Commission’s recommendation in perspective to globalization - by
Mr. David Mafabi

He began by pointing out that the original topic he was given was COMMISSION FOR AFRICA:
RHETORIC OR GENUINE? According to him, the phraseology of the topic was misleading because it
points AFRICA in a fundamentally wrong dimension and
Globalisation is a non pervasive and constraining phenomenon that needs to be critically analysed.

He said the Blair recommendations are marginally useful and are meant to propel globalisation help to
reproduce the conditions of conflict and crisis. He added that a basic paradigm shift to development
policy is indicated and the construct and conceptual framework is flawed. He argues that we assume
that what constitutes performance criteria in the western world will operate in agrarian economies and
we use UN economic indices

Blair Recommendations

1.   Good governance and transparency –
2.   Capacity building – ability to design and deliver policies has been a major setback
3.   growth and poverty reduction
4.   Infrastructure
5.   Extra 25 b dollars
6.   Investments
7.   Trade – reducing tariffs and taxes
8.   small enterprise development

Major arguments

Africa has to contend with the phenomenon of globalization – it has to be understood. It is not a form of
increasing interdependency. In the global village, Africa is assigned a certain place where we are the
lowest in comparison with others.

Contemporary globalization can only be traced to the onset of global crises in the early 70s. It has
entailed a reproduction of western practices and the global financial systems are meant to entrench
western ideologies. This has produced a neo-liberal tendency. This is the ideological underpinning of
the current form of globalization.

We are dealing with fundamental protectionism that is not going away in the near future. There are
genuine partnerships but we are dealing with the logic of capitalism entrenchment and not altruistic

The situation under globalization does not give Africa the latitude to advance and develop strong
linkages for broad based growth and the gap between Africa and the rest of the world is very

Globalisation is not a neutral and fundamentally weighted against African countries and “free trade” is

NEPAD is fundamentally flawed. For example people in the countries in the sub-Saharan Africa are
born, grow up and die growing coffee. The African situation is part of the global arrangement that is
meant to further subjugate the African people. For example

states are a contradiction; a collection of different tribes .Yet globalisation thinks that the AFRICANS
are elements of world trade, source of raw materials and readily available market for the world

The structural set up of globalisation militates against national integration. This reality produces a
fragmented lot lumped together to perpetuate cultivation of the western culture in form of globalizing

Suggested solutions

There is need to create African national entrepreneurial classes that are economically strong and are
bound together by common identity and goals. In addition, there need for a radical paradigm shift that
recognizes that nobody owes us a living as Africans.

The Blair recommendations are meant to reinforce the ideological set up of the western world with all
the fangs of capitalism.

The rest of the world did not develop through trade and commerce. The industrial development of the
west was built on blunder and plunder. When they industrialized, they started the discourse on
democracy and human rights. He ended by challenging participants to examine the basic economic
policy that will lead us ahead as Africans.


The underlying issues that came up from the discussion pointed to the fact that development is of
various forms; development in the country and development for the country. The issue of the
representation of commissioners for the CFA who were hand picked and was not a representation of
the interests of Africa. It was pointed out that any person with commitment can fulfill the aspirations of
the people of Africa as long as there is commitment. However, picking selected Africans to do Blair’s
own agenda is not correct. They will take from you what they need and Africans are becoming a
tradable commodity.

In order to achieve their ends the capitalists don’t have to be physically present here, they can use the
systems and some Africans are readily available renegades who will betray African interests.

The longevity of some African leaders was raised as an issue that works against propagation of
meaningful democracy. It was noted that leaders may not want to go because their economic survival
is linked to their staying in power. It is important for leaders to change for the good of the country and
this is the foundation of democracy.

In the discussion it was noted that many African leaders are doing their job and they are working out
solutions to their own problems. The current approach is regionalisation. It will take time and will be
peaceful. If such Africa-led initiatives are not thwarted, meaningful democracy and tranquility will be
propagated in Africa.

Presentation on the status and prospects of professional practical skills development oriented
education- BTVET – By Mr. Grace Aggrey Waiswa

Mr. Waiswa pointed out that the negative attitude associated with vocational education was tainting the
image the graduates of vocational institutions. He said that vocational education was looked at as a
reserve of those who had failed to get higher points to take them to other ‘conventional’ higher
institutions of learning. Thus the vocational skills are looked at as relevant for the underprivileged and
academically challenged individuals in society. The returns from these skills are low because of the
negative attitude and deep seated mindset that people have against vocational and technical skills.

Presentation on Education and employment – a key to poverty eradication
- By Eng. Francis Okinyal

Poverty is a world wide concern and is a problem in Africa and is a detrimental factor to our
development. In Uganda, at every level there is something to do with poverty and in the globalised
world and we need to see the role of education and training.

We need concerted strategies to overcome the problem of poverty. He pointed out three main areas.

    1.   Poverty can be eradicated in Africa if the poor people are given opportunity
    2.   Primary education for all is important for a poor county but secondary and tertiary education
         are critical
    3.   local skill – investment in health and education sector is key to poverty reduction

Youth and women have born the full brunt of poverty for too long and can form the core group that can
eradicate poverty. The question of relevance in education and training is paramount in the quest for
the development of this country. We need an education that is responsive to the needs of people.

In the discourse about education, we need to reflect on the issue of competitive and comparative
advantage. Should we have a child spending 7 years in primary and continue to secondary without a
Basic education must be accessed by all. This will lead to the eradication of illiteracy for the general
population. We must have a paradigm shift in the education and training systems. We need to shift
from an education that concentrates on white-collar jobs to blue collar jobs.

We should promote science but we should not eradicate Arts because both are critical in poverty


There is need to focus on indigenous and relevant local technology. We need to focus on our
development needs of our countries. He added that in developing our curriculum, we need to have
competence based curriculum. If we are educating hair dressers, we need to got out and inquire from
the people who are physically doing the work. Entrepreneurship should be incorporated in the
educational curriculum

Flexibility needs to be incorporated in the system. We should think of ways having short courses that
are tailor made to cater for the different needs at various levels and to cater for people with special

Ministry of Education has annual education sector reviews where different stakeholders are involved.
This is an avenue that is seen as a ray of hope in ensuring that the education people receive caters for
the development needs of the different partners in the country.

Informal/ non formal sector

Different people acquire skills overtime because of close association with people who are trained in
various areas. E.g. many people are located in Katwe and they are making a contribution. We need to
recognize that the informal sector is making a key contribution.

Management of educational institutions

The ministry of Education is working around the licensing of various educational institutions so that
there is monitoring and quality control in the institutions.


We should look for local resources to finance the institutions. Education and training is the core to fight
poverty. To achieve this it must be planned, relevant and designed to address the development needs
of the people. We can make poverty history if we invest in the human resources.

Presentation on Integrated Education - by Rev. Dr. Isaac Nsereko – Chief Director of Nserester

Dr. Nsereko noted that society was grossly misled that if you were not very gifted upstairs, they would
encourage you to go to a vocational institution and this created a negative attitude towards vocational
skills. He said that parents need to recognize the skills and talents in their children so that they can
have them pursue vocations in which they have special natural endowment.

He gave his story how he started Nserester Complex and went ahead to explain the integrated mode
of learning that the Complex follows incorporating vocational and technical education into the
conventional UNEB syllabus. He said that at Nserester Complex, they provide holistic education that
caters for the physical, spiritual and intellectual development of the child. He added that children get
practical and computer skills as well as driving lessons and are examined and given UNEB certificates.
This makes them multi-skilled and versatile able to favorably compete in the job market

He emphasized the need to teach children that the vocational subjects are critical in daily life. He
further added that the integration should be accompanied by intensive guidance and counseling. He
challenged people to advocate for vocationalisation of education in the various schools.

Presentation on Wage employment and poverty reduction – by Everse Ruhindi

Employment is not only an instrument for economic growth, but it is important in itself because it
contributes part of the very purpose of development. Unemployment can severely cripple the impact of
other factors which can have a positive impact on poverty levels and increased investment in human
capital (more schooling, better health provision, etc) will infallibly be associated with faster income
growth and reductions in poverty only when an economy's labour force is nearly fully employed.

If there are output and employment shortfalls, better levels of human capital overall will not benefit the
segments of the population that are unemployed or forced into jobs subsistence strategies) beneath
their skill levels."

The link between poverty and employment is further clearly underlined in the UNDP Poverty Report
1998 which points to a clear correlation between poverty and employment opportunities. This growth
must be in sectors that employ the poor and improve their incomes. In fact they indicate that one of the
strongest tools available for reducing poverty is raising the minimum wage, this is especially effective
in the more urbanized sections of a society.

In Uganda open unemployment is a relatively rare phenomenon, visible underemployment is highly
prevalent. Wage employment has not been growing as fast as was hoped, so that the share of wage-
earners in the population has been increasing slowly.

Wage employment has not been growing very fast and inequality among wages is increasing. A
substantial proportion of this employment is in the public sector, and comparative studies have found
that employment opportunities for secondary and tertiary graduates are more concentrated in the
public sector in Uganda than in other African countries. The proportion of households headed by a
wage-earner actually fell between 2000 and 2003.Within the wage sector, wage inequality increased

The acceleration of private investment during the period 2000-2003 does not yet appear to have led to
major increases in the share of wage employment in household activities.
It is sometimes suggested that economic demand should be increased in order to raise levels of
employment. At the macroeconomic level, this would be likely to exacerbate shortages of skills. Over
the last three years wages for the better-off have increased sharply, widening the gap with others.
Visible underemployment is not a sign that there is a large pool of people looking for full-time work, but
that there are many people who would like to augment their current incomes with some extra wage-
earning opportunities in their locality. What is appropriate in this case is not a global increase in
demand but an increase in locally targeted employment opportunities.

The association between employment and poverty is not as simple as it appears as not only does the
absence of employment predispose one to poverty but the type of employment can also affect ones
chances of escaping from or being in poverty. Studies such as King (1998) illustrates that being
employed does not necessarily mean that one escapes poverty as persons engaged in low paying
professions can and do slip below the poverty line.

There is widespread skepticism concerning linkages between economic growth and continued
availability of adequately compensated, durable and productive employment. Factors such as global
mobility of capital (and increasingly, though more slowly, labour), applications of microelectronic
technologies to just-in-time and other aspects of customized, small-run manufacturing processes, and
the blurring of boundaries between goods and services are radically challenging long-held
assumptions regarding the nature and conceptualization of work.

For those living in poverty, insistence on `jobs' as a conceptual unit, or even policy goal, may have less
meaning or utility than `livelihood'. Some specialists have even questioned the use of `employment' as
a useful analytical category in places where the `formally' employed constitute a small minority of the
working age population. In the poorest communities in least developed countries, the actual burdens of
poverty usually fall the hardest on women. in order to make ends meet, women find reconciling `job'
and livelihood, an uneasy and stressful process.

Something needs to change in our conceptual as well as our policy approaches to work and jobs. A
more integrated framework is needed to complement traditional and sectoral labour market and
industrial/occupational frames of the past. More effective recognition is required of the social,
environmental and cultural implications of work, productivity, and the myriad ways that individuals
manage to build and contribute to the livelihood systems of families, communities and larger societies.
Our statistical systems must be adapted to capture more adequately the complexities of modern work
and livelihood structures, multiple occupational affiliations, and non-monetarized social capital
investments of men and especially of women.

The policy challenge is to facilitate access to improved livelihood opportunities for all. Employment
policies must be more closely associated with poverty eradication strategies and real, not rhetorical
enhancement of livelihood outcomes in ultimately sustainable ways. Such strategies must be
participatory, designed in the context of, and tailored to the needs and strengths of local communities,
and must directly address the livelihoods of the largest numbers possible of those living in poverty.

Solving the problem of equitable access to opportunities is crucial. The need for immediate and
effective solutions moreover is not confined to the least developed countries. These issues are deeply
relevant to nations at any point on the `development spectrum'. `Sustainable livelihoods' has emerged
as a practical development goal, and a concept which is both human-centered and reflective of the
diverse realities facing all of

Suggested solutions

   Public policies have a crucial role to play An example is an effective policy framework that
    supports well functioning labour markets and helps workers manage risks of unemployment and
    low income. Such policies can contribute to better employability and poverty reduction particularly

    (a) the reallocation of public expenditure towards human needs in education, health and skill
    formation. Investment in people is not a cost to society but one of its most remunerative

    (b) the adoption of gender-sensitive public policies for employment promotion and reaching
    gender equality; and

    (c) the extension of social protection through social safety nets.
    The best form of social safety net is provided by full employment. However, in the absence of full
    employment, and in situations of slow growth, the need for social protection can hardly be over-

    emphasized. A social protection system, in its broad elements, needs to be progressively
    introduced in the face of increasing job and income insecurity. Such systems should be cost-
    effective and financially viable, as well as administratively manageable. They should also be
    targeted at the poor and vulnerable. Reducing human insecurity must be a concerted objective of
    all public policies.

   Finally, quality of employment also matters. It is a question of placing the diverse concerns
    within a comprehensive assessment, so that curing of unemployment is not treated as a reason for
    doing away with reasonable conditions of work of those already employed, nor is the protection of
    the already-employed workers used as an excuse to keep the jobless in a state of social exclusion
    from the labour market and unemployment.

We need to play as a team to achieve decent work for all and eradicate poverty! The time has
come to find a way to feed and house, clothe and educate, employ and nurture the excluded and
disadvantaged of this world.

It is only the will to act together that is still faltering, to act together as a community, as a region, as a
nation, as a continent and as a world. We all know that the vision of a better future and the hope of a
better existence lies within full employment. We thus need to promote the values and the policies that
can cut the Gordian knot of unemployment. Decent work for all is the condition to achieve human

Self employment in Agriculture – Mr. Kitaka Mayanja – Intensive small scale farmer

Mr. Kitaka pointed out that there are different resources that a farmer can ultilise from the members of
his own house holds to the other refuse from both human and animals. He said that it is important to
properly plan and stressed the importance of investing in proper planning regardless of the size of your

Fears in self employment

        Market
        Infrastructure
        Inputs
        Technology

Suggested solutions

        Add value to products e.g. through processing
        Cooperating with other farmers with similar interests
        Putting up small cottages
        Properly packaging the products
        Publicity and promotion even within their locality
        Think of the neighbouring countries as potential markets for particular products

Tips for success in self employment in Agriculture

        Commitment
        Courageous
        Time conscious
        Ambitious

Presentation on Health workforce and Poverty - By Robert Tumwesigye

This presentation looked at the issues surrounding the health work force who include doctors, nurses
and other clinicians. Trained personnel leave the villages and concentrate in towns. He also looked the
issues of meager pay that forces most trained personnel to look for means of survival some of which
may be morally unacceptable for example getting medicine from government hospitals and taking it to
private clinics.

Presentation on Poverty Alleviation with use of Provision within our surroundings –by Ms
Janet Mpanga

She pointed out that diseases can be a very big challenge towards development and poverty
eradication .In general Malaria alone is a problem to the poorest of the poor countries especially in the
tropics. In our communities Malaria and other diseases make many people to lose jobs as they keep
bed ridden and when they are the bread winner of their homesteads. Pregnant women 15-50% suffer
from Malaria which may lead to maternal mortality Abortions, premature deliveries and other health

Child illness you find that many children in our communities are suffering from disease and malaria in
particular. A lot of money is lost in treatment of diseases instead of promoting development. A lot of
money is used in burial arrangements and funeral rites that would be used in development.

Advice on treatment

Malaria can be effectively treated using the formula especially in children

                                      DAY 1                          DAY 2                     DAY 3
2ND Month up to 12 months             C/p ½ tables plus              C/q:2 tables              C/Q & tablet
4 – 10 kg                             Fansider ½ tables s/p
12- months to 3 years.                C/Q 1 tablet plus              C/Q 1 tablet              C/Q ½ tablet
10 – 14 kg                            fansider/SP, tablet
3 years up to five years              C/Q ½ tablet plus              C/Q 1 ½ tablet            C/Q ½ tablet
 14 – 19 kg                           Fansider SP 1 tablet
Adults                                C/Q 4 tablets plus             C/Q 4 tablets             C/Q 2 tables
                                      Fansider SP 3 tablets
The Prevention of Malaria can be achieved by taking 2 tablets of     chloroquine once every week for 3

          Clearing the bush around our houses, keeping away broken bottles and removing used tins,
           around our houses.
          Using insecticide treated mosquito nets, Closing doors and windows as early as possible,
           and treatment of all malaria cases.

AIDS is a world health disaster that calls for Prevention. it is important to change our behaviour in
order not to get infected in the first place. Abstinence for the unmarried is the best way forward, for
those who are marred mutual faithfulness is the best solution.
The expectant mothers who are already infected can get PMTCT services. An individual who cannot
control themselves protected sex using condoms consistently and correctly is the answer.

Purifying Contaminated Water

Drinking contaminated water also causes a number of diseases that can affect               the economy
therefore it is advisable to use PUR that can make un boiled water safe for drinking

Demonstration of how PUR purifies water

Step 1                     Add 1 sacked of PUR to 10 litres of un boiled water
Step II                    Stir the dirt and germ visibly separate form the clear water (5min)
                           let the water stand for about 5 minutes.
Step III                   Flitter the water through a cotton cloth into a designated clean water
                           container. The filtering process removes the dead germs, dirt and PUR
Step IV                    Leave the water in the new container for an additional 20 minutes. This
                           allows chlorine residual in PUR to settle and kill any germs that might be in
                           the new container

Presentation on Nursing and Healthcare – by Ms Margaret Ntambaazi

Ms Ntambazi presented the role of the nurse in fighting disease. She pointed the qualities of a good
nurse and emphasized the need to employ a public health approach in fighting disease.


The final discussion hinged on the suitability of PUR to effectively treat water and eliminate bacteria
that cause bilharzia and pathogens that cause blindness. They also wondered whether PUR has any
known side effects. It was noted that the most recommended good practice in safe water management
is boiling water. As for the side effects, no reports of the same had been received so far. The other
concern was how to take the debate on making poverty history to the grassroots people.

Way forward

The conference organizers informed participants that this is the beginning of the campaign that will be
continued through different implementers. Every participant was an ambassador of the campaign of
making poverty history using domestic means. It was noted that issues of training should be
incorporated in the campaign. It was also emphasized that we need to have our minds open and have
a paradigm shift. In a nutshell it was pointed out that poverty in Africa can be made history if we work
together and unite irrespective of our political beliefs.


       NAME                            ORGANISATION                       ADDRESS/ TELEPHONE
1.     Ochen Owiny Boney               Community Link Agency              077- 539396
2.     Apugo Janet                     TERREWODE                          P.O. Box 53 Soroti, 071928644
3.     Ayesiga Joseph                  East & North Eastern Bee           031- 275300
4.     Asha Muhamed                    Self employed                      075- 508397
5.      Bunuma L.S                     Lake Sec. Sch. Mwanza              P.O. Box 567 Mwanza- Tanzania
6.     Gunura Joyce                    Bushenyi                           Box 2038 Kampala
7.     Gipwola Julie                   NUWCO                              P.O. Box 28892 Kampala
8.     Ilukoli Joyce                   NUWCO                              078- 697750
9.     Jjuuko Fredrick                 Grassland                          077568090
10.    Kabibi Florence                 Uganda     National   Farmers      077428815
11.    Kalwowa Joseph Jonathan         Youth – Mukono Kauga               P.O. Box 255 Mukono
12.    Kayongo Margaret                Uganda Girl Guides Assn            P.O. Box 25285 Kampala
13.    Kenyi Jane                      Radio Uganda                       077633355
14.    Kiviri Joyrine                  Butagga

15.   Kobusingye Eva           Voice of Kigezi                  077- 777267/075944177
16.   Mwanda Mpanga Lucy       Victoria F. Sales                Box 5046 Kampala
17.   Mudenge Prossy           SWA                              Box 197 Mukono
18.   Muhuruzi George Senior   Hoima                            Box 433 Hoima
19.   Musoke Victor            Radio Star                       071-932794
20.   Mwanje Mutesasira        Kawempe              Community   Box 8278 Kampala
                               Development Initiative
21.   Nabukwasi Betty          MP’s Office- Mbale               078 612010
22.   Naiga Sarah              Maganjo Grain Makers             075648880
23.   Nakakande C.             Sheraton Hotel Kampala           077498246
24.   Kyobe Margaret           Mukono                           071- 814392
25.   Nsubuga Ronald
26.   Ouma Joy                 House wife                       Box 40240 Kampala
27.   Ssebina Geofrey          Kitega Youth Mukono
28.   Wamboka Sarah            Self Employed                    071-949708
29.   Keneth Odida             New Vision                       Box 7480 Kampala
30.   Dr. Mulyampiti Tabitha   Dept of Gender Makerere          Box 7062 Kampala
31.   Nandyose Betty           Education                        071816350
32.   Joyce Serubombwe
33.   Kasule Joan              Nabuka Diary                     071-688554
34.   Kasumba Alice
35.   Lutakome Rose            Bakyala Kwagalana                077847453
36.   Nanyanzi Immaculate      Manik Vocational                 077623303
37.   Nsubuga Ronald
38.   Ssali Christine
39.   Wasswa Apolo             CHRISAM Designs                  071973310
40.   Watika Moses                                              075598207
41.   Aggrey Waiswa
42.   Mafabi                   Pan African Movt                 075653917
43.   Mugisha Enock            Prog. Coordinator TWAMFATA       077627743
44.   Nankinga Anne            Education                        071816350
45.   Ndagire Rehema                                            077471002
46.   Balyokwabwe Fredrick                                      077588421
47.   Buwule M.                Wakiso
48.   Byakika Juliet           Bishop’s SSS Mukono              075 631010
49.   Diraba Christine         Action to Positive               Box 12305 Kampala
50.   Doctor Betsy             KAS International                077 639534
51.   Kagimu Peter             Joy Library                      078 944025
52.   Kasasa Monica            Zana                             071867857
53.   Kasule Janet             Twekembe W. G                    C/O Box 12305 Kampala
54.   Katagambe Keneth         Shuma Foods Ltd                  078- 880500
55.   Kato Monica              Mamento Women’s                  078-814752
56.   Kiberu M                                                  077304175
57.   Kimera Hawa              Nserester                        077539287
58.   Kizza Jesca              Trainer G.G                      077954627
59.   Mugabe John Bosco        Rukindo LTD                      075965953
60.   Mugalu S.                Muno mukabi                      071812505
61.   Mukasa Godfrey           Consumer Options                 077590762
62.   Mukasa R (Mrs)           Mukono SDA                       071936291
63.   Mukiibi R.               Rakai District                   077547754
64.   Mulabazi Ivan            UNFFE                            075-694448
65.   Mulumba Mathias          WOCIDA                           075517970
66.   Nabwine Lillian                                           077420064
67.   Nagenda Florence         World Vision                     077967386
68.   Namujumbi Rita           Mother Care                      075991806
69.   Oonyu Mary               Nagure Police Disp               078432534
70.   Rev. Elly Wasswa                                          071-491748
71.   Sabil Muhamed            Manafiya Mixed Farm              077333851

72.    Ssango Isaac                   Church of God                  075808173
73.    Ssessanga Justine              Horticultural Experts          077499825
74.    Susan Okedi                    LETICA Delight Ent.            077492135
75.    Wabuzi Elizabeth               EASRUL                         Box 667 Kla, 078480889
76.    Irumba                         SIDA                           Box 774 Mbarara
77.    Kalanzi Ssewaya                Mukono Educ. Office            Box 152 Mukono
78.    Nakato Nakafeero
79.    Bamutiire Proscovia
80.    Ddungu James
81.    Issa Ssekito                   KACITA                         077523129
82.    Kabuka
83.    Kassajja
84.    Kaziro Douglas                 National Adult Educ. Assn
85.    Kigozi James                   Invox SAZCO                    077479600
86.    Mukomba David                  Ebenezer
87.    Mayanja William
88.    Mbazira Muzaffar               Rukindo                        077699442
89.    Mpanga Titus
90.    Ssebunya
91.    Musimenta Allen                Radio Uganda                   Box 2038 Kampala
92.    Muwonge Wilson George                                         Box 29622 Kampala
93.    Mwanje Steven
94.    Nagujja
95.    Naiga Sarah
96.    Nsubuga Ronald                 Kiboga All Saints
97.    Nyende Ayub                    Institute of Management        Box 31186 Nakivubo
98.    Omoding Ikebesi                Computerland                   Box 27484 Kampala
99.    Opio
100.   Rev. Mpanga
101.   Sarah Tibaidhukira             UNFE                           077895404
102.   Ssembatya Lawrence             Nsambya                        078829186
103.   Tamale Rose
104.   Tumuhimbise                                                   075585085
105.   Walibulya Martin               ACIDS                          077335406
106.   Wamala Livingstone             Royal Danish Embassy           077461011
107.   Zirabangwa           Nalunga   Harvest Farm Seeds             077309933
108.   Kitaka Mayanja N               KAFA/UNIFFE Kiboga             077-875484
109.   Magezi Richard                 Kampala City Council           071805041
110.   Namara Florence K              Rakai District                 077570355
111.   Kiggundu Samuel                Nakihate                       078-967386
112.   Mundege Prossy                 Mokono SDA                     077574892
113.   Namayanja Margaret                                            077532185
114.   Tabuzibwa Micheal              Kampala City COUNCIL           071841786
115.   Walusimbi Sarah                Kireka Hill Infant             077443274
116.   Christine Ssali Kinobe         Grazayo                        075522567
117.   Kasozi Livingstone                                            077439120
118.   Zirabamuzaale Kakooza                                         078400523
119.   Kirungi Susan                  Wetlands AEW                   077698559
120.   Kabishanga Emmanuel            New Horizons                   071717105
121.   Ssemwogerere David             AEW                            077351736
122.   Mugabi Simon Levin             AEW                            071674909
123.   Manafa Muhamed M.                                             077375962
124.   Mayanja Rebecca                Mothers Union                  077367730
125.   Zaituni Matovu                 BAWODA                         075618937
126.   Namanda Fidelis                YWCA                           071890353
127.   Mrs. Serwanga M                Women Caring and Counselling   077890091
128.   Nalubega Jolly                 Kampala Farmers                077667627

129.   Masereka Johnson                                              077514658
130.   Byansi Samuel               KACITA                            071589097
131.   Kyamazima Bethmas           Radio Uganda                      077616789
132.   Wabwire
133.   Sewanyana
134.   Rubayiza Wilson
135.   Juliet Byabakama            Hoima                             077533423
136.   Tulina Irene                                                  078589690
137.   Margaret Ddumba                                               071813630
138.   Kibirango                                                     075624609
139.   Kamanyire                                                     071540007
140.   Ssebunya                                                      071811637
141.   Ngabirano Robinah                                             077371282
142.   Wamala Musa                 Masaka District                   075885800
143.   Saidat N.                                                     077656997
144.   Kizito Elly                 Weekly Observer                   071730410
145.   Ricci Davis           
146.   Martin Davies               NYAS                    
147.   Sebina Benon                East and Central Uganda 
                                   Integrated Farmers’ Assn
148.   Katamba Patrick             ACIDS                             075636388
149.   Kafeero Joel                Sante Net Services                078375881
150.   Racheal Wegulo              East African Business Wk          075597839
151.   Mugabi Anthony              BRUTON Artists                    077915149
152.   Kimuli Douglas              St. Stephen Church                077356603
153.   Mukwana Jennifer            Janan Education Centre            077691640
154.   Matovu Jessica              Twekembe W.A                      077690797
155.   Rev. Christine Namukasa     Teacher/Priest                    07580752
156.   John Baleeta                ADRA Uganda                       Logistics
157.   Mrs. Ruth Nsubuga           CWF                               078902683
158.   Lyakota Richard Kent        Children Care Ministries          077359880
159.   Sylvia Mugerwa              Namasuba Catholic Church          041-268344
160.   Ssenyonjo Lawrence          African Foundation for Pple       071805399
161.   Lukyamuzi Mary              Urban Farmer                      077514707
162.   Naddamba Joy                Kwekuhanya                        077931519
163.   Rev. Kalibbala Emmanuel     Full gospel Churches of Uganda    077467942
164.   Mayanja Olive               Bakyala Kwagalana                 071858990
165.   Deo Matsanga                Businessman Mbale                 077457311
166.   Lutaaya Henry Grace         Nserester Complex                 077416708
167.   Tali Peter Driliga          NUYDI- Pader district             077836566
168.   Okeny Moris                 NUYDI                             078422561
169.   Zirabamuzaale Esther        KUTEESA                           075420064
170.   Nabukalu Juliet             Bukedde                           071670177
171.   Mukasa Bwabye               KIPEA B                           077510088
172.   Wakumire David              Africa Development Link           077523317
173.   Rev.       Can.    Nkambo   Nserester Complex                 077392493
174.   Ssekanjako Margaret         Kira Town Council                 077835457
175.   Tumusiime R.                Pro- Diversity Conservationists   078868200
176.   MukwanaAndrew               Moral spiritual                   077691640
177.   Kirunda Jane                Initiative of Change              077501038
178.   Mukalazi Elizabeth          Forester                          075899532
179.   Kayemba Augustine           CHRISPOD                          077537247
180.   Mrs. Kayemba                ,,                                078444284
181.   Yiga Margaret               Kavumba
182.   Aidah Mulindwa              ,,                                071318960
183.   Isingoma Hussein                                              071595472
184.   Zawedde Ssengendo           Bukesa Urban Farmers Devt.        077870533

185.   Asiimwe Godfrey          Makerere University               077876247
186.   Rev. Dr. Isaac Nsereko   Nserester Complex       
187.   Mrs. Mpanga Janet        Uganda      Private   Midwives    077998825
188.   Kibirango C.             Box 14301 Kampala                 077541444
189.   Bazira Besigwa J.                                          078333600
190.   David A                  Box 9246 Kampala                  077489266
191.   Nalukwago Radhida        CEAD                              041201236
192.   Rev. Sango S.B           Nserester Complex                 078640156
193.   Clara Among              CEAD                              077308234
194.   Bamutiire Abel           CEAD                              077981995
195.   Sekalongo Margaret       Nserester                         078538526/077446042
196.   Guhirwa Fortunate        CEAD                              041-201236
197.   Namisango Josephine      CEAD                              ,,
198.   Rweikinya D. Frank       CEAD                              075649350
199.   Frank D. Mugyenyi        CfAD                              075649350
200.   Prof. George Kirya       Health Service Commission         077888885
201.   Dr. Yves E. Amaizo       UNIDO
202.   Eng. Francis Onyikal     Ministry of Education
203.   Nathan Kitaka Mayanja    Intensive Small scale farmer
204.   Everse Ruhindi           Civil Society Capacity Building
205.   Robert Tumwesigye
206.   Christine Namatovu
207.   Margaret Ntambazi
208.   Charlotte Bagorogoza     INFOC
209.   May Ssengendo            Makerere University
210.   James P. Kiwolo          ACIDS
211.   Fiona Pinyoloya
212.   Grace Aggrey Waiswa


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