MBRS Watershed Hydrology by QB5FpT16

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									MBRS Watershed Hydrology

 Río Motagua, Río Chamelecón and
             Río Ulúa

    Paul Kirshen & Ned Spang
               Watersheds
“an area of land within which all waters flow to
  a single river system”
                        ---Heathcote 1998

“the specific land area that drains water into a
  river system or other body of water”
                         ---The World Bank
Features of a Typical Watershed




                                        Overland
                                        flow



                                  Groundwater
                                  flow    Reef
   Countries: Guatemala,                                   Río Motagua
    Honduras
   Watershed Area:
    12,670km2
         Guatemala: 10,529 km2
         Honduras: 2,141km^2
   Average Annual
    Precipitation: 1,400 mm
   Length: 487 km
   Average Discharge:
    530m^3/sec

 Source: Gulf of Honduras: Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, Final Draft
(August 2003) Abt Associates/ Woods Hole Group, Global Environment Facility--Inter-
American Development Bank Project Development Facility (PDF-B), pp. 5-6.
Photo Source: www.guate360.com/galeria/postcards.php
                         Río Motagua: Monthly Flow
                        Hydrograph - 2004 (Morales)
                        600.00

                        500.00
 Average Flow (m^3/s)




                        400.00


                        300.00

                        200.00

                        100.00

                         0.00
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Resumen De Estaciones Hidrometricas De La Republica De Guatemala, (2005) INSIVUMEH,
Guatemala.
       Río Motagua: Water Use/Availability




Source: Vorosmarty, C. J., P. Green, J. Salisbury and R. B. Lammers. 2000. Global water resources:
vulnerability from climate change and population growth, Science, 289: 284-288.
Water Quality Stations
                             Station
                               1a

                                       Rio Hondo:
                                       -Station 1a


                                       Rio Motagua:
                                       -Gualán
                                       -Puente
                    Gualan
                                       Orellana
          Puente
          Orellan
            a
                                                       Lead in Río Motagua
                                                 0.6

     Río                                                                                                                        Gualan
                                                                                                                                Puente Orellana

   Motagua:
                                                 0.5




    Water
                                   Lead (mg/L)
                                                 0.4




    Quality                                      0.3



                                                 0.2



                                                 0.1                      Drinking Water Quality Standard (USA)
                                                       04-Feb-03


                                                                   07-Mar-03




                                                                                                        06-Jun-03


                                                                                                                    08-Jul-03

                                                                                                                                05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                                            02-Sep-03


                                                                                                                                                        10-Oct-03
                                                                               08-Apr-03

                                                                                            06-May-03
Source: adapted from “Calidad de
Agua de los Rios de La Republica
de Guatemala” (December 2003),
                                                                                           Sampling Date
INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
                                                                            Phosphate – P
                                                       1.8



  Río
                                                                                                                                       Gualan
                                                       1.6
                                                                                                                                       Puente Orellana
                                                       1.4

Motagua:
                                Phosphate-P (mg P/L)
                                                       1.2



 Water                                                 1.0

                                                       0.8


Quality 2                                              0.6

                                                       0.4

                                                       0.2
                                                                         Eutrophic (0.05 mg/L)
                                                       0.0
                                                             04-Feb-03




                                                                                                   06-May-03


                                                                                                               06-Jun-03


                                                                                                                           08-Jul-03




                                                                                                                                                               10-Oct-03
                                                                          07-Mar-03




                                                                                                                                       05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                                                   02-Sep-03
                                                                                      08-Apr-03

Source: adapted from “Calidad
de Agua de los Rios de La
Republica de Guatemala”
(December 2003),                                                                                  Sampling Date
INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
                                 Río Motagua: Water Quality 3
                                Total Dissolved Solids                                                                                                                                                  Turbidity
                                350                                                                                                                                    7000
                                                                                                                 Gualan                                                                         Gualan
                                                                                                                 Puente Orellana                                       6000
                                                                                                                                                                                                Puente Orellana
Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L)




                                300
                                                                                                                                                                       5000




                                                                                                                                                     Turbidity (NTU)
                                                                                                                                                                       4000
                                250

                                                                                                                                                                       3000
                                                                                                                                                                                          Chronic ecosystem
                                200                                                                                                                                                       effects threshold
                                                                                                                                                                       2000


                                                                                                                                                                       1000
                                150               Weak untreated
                                                  domestic wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                         0

                                100
                                                                                                     08-Jul-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              08-Jul-03
                                      04-Feb-03


                                                    07-Mar-03


                                                                08-Apr-03




                                                                                         06-Jun-03




                                                                                                                                         10-Oct-03




                                                                                                                                                                              04-Feb-03


                                                                                                                                                                                            07-Mar-03


                                                                                                                                                                                                         08-Apr-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  06-Jun-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10-Oct-03
                                                                             06-May-03




                                                                                                                 05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                             02-Sep-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      06-May-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      02-Sep-03
                                                                            Sampling Date                                                                                                                            Sampling Date


     Source: adapted from “Calidad de Agua de los Rios de La Republica de Guatemala” (December
     2003), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
                              Río Motagua: Water Quality 4
                                                                                                                                                                            Dissolved Oxygen
                              Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)                                                                                                                         Saturation (%)
                          7                                                                                                                                         90
                                                                                                        Gualan                                                                                                                                    Gualan
                                                                                                        Puente Orellana                                             80                                                                            Puente Orellana
                          6
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)




                                                                                                                                            Oxygen Saturation (%)
                                                                                                                                                                    70

                          5
                                                                                                                                                                    60


                                                                                                                                                                    50
                          4

                                                                                                                                                                    40

                          3
                                                                                                                                                                    30


                          2                                                                                                                                         20
                               04-Feb-03


                                           07-Mar-03




                                                                                06-Jun-03


                                                                                            08-Jul-03

                                                                                                        05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                    02-Sep-03




                                                                                                                                                                         04-Feb-03
                                                       08-Apr-03




                                                                                                                                                                                     07-Mar-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          06-Jun-03


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      08-Jul-03

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05-Aug-03

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                02-Sep-03
                                                                    06-May-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                 08-Apr-03

                                                                                                                                                                                                              06-May-03
                                                                                                                                10-Oct-03




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10-Oct-03
                                                                   Sampling Date                                                                                                                             Sampling Date

    Source: adapted from “Calidad de Agua de los Rios de La Republica de Guatemala” (December
    2003), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
          Motagua: Conclusions
 Findings & Stresses:                    Interventions:
    Sufficient water quantity to            Expand water quantity and
     meet needs                               quality monitoring
    Natural hydrology: peak                 Manage land use to respond
     rainfall conducive to high               to present and potential
     levels of erosion                        water quality threats
    Even the limited water quality          Ensure effective
     shows water quality stress and           management of wastewater
     the value of water quality              Harmonization of
     sampling                                 transboundary water
    Potential exists for future water        management
     quality problems from point
     and non-point source threats
    Climate Change?
                          Río Chamelecón
      Countries: Honduras
      Watershed Area: 4,350 km^2
      Average Annual Precipitation: 1,445 mm/yr
      Length: 256 km
      Average Discharge: ~370m^3/sec

Source: Gulf of Honduras: Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, Final Draft (August 2003)
Abt Associates/ Woods Hole Group, Global Environment Facility--Inter-American Development Bank
Project Development Facility (PDF-B), pp. 5-6.
Image Source: pr.water.usgs.gov/public/ rt/hn/chamelecon.html
                                     Río Chamelecón: Monthly
                                           Precipitation
                              250
 Average Precipitation (mm)




                              200


                              150


                              100


                              50


                               0
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Source: Adapted from GIS Data Disc Provided By Secretaría de Agricultura (SAG),
Honduras
                       Río Chamelecón: Monthly Flow
                         Hydrograph (Chamelecón)
                       1 0 0 .0 0
                        9 0 .0 0
Average Flow (m^3/s)




                        8 0 .0 0
                        7 0 .0 0
                        6 0 .0 0
                        5 0 .0 0
                        4 0 .0 0
                        3 0 .0 0
                        2 0 .0 0
                        1 0 .0 0
                          0 .0 0




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    Source: Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (SERNA), Direccion General de Recursos
    Hidricos, Departamento de Servicios Hidrologicos y Climatologicos (1972-1992)
    Río Chamelecón: Water Use/Availability




Source: Vorosmarty, C. J., P. Green, J. Salisbury and R. B. Lammers. 2000. Global water resources:
vulnerability from climate change and population growth, Science, 289: 284-288.
 Río Chamelecón: Conclusions
 Findings & Stresses:               Interventions:
    Sufficient water quantity to       Develop effective water
     meet needs                          quality monitoring programs
    Significant lack of water          Maintain consistent water
     quality data                        quantity monitoring
    Potential exists for future        Manage land use to respond
     water quality problems from         to potential water quality
     point and non-point source          threats
     threats                            Ensure effective
    Natural hydrology: peak             management of wastewater
     rainfall conducive to high
     levels of erosion
    Climate Change?
                                    Río Ulúa
     Countries: Honduras                          Length: 358 km
     Watershed Area:                              Average Discharge:
      21,230 km^2                                   ~690 m^3/sec
     Average Annual
      Precipitation: 1,510
      mm/yr




Source: Gulf of Honduras: Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis, Final Draft (August
2003) Abt Associates/ Woods Hole Group, Global Environment Facility--Inter-American
Development Bank Project Development Facility (PDF-B), pp. 5-6.
Photo Source: http://trurl.acusd.edu/~najmici/zdjecia/pan_am/h_barbara1.jpg
             Río Ulúa: Monthly Precipitation
                               300
  Average Precipitation (mm)




                               250


                               200


                               150

                               100


                               50


                                0
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Source: Adapted from GIS Data Disc Provided By Secretaría de Agricultura (SAG), Honduras
                          Río Ulúa: Monthly Flow
                        Hydrograph (Ulúa en Chinda)
                        6 0 0 .0 0

                        5 0 0 .0 0
 Average Flow (m^3/s)




                        4 0 0 .0 0

                        3 0 0 .0 0

                        2 0 0 .0 0

                        1 0 0 .0 0

                           0 .0 0
                                              ry




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Source: Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (SERNA), Direccion General de Recursos
Hidricos, Departamento de Servicios Hidrologicos y Climatologicos (1972-1992)
            Río Ulúa: Water Use/Availability




Source: Vorosmarty, C. J., P. Green, J. Salisbury and R. B. Lammers. 2000. Global water resources:
vulnerability from climate change and population growth, Science, 289: 284-288.
         Río Ulúa: Conclusions
 Findings & Stresses:               Interventions:
    Sufficient water quantity to       Plan for potential
     meet needs in most areas            supply/demand imbalance
    Significant lack of water           in eastern portion of the
     quality data                        watershed
    Potential exists for future        Develop effective water
     water quality problems from         quality monitoring programs
     point and non-point source         Maintain consistent water
     threats                             quantity monitoring
    Natural hydrology: peak            Manage land use to respond
     rainfall conducive to high          to potential water quality
     levels of erosion                   threats
    Climate Change?                    Ensure effective
                                         management of wastewater
                           Motagua, Chamelecón and
                               Ulúa: Hydrograph
                       600.00

                       500.00
Average Flow (m^3/s)




                       400.00
                                                                                              Mo ta gua
                       300.00                                                                 C ha m e le co n
                                                                                              U lua
                       200.00

                       100.00

                        0.00




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