VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 31 POSTED ON: 7/30/2012
French Revolution The Conservative Phase and the Rise and Fall of Napoleon 1795-1815 Thermidorian Reaction, 1795-99 • Reduced power of Committee of Public Safety • Closed radical Jacobin clubs • Reopened Churches • Eliminated price controls • 3rd Constitution (1795) – more conservative republicanism • Decline of popular movement & san- culottes The Directory • Goal: avoid a dictatorship • 5-man executive committee (oligarchy) • Avoid one-house legislature – Council of 500 – Council of Elders (250) – Both houses elected by electors who owned/rented property Political Instability, 1795-96 • Inflation due to unchecked prices • Bread riots • Extreme costs of war and defeats undermine power of the Directory Napoleon’s Rise to Power • 1796-97: in charge of French army in Italy – Conquered most of northern Italy for France and developed a taste for governing – Suppressed religious orders, ended serfdom, limited noble privileges • EMBODIMENT OF REVOLUTIONARY VALUES & ENERGY Napoleon’s Rise to Power • Egyptian Expedition (1798) – Goals: cause collapse of Turkish Empire; cripple British trade routes; prevent Russian interests in area – Loses to British navy at Battle of the Nile – Abandoned troops and returned to France to receive a hero’s welcome (How odd!) 18 Brumaire (November 10, 1799) • Napoleon joins conspiracy to bring down Directory • Coup d’etat by Napoleon – Bloodless takeover • Approved by plebiscite Europe (1800) Napoleon as “First Consul” • Takes advantage of French government in disarray • Proclaimed “First Consul” and did away with elected Assembly – Appointed a Senate • 1802: makes himself “Consul for Life” Concordat of 1801 • Napoleon wanted to heal relations with Catholic Church – Remember the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy? • Reality – Napoleon wanted to use the clergy to prop up his regime Concordat of 1801 • Catholicism declared “religion of the majority of Frenchmen” • Pope accepts earlier loss of Church lands • Bishops agree to be obedient to regime • Eventually, Pope Pius VII renounced Concordat and Napoleon brought him to France and placed him under house arrest • Napoleon was in charge – not the Church! Lycée System of Education, 1801 Enrolled most talented students and trained them to be bureaucrats “Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine” by David (1806) December 2, 1804 Napoleonic Code, 1804 • Purpose: – Create one unified law code – Reform legal code to reflect ideals of the Revolution Napoleonic Code, 1804 • Family policy: – Women were neither independent nor equal to men in ownership of property, custody of children, access to divorce, or political rights The Influence of the Napoleonic Code Applied to all conquered territory Major Military Campaigns • 1803-1814: continuous warfare • Napoleon directly ruled or controlled (through alliances and family instillations) most of Europe – 1805: Austria falls – 1806: Prussia falls – 1807: Part of Russia falls – 1808: Spain falls Britain is the Exception • Britain has a powerful navy • Unable to invade the island nation so Napoleon turned to economic warfare The Continental System The Continental System • Goal: isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe • British ships not allowed in European ports • Britain responds by stopping all French ships from going West to the Americas • Results: illegal smuggling of goods Russia Fights Back • 1807: Napoleon signed peace treaty that guaranteed Russian allegiance to French policies • 1810: Tsar Alexander prepares to fight back Europe (1810) Russia - The Big Blunder • 1812: Napoleon led army of 500,000+ into Russia • Tsar’s troops retreat to Moscow, drawing French into the interior of Russia Moscow is on Fire! French are left without food/shelter Russia – The Big Blunder • Winter comes and the French are unprepared • 100,000 retreat and only 40,000 make it back to France alive Napoleon Defeated • 6th Coalition (Britain, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, German states) • 1814: Allied forces occupy Paris • Napoleon abdicates in favor of his son, Francois Napoleon in Exile on Elba •Treaty of Fontainbleu exiles Napoleon to Elba •Royalists take control and restore Louis XVIII to the throne! Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) The Hundred Days March 20-June 22, 1815 • Napoleon escapes from Elba and lands in France with small army • Reclaims leadership for 100 days • Defeat at Waterloo – “Everything failed me just when everything had succeeded!” • Exiled again – to Saint Helena Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on Saint Helena Questions for You 1. Was Napoleon a loyal son of the Revolution? Did he defend the ideals of the philosophes? 2. Did Napoleon betray the Revolution and establish himself as a ruthless dictator? Did his ego and desire for power get the best of him?
Pages to are hidden for
"The French Revolution"Please download to view full document