The French Revolution by 3pGi6p

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									French Revolution
 The Conservative Phase and
 the Rise and Fall of Napoleon

          1795-1815
Thermidorian Reaction, 1795-99
• Reduced power of Committee of Public
  Safety
• Closed radical Jacobin clubs
• Reopened Churches
• Eliminated price controls
• 3rd Constitution (1795) – more
  conservative republicanism
• Decline of popular movement & san-
  culottes
             The Directory
• Goal: avoid a dictatorship
• 5-man executive committee (oligarchy)
• Avoid one-house legislature
  – Council of 500
  – Council of Elders (250)
  – Both houses elected by electors who
    owned/rented property
   Political Instability, 1795-96
• Inflation due to unchecked prices
• Bread riots
• Extreme costs of war and defeats
  undermine power of the Directory
Napoleon’s Rise to Power
          • 1796-97: in charge of
            French army in Italy
            – Conquered most of
              northern Italy for France
              and developed a taste for
              governing
            – Suppressed religious
              orders, ended serfdom,
              limited noble privileges
               • EMBODIMENT OF
                 REVOLUTIONARY
                 VALUES & ENERGY
       Napoleon’s Rise to Power
• Egyptian Expedition (1798)
  – Goals: cause collapse of
    Turkish Empire; cripple
    British trade routes;
    prevent Russian
    interests in area
  – Loses to British navy at
    Battle of the Nile
  – Abandoned troops and
    returned to France to
    receive a hero’s
    welcome (How odd!)
 18 Brumaire (November 10, 1799)
• Napoleon joins conspiracy
  to bring down Directory
• Coup d’etat by Napoleon
  – Bloodless takeover
• Approved by plebiscite
Europe (1800)
Napoleon as “First Consul”
         • Takes advantage of French
           government in disarray
         • Proclaimed “First Consul”
           and did away with elected
           Assembly
           – Appointed a Senate
         • 1802: makes himself
           “Consul for Life”
          Concordat of 1801
• Napoleon wanted to heal relations with
  Catholic Church
  – Remember the confiscation of Church
    property and the Civil Constitution of the
    Clergy?
• Reality – Napoleon wanted to use the
  clergy to prop up his regime
          Concordat of 1801
• Catholicism declared “religion of
  the majority of Frenchmen”
• Pope accepts earlier loss of
  Church lands
• Bishops agree to be obedient to
  regime
• Eventually, Pope Pius VII
  renounced Concordat and
  Napoleon brought him to France
  and placed him under house arrest
• Napoleon was in charge – not the
  Church!
Lycée System of Education, 1801




Enrolled most talented students and trained
          them to be bureaucrats
“Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon
      & the Empress Josephine”
           by David (1806)




            December 2, 1804
       Napoleonic Code, 1804
• Purpose:
  – Create one unified law code
  – Reform legal code to reflect
    ideals of the Revolution
      Napoleonic Code, 1804
• Family policy:
  – Women were neither independent nor equal
    to men in ownership of property, custody of
    children, access to divorce, or political rights
The Influence of the Napoleonic
             Code


                     Applied to all
                      conquered
                       territory
     Major Military Campaigns
• 1803-1814: continuous warfare
• Napoleon directly ruled or controlled
  (through alliances and family instillations)
  most of Europe
  – 1805: Austria falls
  – 1806: Prussia falls
  – 1807: Part of Russia falls
  – 1808: Spain falls
      Britain is the Exception
• Britain has a powerful navy
• Unable to invade the island nation so
  Napoleon turned to economic warfare
The Continental System
     The Continental System
• Goal: isolate Britain and promote
  Napoleon’s mastery over Europe
• British ships not allowed in European ports
• Britain responds by stopping all French
  ships from going West to the Americas
• Results: illegal smuggling of goods
        Russia Fights Back
• 1807: Napoleon signed peace treaty that
  guaranteed Russian allegiance to French
  policies
• 1810: Tsar Alexander prepares to fight
  back
Europe (1810)
    Russia - The Big Blunder
• 1812: Napoleon led army of 500,000+ into
  Russia
• Tsar’s troops retreat to Moscow, drawing
  French into the interior of Russia
   Moscow is on Fire!




French are left without food/shelter
Russia – The Big Blunder
              • Winter comes and
                the French are
                unprepared
              • 100,000 retreat
                and only 40,000
                make it back to
                France alive
         Napoleon Defeated
• 6th Coalition (Britain, Russia, Spain,
  Portugal, Sweden, German states)
• 1814: Allied forces occupy Paris
• Napoleon abdicates in favor of his son,
  Francois
Napoleon in Exile on Elba
          •Treaty of Fontainbleu
          exiles Napoleon to Elba

          •Royalists take control
          and restore Louis XVIII
          to the throne!
Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
          The Hundred Days
        March 20-June 22, 1815
• Napoleon escapes from Elba
  and lands in France with small
  army
• Reclaims leadership for
  100 days
• Defeat at Waterloo –
 “Everything failed me just
 when everything had
 succeeded!”
• Exiled again – to Saint Helena
Napoleon on
 His Way to
  His Final
Exile on Saint
   Helena
          Questions for You
1. Was Napoleon a loyal son of the
   Revolution? Did he defend the ideals of
   the philosophes?
2. Did Napoleon betray the Revolution and
   establish himself as a ruthless dictator?
   Did his ego and desire for power get the
   best of him?

								
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