Tito in Yugoslavia Early Life Born as Josip Broz in Austria-Hungary as part of the Slavic minority population in 1910, at age 18, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia-Slavonia (we can conjecture this is where his leftist roots began) World War I in 1913, he was drafted into the Austrian-Hungarian army, and when the war broke out, he was sent to fight on the Russian front he was wounded and captured in 1915 by the Russians during his imprisonment, he became fluent in Russian and was exposed to much Bolshevik propaganda he was released when Tsar Nicholas abdicated in 1917 Tito supported the Bolsheviks and went to Petrograd to fight with Lenin’s Revolutionaries; again, captured and imprisoned he was released when the Communists took power in October 1917 and joined the Red Guard to fight the Russian Civil War Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003) CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007. Inter-war Period returned to Croatia (now part of the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) in 1920 and joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY) the CPY was banned after a young communist assassinated the Minister of the Interior he was arrested many times, but continued with his underground communist activities In April 1927, he joined the CPY’s Zagreb Committee later, he was named deputy of the Politburo of the CPY Central committee and leader of the Croatian and Slovenian committees arrested again, and released in 1934 – shortly after, was named a full member of the CPY Politburo and Central committee (it was here that he adopted the name “Tito”) by this time, the parliamentary regime had been replaced by the royal Yugoslav dictatorship but the ban on the communist party was still in effect 1935: went to the USSR and worked for a year in the Balkan section of the Comintern he returned to Yugoslavia after being named the Secretary-General of the CPY, which was still illegal and proceeded to replenish the ranks of the CPY which had been reduced by Stalin’s purges in 1940, Tito’s position was officially ratified by 105/6000 members of the CPY at a secret meeting in Zagreb Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003) CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007. World War II Tito didn’t respond to Germany’s invasion on Yugoslavia on Stalin’s orders until after Germany attacked the USSR in June 1941, because of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact then, he called a Central committee meeting and was named Military Commander of the Partisans their goal was to not only liberate Yugoslavia from the Axis powers, but to seize power for the Communist party Tito created a revolutionary government for the areas that the Partisans freed from Axis control opposition: Serbian Chetniks, supported by Allies + the gov’t in exile however, after Partisans stood up to “intense” Axis attacks in Jan to June 1943, Allied leaders decided to support them Tehran Conference = the Partisons were officially recognized by Roosevelt, Churchill (who hoped that Tito would cooperate with the gov’t in exile), and Stalin resulted in Allied aid parachuted behind Axis lines to assist the Partisans Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003) CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007. after Yalta Conference: Tito consolidated power by purging his gov’t of non-communists November 1945: new constitution Tito organized strong army & secret police (UDBA) which imprisoned and executed a number of Nazi collaborators, Catholic priests, those who’d opposed the communist-led war effort, and communists who didn’t agree with Tito then he proceeded to centralize Wounded Tito with Ivan the economy and society in Ribar during the Stalinist fashion Offensive on Sutjeska June 13, 1943 www.biologydaily.com/biology /Josip_Broz_Tito Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003) CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007. Post-war After the Communist Partisan Movement led by Tito played a central role in liberating Yugoslavia, he consolidated his power and took control of the country in the summer and fall of 1945 by purging his government of non- communists and by holding fraudulent elections The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed under a new constitution in November 1945. The new constitution called for six constituent republics under a single centralized government in Belgrade. The population of Yugoslavia included a mix of cultural, language, and religious groups; there were Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslims To maintain his control, Tito developed and enforced a plan called “Brotherhood and Unity” which demanded purges to be carried out among the Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, Muslims, Slovenes, Albanians, and many others who were nationalistic and did not support the greater Yugoslavia. Trials of captured collaborationists, Catholic prelates, opposition figures, and even distrusted communists were conducted in order to fashion Yugoslavia in the Soviet mold. Source: http://www.edukits.ca/diversity/balkans/student/background_after_ww2.html Tito’s Yugoslavia Tito then proceeded to centralize the economy and society in Stalinist fashion although agriculture was not successfully collectivized. Although Yugoslavia was closely associated with the USSR and was a leading member of the Cominform, Tito often pursued independent policies and http://www.soros.org.mk/archive/G08/images/Sg5905.jpg did not hesitate to curtail the activies of Soviet agents. Stalin was also very unhappy with Tito's foreign-policy decisions Stalin disliked Tito's attempt to ignore taken independently of Moscow: his suggestions as to how the new first to try to form a Balkan Yugoslav government and economy federation with Bulgarian leader would be run. Dimitrov, second with Yugoslavia's Source: relations with Albania and finally http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/ with Tito's decision to support the communists in the Greek Civil War. Stalin's response in June 1948 by expelling the "Tito clique" from Cominform, in essence, kicking Yugoslvia out of the "socialist camp" to go it alone. Stalin imposed economic boycotts and sanctions but stopped short of physically invading Yugoslavia. Tito succeeded in maintaining his position despite the hostility of the USSR and his neighbors. Source: http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bartleby.com%2F65%2Fti%2FTito- Jos.html Tito’s Policies – Non-alignment The West smoothed Yugoslavia’s course by offering aid and military assistance By 1953, military aid had evolved into an informal association with NATO cia a tripartite pact with Greece and Turkey that included a provision for mutual defense After Stalin’s death in 1953, Tito was faced with two choices: either continue the Westward course and give up one-party dictatorship or seek reconciliation with a somewhat reformed new Soviet system under Nikita Khrushchev He chose the latter However, the limits of reconciliation became obvious after the Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956; which was followed by a new Soviet campaign against Tito, blaming the Yugoslavs for inspiring the Hungarian uprising. Tito started to seek alliance elsewhere – with leaders of developing countries Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt Jawaharlal Nehru of India Led to a closer cooperation among states that were “nonengaged” in the East-West confrontation. The Brioni Declaration - Nasser, Tito, and Nehru, July 19, 1956 www.answers.com/topic/josip-broz-tito From non-engagement evolved the policy of “active non-alignment” The promotion of alternatives to bloc politics, as opposed to mere neutrality Consequences Over the 40 years Tito ruled Yugoslavia, it changed beyond recognition. It developed its own brand of socialism, and a society far more open than that of its communist neighbors. For them, and for many communists around the world, Yugoslavia seemed to be a paradise on earth. Tito's Yugoslavia also gained enormous prestige as a founder of the non- aligned movement, which aimed to find a place in world politics for countries that did not want to stand foursquare behind either of the two superpowers. There was much substance to Tito's Yugoslavia, much was illusion too. The economy was built on the shaky foundations of massive western loans. Even liberal communism had its limits, as did the very nature of the federation. Yugoslav “brotherhood and unity” dissolved quickly following Tito's death. An escalation of gruesome and violent acts by citizens against one another led to demands for the autonomy of republics and to a fracturing along ethnic lines.
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