Tito in Yugoslavia by 2J2xe89X

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									   Tito


in Yugoslavia
                                                                                              Early Life
                                                           Born as Josip Broz in Austria-Hungary as part of
                                                          the Slavic minority population
                                                           in 1910, at age 18, he joined the Social
                                                          Democratic Party of Croatia-Slavonia (we can
                                                          conjecture this is where his leftist roots began)

                                                                                      World War I
 in 1913, he was drafted into the Austrian-Hungarian army, and when the
war broke out, he was sent to fight on the Russian front
 he was wounded and captured in 1915 by the Russians
 during his imprisonment, he became fluent in Russian and was exposed to
much Bolshevik propaganda
 he was released when Tsar Nicholas abdicated in 1917
 Tito supported the Bolsheviks and went to Petrograd to fight with Lenin’s
Revolutionaries; again, captured and imprisoned
 he was released when the Communists took power in October 1917 and
joined the Red Guard to fight the Russian Civil War
Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003)
CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
                                                     Inter-war Period
     returned to Croatia (now part of the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and
      Slovenes) in 1920 and joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY)
     the CPY was banned after a young communist assassinated the Minister of
      the Interior
     he was arrested many times, but continued with his underground communist
      activities
     In April 1927, he joined the CPY’s Zagreb Committee
     later, he was named deputy of the Politburo of the CPY Central committee
      and leader of the Croatian and Slovenian committees
     arrested again, and released in 1934 – shortly after, was named a full
      member of the CPY Politburo and Central committee (it was here that he
      adopted the name “Tito”)
     by this time, the parliamentary regime had been replaced by the royal
      Yugoslav dictatorship but the ban on the communist party was still in effect
     1935: went to the USSR and worked for a year in the Balkan section of the
      Comintern
     he returned to Yugoslavia after being named the Secretary-General of the
      CPY, which was still illegal and proceeded to replenish the ranks of the CPY
      which had been reduced by Stalin’s purges
     in 1940, Tito’s position was officially ratified by 105/6000 members of the
      CPY at a secret meeting in Zagreb
Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003)
CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
                                                       World War II
   Tito didn’t respond to Germany’s invasion on Yugoslavia on Stalin’s orders
    until after Germany attacked the USSR in June 1941, because of the Nazi-Soviet
    non-aggression pact
   then, he called a Central committee meeting and was named Military
    Commander of the Partisans
   their goal was to not only liberate Yugoslavia from the Axis powers, but to seize
    power for the Communist party
      Tito created a revolutionary government for the areas that the Partisans
        freed from Axis control
   opposition: Serbian Chetniks, supported by Allies + the gov’t in exile
   however, after Partisans stood up to “intense” Axis attacks in Jan to June 1943,
    Allied leaders decided to support them
   Tehran Conference = the Partisons were officially recognized by Roosevelt,
    Churchill (who hoped that Tito would cooperate with the gov’t in exile), and
    Stalin
      resulted in Allied aid parachuted behind Axis lines to assist the Partisans




    Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003)
    CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
       after Yalta Conference: Tito
        consolidated power by purging
        his gov’t of non-communists
       November 1945: new constitution
       Tito organized strong army &
        secret police (UDBA) which
        imprisoned and executed a
        number of Nazi collaborators,
        Catholic priests, those who’d
        opposed the communist-led war
        effort, and communists who didn’t
        agree with Tito
       then he proceeded to centralize                                                                               Wounded Tito with Ivan
        the economy and society in                                                                                    Ribar during the
        Stalinist fashion                                                                                             Offensive on Sutjeska
                                                                                                                      June 13, 1943
                                                                                                                      www.biologydaily.com/biology
                                                                                                                      /Josip_Broz_Tito

    Safra, Jacob E. and Yeshua, Ilan. “Tito, Josip Broz”. Encylopaedia Britannica, Volume 11. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., USA, 2003)
    CNN Cold War – Profile: Josip Broz Tito. Website: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
                                      Post-war
   After the Communist Partisan Movement led by Tito played a central role
    in liberating Yugoslavia, he consolidated his power and took control of the
    country in the summer and fall of 1945 by purging his government of non-
    communists and by holding fraudulent elections
   The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed under a new
    constitution in November 1945.
   The new constitution called for six constituent republics under a single
    centralized government in Belgrade.
   The population of Yugoslavia included a mix of cultural, language, and
    religious groups; there were Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and
    Muslims
   To maintain his control, Tito developed and enforced a plan called
    “Brotherhood and Unity” which demanded purges to be carried out among
    the Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, Muslims, Slovenes, Albanians, and many
    others who were nationalistic and did not support the greater Yugoslavia.
   Trials of captured collaborationists, Catholic prelates, opposition figures,
    and even distrusted communists were conducted in order to fashion
    Yugoslavia in the Soviet mold.

Source: http://www.edukits.ca/diversity/balkans/student/background_after_ww2.html
                               Tito’s Yugoslavia
  Tito then proceeded to centralize the
economy and society in Stalinist fashion
although agriculture was not successfully
collectivized.
 Although     Yugoslavia was closely
associated with the USSR and was a
leading member of the Cominform, Tito
often pursued independent policies and                       http://www.soros.org.mk/archive/G08/images/Sg5905.jpg
did not hesitate to curtail the activies of
Soviet agents.                                               Stalin was also very unhappy
                                                            with Tito's foreign-policy decisions
 Stalin disliked Tito's attempt to ignore
                                                            taken independently of Moscow:
his suggestions as to how the new
                                                            first to try to form a Balkan
Yugoslav government and economy
                                                            federation with Bulgarian leader
would be run.
                                                            Dimitrov, second with Yugoslavia's
Source:                                                     relations with Albania and finally
http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/
                                                            with Tito's decision to support the
                                                            communists in the Greek Civil War.
   Stalin's response in June 1948 by expelling the "Tito clique" from
    Cominform, in essence, kicking Yugoslvia out of the "socialist camp" to go
    it alone. Stalin imposed economic boycotts and sanctions but stopped short
    of physically invading Yugoslavia.
   Tito succeeded in maintaining his position despite the hostility of the USSR
    and his neighbors.
Source: http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bartleby.com%2F65%2Fti%2FTito-
     Jos.html
     Tito’s Policies – Non-alignment
   The West smoothed Yugoslavia’s course by offering aid and military
    assistance
   By 1953, military aid had evolved into an informal association with NATO
    cia a tripartite pact with Greece and Turkey that included a provision for
    mutual defense
   After Stalin’s death in 1953, Tito was faced with two choices:
      either continue the Westward course and give up one-party dictatorship

      or seek reconciliation with a somewhat reformed new Soviet system
        under Nikita Khrushchev
   He chose the latter
   However, the limits of reconciliation became obvious after the Soviet
    intervention in Hungary in 1956; which was followed by a new Soviet
    campaign against Tito, blaming the Yugoslavs for inspiring the Hungarian
    uprising.
   Tito started to seek alliance elsewhere – with leaders of developing
    countries
      Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt

      Jawaharlal Nehru of India

      Led to a closer cooperation among states that were “nonengaged” in
        the East-West confrontation.

                                   The Brioni Declaration - Nasser, Tito,
                                   and Nehru, July 19, 1956




                                 www.answers.com/topic/josip-broz-tito


   From non-engagement evolved the policy of “active non-alignment”
      The promotion of alternatives to bloc politics, as opposed to mere
       neutrality
                         Consequences
   Over the 40 years Tito ruled Yugoslavia, it changed beyond recognition.
    It developed its own brand of socialism, and a society far more open than
    that of its communist neighbors. For them, and for many communists
    around the world, Yugoslavia seemed to be a paradise on earth.
   Tito's Yugoslavia also gained enormous prestige as a founder of the non-
    aligned movement, which aimed to find a place in world politics for
    countries that did not want to stand foursquare behind either of the two
    superpowers.
   There was much substance to Tito's Yugoslavia, much was illusion too. The
    economy was built on the shaky foundations of massive western loans.
    Even liberal communism had its limits, as did the very nature of the
    federation.
   Yugoslav “brotherhood and unity” dissolved quickly following Tito's death.
    An escalation of gruesome and violent acts by citizens against one another
    led to demands for the autonomy of republics and to a fracturing along
    ethnic lines.

								
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