In Vienna by IwjKD2Q


									Chapter 08 “Waste Management”

»        Waste Balance
»        Waste Collection
»        Waste Disposal
»        Waste Prevention
»        Contaminated Sites

The basic principles of Viennese waste management are waste prevention, waste separation
and waste utilisation

Waste Balance

In addition to the Federal Waste Management Act, waste management in Vienna is regulated by the Viennese
Waste Management Act (Wiener AWG). There are two municipal departments responsible for waste management
in Vienna, namely the Municipal Department for Waste Management, Street Cleaning and Vehicle Fleet (MA 48),
and the Municipal Department for Environmental Protection (MA 22). While MA 48 is responsible for the
communal collection and treatment of waste from private households and companies, MA 22 has the task of
monitoring the implementation of waste regulations. At a strategic level, they work together on the realisation of
the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for the Viennese Waste Management Plan, for example, or on the
initiation of waste prevention projects.

The basic principles of Viennese waste management are waste prevention, waste separation and waste
utilisation. Efforts to fulfil these principles mean that waste management is subject to constant optimisation
measures and new challenges. A study and an analysis, the latter carried out in 2003/2004, led to recognition of
the problem of food and food packaging in residual waste and this was reacted to accordingly. A very successful
poster campaign was implemented with the “Müllmonster”, or rubbish monster, (whose motto roughly translated
as “I’m big enough already”) throughout the Vienna area, and there was a corresponding prioritisation of waste
prevention projects.

In spite of the great efforts in waste prevention, MA 48 still collects more than one million tonnes of waste every
year. It is necessary to separate this waste as much as possible to create the conditions for efficient material
recycling. A sophisticated collection system ensures that waste separation and utilisation are not just mere
buzzwords in Vienna.

In 2004/2005, in order to optimise collection of separated waste and to facilitate the subsequent recycling
process, plastic collection was altered to a targeted collection of recyclable plastic fractions (hollow containers)
and the glass collection changed to sound-absorbing bottle banks which are lifted to be emptied. In compost
management, the path that has been followed for many years, namely closed organic cycle management, is being
continued consistently. Waste that cannot be prevented or utilised primarily ends up at one of the two waste
incineration plants, or, after being treated, in the fluidised-bed incinerator IV. A rotary kiln is available in Vienna for
incineration of hazardous waste, and the energy that arises from this incineration process is used to generate
environmentally friendly district heating and also electricity in part.
Quantity of Waste in 2005

In 2005, the quantity of waste collected by MA 48 totalled 1,018,207 tonnes. This shows a slight reduction in
comparison with 2004 (1,026,431 tonnes). The decrease can be mainly attributed to the moderate use of loose
gravel (to grit the roads and pavements) in winter 2004/2005. If the total waste amount is divided evenly between
the population of Vienna, this would indicate an average waste production of 612 kilograms for each Viennese
resident. More than half of the total waste produced in 2005 was utilised to generate heat and around 36 per cent
was recicled

MA 48 total (PRIMARY COLLECTION)                                         2004                                       2005

ON SN     Waste designation (MA 48)                         Mass                   1,644,816 Inh.*)             Mass                   1,663,892 Inh.*)        +/-

                                                           in tonnes       [%]          kg /inh/y              in tonnes      [%]          kg/inh/y [%]

91101     Domestic waste (collection)                     508,315          49.5            309.0               509,922        50.1            306.5            0.3

91101     Non-special medical waste                        13,308           1.3              8.1                13,420         1.3              8.1            0.8

91101     Domestic, similar industrial waste               10,656           1.0               6.5               11,517         1.1              6.9            8.1

91401     Bulky waste                                      36,650           3.6             22.3                33,758         3.3              20.3         – 7.9

91501     Road sweepings                                   25,639           2.5             15.6                29,747         2.9              17.9         16.0

94704     Grit collector material/screenings    4,054             0.4            2.5                  3,098        0.3               1.9       – 23.6

Total     Non-separated waste                           598,623            58.3            363.9               601,462        59.1            361.5            0.5

31409     Construction waste from dumps        68,756             6.7        41.8                    69,720         6.8          41.9                 1.4

31409     Construction waste                                1,360           0.1               0.8                 1,223        0.1               0.7        – 10.1

31410     Road construction waste                             336           0.0               0.2                    60        0.0               0.0        – 82.3

31411     Excavated earth                                   2,982           0.3               1.8                 1,838        0.2               1.1        – 38.4

31427     Concrete demolition waste                         1,667           0.2               1.0                    902       0.1               0.5        – 45.9

31106     Grit sweepings                                   28,797           2.8              17.5                 19,674        1.9             11.8        – 31.7

Total     Inert waste                                     103,897          10.1              63.2                 93,415        9.2             56.1        – 10.1

12302     Cooking oils/fats                                 308.3           0.0               0.2                  305.7        0.0             0.2          – 0.8

17201     Wood, packaging                                   1,590           0.2               1.0                  1,414        0.1             0.9         – 11.0

17201     Untreated waste wood                                220            0.0               0.1                   678        0.1             0.4         207.8

17202     Treated waste wood                   35,112              3.4           21.3                 37,368         3.7        22.5                  6.4

18718     Waste paper                                     119,004           11.6              72.4              123,522        12.1            74.2            3.8

18718     Cardboard boxes                                   3,759            0.4               2.3                 3,903        0.4             2.3            3.8

31465     Laminated glass                                        11          0.0               0.0                     12       0.0             0.0          16.3

31468, 31469 Glass (clear and coloured)                 24,407               2.4              14.8                24,790        2.4           14.9 1.6

35103     Scrap metal                                     17,017             1.7              10.3                16,731        1.6           10.1          – 1.7

35105     Metal packaging                                  2,423             0.2               1.5                 2,226        0.2            1.3          – 8.1

35202     Electric appliances                              1,296             0.1               0.8                 1,812        0.2             1.1          39.8

57108     Polystyrene                                         90             0.0                0.1                      94     0.0             0.1 3.8

57115     X-ray photographs                                   4.0            0.0                0.0                    3.4      0.0             0.0         – 15.7

57118     Mixed plastic packaging                           8,779            0.9                5.3                5,528        0.5             3.3         – 37.0

57118     Plastic hollow containers                               46         0.0                0.0                      43     0.0             0.0          – 5.7

57118     Damaged waste containers                            251            0.0                0.2                      65     0.0             0.0         – 74.3

57119     Plastic films                                       104            0.0                0.1                      74     0.0             0.0         – 29.3

57502     Scrap tyres                                       1,372            0.1                0.8                 1,380       0.1             0.8 0.6
58107      Waste textiles                                      1             0.0            0.0                              1     0.0           0.0 0.9

div.       Other scrap material                   12           0.0                 0.0                        9        0.0          0.0          – 24.4

Total      Scrap material                               215.807             21.0          131.2                    219,960        21.6         132.2             1.9

91104      Bio-waste container                 72,007          7.0             43.8                   69,367           6.8         41.7           – 3.7

91104      Biogenic waste                                29,441              2.9           17.9                     27,033         2.7          16.2           – 8.2

Total      Compost raw material                         101,449              9.9           61.7                     96,400         9.5          57.9           – 5.0

35106      Fire extinguishers                               6.7              0.0                0.0                    8.0         0.0           0.0           18.4

35106      Gas cylinders                                    2.4              0.0            0.0                        3.1         0.0           0.0           30.9

35201      Visual display units                          1,221               0.1            0.7                      1,563         0.2           0.9           28.0

35201      Electrical scrap                                170               0.0            0.1                          6         0.0           0.0         – 96.5

35201      Oil radiators                                  60.6               0.0            0.0                       37.0         0.0           0.0         – 39.0

35203      Vehicle wrecks                                2,084               0.2            1.3                      1,969         0.2           1.2           – 5.5

35205. 35206 Refrigeration equipment                    1,305.7              0.1            0.8                    1,610.2         0.2           1.0           23.3

35322      Lead batteries                                532.8               0.1            0.3                      525.9         0.1           0.3           – 1.3

35326      Mercury                                          0.1              0.0            0.0                         0.1        0.0           0.0 3.9

35338      Unsorted batteries                              48.9              0.0            0.0                        45.3        0.0           0.0          – 7.3

35339      Gas discharge lamps                   16.0          0.0                 0.0                  25.6           0.0          0.0            59.5

52707      Fixing baths                                      0.9             0.0            0.0                         0.8        0.0           0.0           – 6.8

53510      Medicines                             78.7          0.0                 0.0                  62.9           0.0          0.0          – 20.1

54102      Motor oils                           123.7          0.0                 0.1                 118.6           0.0          0.1           – 4.1

55370      Organic fluid waste                            637.0              0.1 0.4                   650.9           0.1          0.4                2.2

55502      Organic pasty/solid waste                       314.0             0.0 0.2                   294.6           0.0          0.2           – 6.2

57118      Empty containers                                  4.4             0.0 0.0                     3.9           0.0          0.0          – 11.5

57127      Toner cartridges, ink ribbons                     1.8             0.0 0.0                     2.2           0.0          0.0            22.5

59305      Inorganic fluid waste                 17.1             0.0 0.0                17.1           0.0            0.0 0.0

59305      Toxic, pesticides, poisons, other     29.8             0.0 0.0                25.7           0.0            0.0          – 13.8

Total      Hazardous material/waste                      6,654.7             0.6 4.0                  6,969.2          0.7          4.2 4.7

TOTAL      GRAND TOTAL                             1,026,431.00             100.0          624.0                  1,018,207      100.0        611.9          – 0.8

*) Inhabitants with principal residence, data source: local register of residents from the Municipal Department for Elections and Specific Legal

Affairs MA 62

Waste Collection

MA 48 is responsible for waste collection in Vienna. A sophisticated collection system ensures that Vienna stays
clean. It comprises a container system for residual waste collection and a system for scrap material collection
(including biogenic waste) made up of 2,500 collecting points, 50 hazardous waste collection points and 19
rubbish dumps. Every day, some 100,000 containers are emptied by 261 waste collection trucks. All new trucks
that are heavier than 3.5 tonnes are already equipped with EURO-IV engines and have a PM-cat filter system
with an upstream oxidation catalytic converter, which complies with and exceeds the legally required limits that
come into force in October 2006. This technology is a great step towards a reduction in particulate matter!

Residual Waste Collection
“Residual waste” stands for the mixture that cannot be gathered in the separated scrap material collection. It
mainly comes from private households, but also from companies that dispose of commercial waste that is similar
to domestic waste in the same containers as households.

In Vienna, residual waste is collected directly from properties in some 206,000 containers and these containers
are emptied up to six times a week as required. Incidentally, there is a research project at Spittelau waste
incineration plant that is focused on the composition of Vienna’s residual waste and on how the concentrations of
the examined elements in the residual waste change over time. Since 2000, the elementary composition and the
substance flows of the most important elements in the residual waste burnt there have been determined. The
“output” is also being examined, in other words the combustion products. The result: In the last five years, the
cadmium and mercury concentrations in Vienna’s residual waste dropped by 30 per cent, while copper
concentrations rose by about 45 per cent, lead by 30 per cent and aluminium by 16 per cent, whereby only the
reduction of cadmium is significant.

Separated Scrap Material Collection

“Separated scrap material collection” is the collection of the scrap material paper, coloured glass, clear glass,
metals (including beverage cans) and plastic hollow containers. The colour of each container’s lid indicates which
scrap material should be disposed of in the container. In addition, the containers are marked with corresponding
stickers for correct use. In the entire city area, around 185,000 containers are in place for the different scrap
materials, including biogenic waste. The containers for waste paper are located either directly on properties (in
the inner city) or on a nearby public waste container site (in green areas). Scrap metal (beverage cans, metal
packaging material and small pieces of metal), waste glass and plastic bottles can now be discarded at over
2,500 collecting points. All scrap material can also be disposed of for free at the 19 rubbish dumps. The collected
waste glass is supplied to the glass industry to be utilised and the metals are sold to metal melting companies.
Tthe paper industry makes new paper products from the waste paper.

In autumn 2004, after successful pilot tests, reorganisation of the plastic collection and waste glass collection
systems was initiated.

• The goal of reorganising the plastic collection system was to improve the quality of the collected material. From
September 2004 to April 2005 in Vienna, the accustomed mixed lightweight packaging collection was replaced by
targeted collection of hollow containers such as plastic bottles. In Vienna, all other plastics that are not used for
recycling are collected in the residual waste and are used as fuel because of their high calorific value. The plastic
bottle containers were redesigned in an eye-catching manner with a closed lid with round necks to insert the
bottles. These ensure that the correct waste ends up inside the containers to a large extent. Previously, up to 30
per cent incorrect waste was collected in these containers, which led to extensive work during the subsequent
sorting process. The results show that there has been a significant reduction in wrongly discarded waste in the
new containers and an increase in recyclable hollow containers.

In the case of business enterprises, the old “yellow bin” system has been retained, because mainly large plastic
films are collected here and there is much less wrongly discarded waste. The recyclable plastics are used by the
plastic industry to make new products such as shampoo and detergent bottles, containers, buckets, bags and
fleece fibres.

• Due to noise pollution and an increase in collection efficiency, the extensive changeover to “lifted” bottle banks
has been started in several Vienna districts (2, 20, 21 and 22). These new bottle banks are lifted up by a crane to
be emptied, and thanks to their material properties they cause much less noise pollution when bottles are
inserted. These new containers bring reductions of more than 10 decibels, which is equivalent to half of the
previous noise levels. The closed container design also leads to a better quality of collected material. In 2006, this
changeover is to be extended to include all of Vienna.
Implementation of the Ordinance on Waste Prevention, Collection and Treatment of Waste Electrical
and Electronic Equipment (WEEE Ordinance)

When the WEEE Ordinance came into force, it led to fundamental innovations in collection and utilisation of waste
electrical and electronic equipment. A key factor is that citizens now have the opportunity to hand in all waste
electrical equipment at the MA 48 collection points for free. This has led to a significant reduction in illegally
discarded appliances.

In 2004, MA 48 had to remove around 8,400 refrigeration appliances which had been discarded in public areas; in
2005 this number had dropped to just 5,800! MA 48 has concluded a contract with several manufacturers
concerning the collection and processing of waste electrical appliances. The manufacturers have commissioned
MA 48 to dispose of the waste electrical appliances received at the MA 48 collection points in an environmentally
friendly manner. In this way, MA 48 will ensure proper collection and treatment of the waste electrical appliances
in Vienna now and in the future.

Biogenic Waste

There is also a separate collection system for biogenic waste. The bio-waste containers are in place extensively
in the city’s green areas, and in the inner-city area citizens can deposit their garden and kitchen waste at
collecting points. The biogenic waste is converted to high-quality compost that is primarily used in agriculture.

Illegal Waste Disposal

Illegal waste disposal poses a continual environmental problem. Monitoring plays an essential role here and is
carried out by employees of MA 48 on public property and by employees of the specialist area “waste and
resource management” of MA 22 on private property. In 2005, they were “deployed” a total of 140 times to help
bring charges against perpetrators of illegal waste disposal, at freight train stations and old industrial sites for
example. The mobile task force of the environmental protection department ensured the removal of 200 old
vehicles, 500 cubic metres of bulky waste, 500 cubic metres of building waste and some 100 refrigeration
appliances in 2005.

Waste Treatment Plant

The majority of the scrap material collected in Vienna or brought directly to the collecting points by business
enterprises can be directly forwarded to companies for use without further processing or sorting steps. Materials
that fall into this category are waste paper, waste glass, polystyrene, scrap tyres, treated wood and vehicle
wrecks. In the waste treatment plant, the remaining scrap material is sorted into fractions in preparation for
recycling, and is temporarily stored and marketed. A rail connection is available for the removal and handling of
scrap material.

Sorting and Processing Plant

In addition to the plastics sorting plant, the waste processing site also houses a processing and sorting plant for
domestic and bulky waste, a central hazardous waste interim storage facility, a processing plant for combustion
residues, a compost treatment plant and an electronic/electrical scrap disassembly plant. Residual waste that due
to the insufficient capacity of the two existing waste incineration plants cannot be thermally treated has been
processed in a sorting and treatment plant for domestic and bulky waste since 2001. With this plant, it is possible
to separate the parts that are high in calorific value and the recyclable metals from the domestic waste.
Successful “Waste Separation Point” Model for Construction Sites

The two themes “Aesthetic Incorporation of Construction Sites into the Cityscape” and “Pre-sorting of Residual
Building Materials on the Building Site” were implemented to reduce the environmental impact of overall waste
logistics as part of the RUMBA EU project (see “Mobile in Vienna” chapter). This was achieved by setting up a
waste separation point. This is an area on the construction site which is cordoned off and can only be accessed at
certain times, and which contains waste collection containers for the construction waste that is normally produced
during interior building work. At the waste separation point, this waste is taken over by trained personnel and
sorted into individual types of waste.

The specialists on the construction site are contractually obliged to dispose of their waste via the waste
separation point. Once the construction is completed, the waste separation point operator gives all the residual
building material verification documents to the building owner. This saves the building owner from having to
collect them from the individual specialists. Within the framework of the RUMBA project, standardised
specification texts were prepared for the invitation to tender for “Waste Separation Points” by Ökotechna together
with the civil engineering task force from ÖkoKauf Wien (EcoBuy Vienna). They can be found at www.rumba- Thanks to these documents, it has been possible to implement the “Waste Separation Point” concept for
several building projects already, most recently for the extension of the U2 metro line, where some 600 specialists
were involved.

Waste Disposal

Waste that cannot be recycled is disposed of in two domestic waste incineration plants, the fluidised-bed
incinerator IV and an incineration plant for hazardous waste. The special thing about these four incineration plants
is that not only do they comply with the highest and internationally recognised environmental standards, but that
the energy created during the combustion process is used to generate environmentally friendly district heating
and also electricity in part.

Rautenweg Landfill
Rautenweg landfill is the city of Vienna’s only mass-waste landfill. It has a landfill capacity of 13.7 million cubic
metres as authorised according to water protection regulations and has been adapted to the technology
specifications of the Landfill Ordinance. The landfill site is used mainly for residues from thermal waste treatment
in the form of hardened, low-reaction ash/slag concrete. In order to protect the groundwater, the entire landfill is
enclosed by two parallel sealing walls that reach down to the aquiclude layers (Vienna Chamber System). Since
1991, the city has used the landfill gas to generate electricity. In 2005, the plant converted around eight million
cubic metres of gas into electrical energy and fed it into the network of the WIENER STADTWERKE.

2003–2004 Analysis of Residual Waste and Scrap Material

From autumn 2003 to summer 2004, an analysis was carried out of the contents of Vienna’s domestic waste and
scrap material containers on four different separation dates. The goal of the analysis was to gain insight into the
composition (volumes and dimensions) and the bulk density of the contents, plus how full the containers were.

• Domestic waste: The main fraction of the biogenic waste comes from food and food packaging. In order to lower
this share, the city of Vienna has already responded by initiating waste prevention projects and major public
information campaigns.

• Scrap material: As the objective of scrap material collection is to recycle as great an amount as possible, the
quality of the collected material is of key importance. A high percentage of wrongly discarded waste makes it
more difficult to recycle the material. The chart shows the quality of the collected material. Very good qualities are
achieved for waste paper and waste glass. What is remarkable is the high percentage of wrongly discarded waste
in the former plastic collection system. The changeover to the new style of container for hollow container
collection has counteracted this weak point.

• Composting: In this area, the city of Vienna is working in close co-operation with the Bio-Forschung Austria
research institute. The research focuses on the positive effects of compost use on soil, groundwater and the
climate as well as on the quality and quantity of the harvested yield.

Using compost can lead to a high humus content in the soil (CO2 sinks). Moreover, using compost in organic
farming can reduce nitrous oxide emissions, which is also a positive contribution to climate protection. In 2005,
the Vienna quality compost was added to the product list of the “Ökokauf Wien” procurement programme.

Events for Waste Collectors and Treatment Specialists

In addition to specialist consultation for Vienna’s citizens and companies, waste collectors and treatment
specialists are important clients who are regularly given advice and information from the specialists of the
Municipal Department for Environmental Protection (MA 22) (http://www. at/abfall). In 2004,
the specialist area “waste and resource management” of MA 22 organised the first information events for
Viennese waste collection and treatment companies. Around 200 participants attended these events. As these
information days were well received, they were held again in 2005 on current topics. The focuses were on
registration obligations for collection and treatment companies and the creation of waste balances.

Training for Waste Managers

Waste managers are an important target group for waste management information. Around 1,500 specialist waste
managers and their representatives are active in Vienna’s companies and institutes alone. In co-operation with
the Austrian Technical Inspection Agency (TÜV), MA 22 regularly holds “Waste Manager Days” at Vienna City
Hall. These specialist conferences are attended by around 120 waste managers who participate in a day of
experience and information exchange. In addition to company waste managers, there are also a large number of
waste management officers and their representatives active in the Vienna Municipal Council. MA 22 stages waste
management officer training every year for them. Three courses were held in 2004 and 2005 and a total of 36
people were trained as waste management officers.

Waste Prevention

Growing quantities of waste with ever more complex components not only present communal waste management
with great challenges, but also reflect the “concept of material prosperity” of our civilised society through an
elevated consumption of natural resources. In order to counteract this trend and to provide new stimulus for their
pioneering role in sustainable energy policy, the city of Vienna has decided to give high priority to waste
prevention in the coming years. More information on the waste prevention initiative can be found on the webpage:

2005 in Focus: Food and Food Packaging

In 2005, the focuses on food and food packaging were continued.

• The efforts of the city of Vienna to re-highlight Vienna’s tap water, and consequently forgo PET bottles, should
be particularly emphasised. This was achieved with the “Wiener Wasserkrug” (Viennese Water Pitcher)
campaign. From the start of the design competition through the production period to the sales launch and beyond,
this initiative has been supported by extensive public relations measures.

• Two projects were carried out in canteen kitchens which aimed to facilitate the changeover from convenience
food to organic products. The changeover results in a reduction of waste, an improvement in health and
promotion of regional products, without increasing financial expenditure.

• The aim of the “Gut gekauft” (Good Purchases) district shopping maps is to create awareness and purchase
incentives for environmentally friendly products and services. The sustainable shopping maps also provide retail
and commerce, food-service operators and public utilities with an attractive advertising opportunity and encourage
companies to further improve their environmental and social standards.

• In 2004, a co-operation with the supermarket operator Spar AG led to an increase in reusable transport
packaging for vegetable products. This has enabled the avoidance of over 3,500 tonnes of waste throughout
Austria. The changeover of Inzersdorf large farmers’ market to reusable transport packaging was examined in

New Focus: Events
A new focus was set in the area of events with the goal of holding functions as ecologically as possible and with
the lowest possible amount of refuse over the long term.

• In 2005, a reusable cup system was established and individual measures were implemented in direct co-
operation with the organisers of 17 events.

• When applying to hold a public event, all organisers were called on to fill in a two-page questionnaire at the
Municipal Department for Inspection of Business Establishments, Electrical and Gas Equipment, Fire Prevention
and Official Authorisation of Events (MA 36). The data entered in these questionnaires provides valuable
information about measures that have already been carried out for the ecological upgrading of events. The
evaluation of the questionnaires resulted in specific recommendations for further ecological upgrading of the
events held in Vienna!

Increased Contact with the Economy
Since 2005, in co-operation with the ARA recycling system and the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber (WKÖ)
and within the framework of the Waste Prevention Initiative the city has supported waste prevention measures in
small and medium-sized companies (SMEs), communal offices and enterprises, educational establishments and
health facilities, and other establishments. A total of 31 projects were submitted, 15 of which received assistance.

At the Christmas markets, MA 48 distributed “Christmas sacks” as reusable present packaging in exchange for a
donation to the Integrationshaus in an attempt to lessen the mountain of packaging that accumulates at
Christmas. Successful projects were continued, such as the funding of reusable nappies, use of MA 48’s
Geschirrmobile (vehicles for lending dishes at events) for festivities to reduce the amount of waste, assistance for
repair companies (repair network) and the operation of 48er bazaars, where old, but functional items can be
handed in.

European Networks
Vienna is also involved in the waste management task force under the framework of the EURO CITIES forum.
Vienna took over the chairmanship of this task force from Copenhagen in August 2005. As one of their main
activities, this task force drew up a EUROCITIES position paper that was created in preparation of the thematic
strategy for waste prevention and recycling.
Public Relations and Creation of Awareness

The “48er-Misttelefon” (the refuse hotline) (01-546 48) is the first point of contact for Viennese citizens with any
questions on the topic of waste that require a swift answer. Furthermore, the mobile waste advice service is on
the road daily with up to three city buses. In 2005, around 200,000 consultations were carried out. And the
Internet presence has also proved its worth:

Special programmes on the subject of waste management have been developed for children of all age groups.
Via the “Mistmeister” (rubbish master) competition, school trips and even special school lessons on
environmentally friendly buying and cooking, it has been possible to reach more than 12,000 children! An
extensive range of folders and brochures rounds off the available information.

Another important event for the residents of Vienna is the annual “Mistfest”, or refuse festival, organised by MA
48. Here, the Viennese are familiarised with the right way to handle resources and waste in a playful manner and
on a large scale. The refuse festival broadly presents the services of MA 48 and the other departments of the
environment administrative group. In the period under consideration, it became apparent that in addition to the
goods and services available at the MA 48 stands, the stands for the Municipal Department for Vienna Waste
Water Management (MA 30), the Municipal Department for Vienna Waterworks (MA 31) and the Municipal
Department for Water Engineering (MA 45) were also popular with the public. Food and drink facilities, naturally
with organic delicacies, and a stage show rounded out the programme for more than 8,500 visitors.

MA 48 also holds an international three-day waste management conference every year. In 2005, pertinent topics
were discussed by 442 specialists from 33 nations under the motto “A Red Card for Waste – Liberalisation,
Successful Concepts and Personal Responsibility”.

Contaminated Sites

In Vienna, the problem of contaminated sites is similar in scope to comparable cities in Central Europe. Past
generations did not see mercury, arsenic residues, mineral oils and other hazardous substances as a danger and
such substances were therefore simply “disposed of” in disused quarries for example. Nowadays, considerable
efforts and resources are needed to “diffuse” these contaminated sites. Vienna already began with such efforts at
the start of the 1980s.

Site of the “Zentraltanklager Lobau” Storage Facilities
This is one of the largest contaminated areas in Vienna! The soil and water in this area are still affected by
mineral oil and hydrocarbon pollution caused by bombing in World War II. A 145,000 square metre sealing wall,
seven barrier wells and a blocking device were constructed to prevent these contaminants from flowing off into
Lower Lobau where there is a groundwater works. The building work began in 2002 and was carried out in four
stages. Phase one, the construction of the sealing wall, was completed in autumn 2004, while the third phase of
construction (harbour element) was completed in spring 2005. Preliminary work for phase four (renaturation of the
“Hausgraben”) is currently underway. The total project costs amount to some €45 million. Ninety-five per cent of
the construction costs for securing the contaminated site will be covered by the federal government in accordance
with the Federal Act on the Clean-up of Contaminated Sites (ALSAG).

Leopoldau Gas Works Site

In 1944, devastating aerial attacks were carried out on Leopoldau Gas Works which were built in 1911 and on the
benzene factory constructed in 1920. The Leopoldau Gas Works ceased operating in 1969. A project was drawn
up to secure the contaminated site. The project plans a boundary around the core area using the Vienna
Chamber System plus a row of barrier wells on the east edge of the site. The work is to be carried out in five
stages and began in December 2004. WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH is the building developer for securing the
contaminated site. The specialist work is being carried out by the Municipal Department for Water Engineering
(MA 45). The total costs amount to around €20 million. Seventy-five per cent of the construction costs for securing
the contaminated site will be covered by the federal government in accordance with the Federal Act on the Clean-
up of Contaminated Sites (ALSAG).

Shell Pilzgasse Site

This contaminated site is located between Leopoldauer Straße and Nordbahn. Austria’s first refinery was built
here, and in 1944 and 1945 it was bombed repeatedly, largely destroying the around 100,000 square metre
facility. The enterprise ceased operating in 1970. On the basis of examinations, the area was named a
contaminated site in the spring of 1990, and it was assigned priority I that summer. Mineral oil was identified as
the most important contaminant. The project to secure the site plans for the construction of six extraction wells
and a 1,300 metre long sealing wall plus the treatment and reinfiltration of contaminated groundwater, among
other things. The entire system will be controlled fully-automatically and incorporated into the remote monitoring
system of MA 45. The project planning is completed and official authorisations have been granted. The total
project costs amount to some €19 million. Ninety-five per cent of the construction costs for securing the
contaminated site will be covered by the federal government.

With these measures, Vienna has secured or renovated all sites contaminated through war damage.

Parallel to the described construction measures, the systematic investigation of other sites of possible
contamination has been and is being carried out. Project planning to secure further contaminated sites such as
Zwölfaxing Storage Facilities and Simmering Gas Works is still being carried out, so that further action can be
taken in the foreseeable future.

With contributions from:
MA 22 – Environmental Protection
MA 45 – Water Engineering
MA 48 – Waste Management, Street Cleaning and Vehicle Fleet

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