Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans What is an FBA • It is the process of determining why a student engages in challenging behavior and how the student’s behavior relates to the environment What is an FBA? • A problem solving process • uses information from a variety of sources collected over time • identifies the variables contributing to the occurrence of the problem behavior • Helps us to understand why the behavior is occurring When do you need an FBA/BIP • Not every student who has behavioral challenges requires and FBA/BIP, in Fact most students will not • About 1-5% of the students in a school building need these individualized assessments and plans When do you need an FBA/BIP con’t • CSE or 504 referral • Before or not later than 10 days after disciplinary action is taken • Cases when child’s behavior impedes their learning or learning of others’ Who is involved in this process • It is a TEAM PROCESS, Includes – Student – Parents – Team of Teachers – Guidance counselor – Social worker – Psychologist – Administrators Teacher Roles • Responsible for the daily implementation and maintenance of the behavior plan • Reports back to a case manager who is responsible for analyzing the data and modifying the plan • Understanding that many of the behaviors targeted will take considerable time and effort to change Parent Roles • BIP’s are most effective when parents are involved in its development • Follow through at home is important; e.g. outside counseling, if needed; using the same language the school is using, consistency with motivators, rewards, and reinforcement. • Parents are more willing to participate in this process when they receive consistent progress monitoring How to develop an FBA • Meet with team members who are most informed about the student • Teachers should complete Interview tools and help team understand what is motivating to the student • Examples of student behaviors should be specific and well defined, measurable terms • Discussion of student’s STRENGTHS How to develop an FBA • Discuss what are the precursors to the student’s behavior, what does the student do that signals the behavior is coming (antecedents) • What are TRIGGERS to the behavior • Discuss whether a safety plan is needed (remove students, remove other students, who to contact when assistance is needed) Common Frustrations experienced by the team • “There’s nothing we can do” • “It happens out of the blue” • “Nothing was happening before the behavior occurred” • What is the student trying to communicate or tell you with their behavior Look out for Setting (Influencing) Events – Medical issues – Sensory issues – Sleeping/eating patterns – Major life events – What is the mode of instruction – What is going on during transitions – What is the student’s mood coming in – What skills are required for the activity and does the student possess those skills – Does student have the correct materials for class – What other students are in the class – Where is the student sitting, who is sitting next to him What are the Consequences of the student’s behavior • What are teachers or other students saying or doing after the behavior • What is Reinforcing the behavior • What is the PAYOFF for the behavior, what does the student get or get out of Data Collection is imperative • Psychologist, social worker, and/or teacher should collect date until they see a pattern of behavior • When observing, you need to vary classes and the time of day • Frequency data • Antecedent-behavior-consequence frequency data • Duration data – how long does the behavior last Data collection con’t • Interval Data- how many intervals was the behavior present during a period of time? (Percent of on or off task behavior) • Anecdotal data- used for low frequency/ high intensity behavior (fight, lifting student’s desk) • Latency data- how long does it take a behavior to start following a cue, how much time goes by between the stimulus cue and the response (e.g. how long can student work before shutting down, when a student is asked to do work, how long do you have to wait before he self-initiates) Summarize the assessment data • Questions to ask: • Does the student Get something? (ACCESS) • Does the student GET OUT OF something? (ESCAPE) • What is the Function of the behavior? – What is the purpose or the reason why the student is engaging in the problem behavior? – All behavior serves a FUNCTION – The FUNCTION is reinforcing (Increases the behavior) – Positive reinforcement- provide the student with something they want (attention, an item, an activity, stimulation) – Negative Reinforcement- take away something they don’t want (work, demand, activity) How do we reinforce behavior? • Students misbehave, teacher sends them out of room to administrator or detention – get attention from adults (positive reinforcer) – look cool in front of peers – Get out of class (negative reinforcer) Examples of how we reinforce • Student can’t read, teacher asks them to read in front of class, student tosses book and is sent out of room • Which is worse for student: • Detention or being embarrassed in front of his class? What is the function of the behavior? • Student is constantly speaking in class, teacher reprimands student, that is reinforcing to student if the function of the behavior is to get attention from adults. • All behavior is motivated by a need that is UNMET, therefore our responses will reinforce or extinguish the behavior; therefore we have to be sure that our response corrects the behavior • How can you prevent the behavior from occurring? Common Reasons for ESCAPE Motivated Behavior • Lack of motivation for the task demand • Difficulty coping • Difficult tasks • Over-stimulating environment • Interpersonal conflicts Common Reasons for ACCESS Motivated Behavior • Attention • Something Tangible • Event • Predictability over the environment • Control, need to feel safe • Stimulation Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) • Effective BIPs consist of multiple intervention components and support strategies • Multiple components are needed because it is highly unlikely that any single intervention can address the comprehensive, long-term goals of behavior support for students who present with complex behavioral concerns • In using an FBA to find out what function a problem behavior serves, one can then choose an alternative positive behavior to replace it that serves the same function. • In addition, in finding out what variable triggers the behavior (antecedent) and what reinforces it (consequence), one can then modify the environment to help decrease the frequency of future target behavior • It is the Environment that’s expected to change, there is a mismatch in the Environment Every BIP should include… • Prevention Strategies • Alternative Skill Instruction • Reinforcement – Strengthening Appropriate Skills • Strategies to diffuse behavior when it occurs • Some plans may include a safety plan 1. Prevention Strategies • How will you modify the antecedent triggers to prevent the behavior from occurring • What prompts or scaffolds can you add to the environment to help the student overcome or negotiate trigger situations • Examples of some proactive strategies: teach organizational skills, provide schedules, extra set of materials in class, give student a job when they walk into class, modify work, provide visual cues to help save face for certain behaviors, provide transition warnings, move child’s seat, teacher greeting student at the door, simplify language, repeat directions, provide attention when student is doing what they are supposed to be doing, More Prevention Strategies • Provide choices to help them feel like they are in charge (to avoid power struggle) • Embed requests within a choice phrase – Types of choices: • Choice of materials within an activity • Choice between activities • Refusal to participate • Who to participate with • When to start or end • Choice of how to complete a task • Honor their choice (it’s reinforcing) • Intersperse short tasks with long tasks, easy tasks with hard tasks, preferred tasks with non-preferred tasks 2. Alternative Skill Instruction • Involve a component to teach the student a replacement skill that effectively competes with the problem behavior. (e.g. if the student has been calling out, he needs to be taught how to raise his hand). • What are some functionally equivalent skills to teach the student (e.g. skills that serve the same function as the problem behavior) • Examples: Teaching the student to ask for help when they don’t understand the task instead of walking out of the room when they are frustrated. – teaching the student anger management strategies for when they are frustrated with a task Alternative Skill Instruction • Teaching students to get attention from peers/ teachers when taking on a leadership role • Teach self-monitoring so they can become aware of their triggers • Teaching and reinforcing appropriate classroom behavior • Give them a way to escape in a private, appropriate way • Building extracurricular activities • Model, Lead, and Teach the skills they need to learn when they are in a calm state • Provide support for the generalization of their skills More alternative skills • Escape examples • Access examples – Take a break • Request attention – Ask for help • Schedule an appropriate – Identify trigger time to talk with staff – Problem solving • Ask to schedule time for a – Ask for modification preferred item • Follow and use a schedule • Use a social story or script 3. Reinforcement – Strengthening Appropriate Skills • How will you provide the student with reinforcement for appropriate behavior? • How often and what will people say to provide social praise throughout the day? • Use a system that provides incentives beyond just social praise. – How often should the student receive reinforcement – What is the criteria the student needs to meet to earn the reinforcement – What kind of privileges can student earn – Be specific, what does the student have to do. Strategies to Strengthen Behavior • Social Praise (Validating statements) • Prompts and reminders to used alternative skills • Incentive Systems (the system has to be successful right off the bat, give more reinforcement up front) • Deliver reinforcement consistently and immediately • Self-monitoring; Self-reinforcement • Natural Consequences Incentive Systems – Student needs to feel EMPOWERED • Should be tangible (points, tokens, tickets) • Make it visual (consider privacy) • Make it simple • Rewards should be interesting to the student (Interest inventory, Motivation Assessment Scale) – Social rewards (phone call to parents, time with friends) – Privileges (video games, computer time) – Tangibles (points or tickets to cash in for something) 4. Strategies to diffuse behavior when it occurs • How will the staff act when unwanted behaviors occur? • What to consider: – What are the strategies that can be used when the student first starts to get agitated – What strategies can be used for behaviors that occur repeatedly? – What strategies should be used for unmanageable behaviors Things to consider with regard to student misbehaver: • Don’t zero in on student misbehaving, make sure the rest of the class is working • Ask questions, consider the function of the behavior, is it to get attention • How will you keep your cool in front of the class • Need to problem solve with the student, but not in a moment of agitation • Use discipline strategies that preserve the dignity of the student – Speak privately – Use language that focuses on the behavior, not the student – Provide student with options – Acknowledge positive behavior or choices – Provide assistance 5. Safety Plans • Does the student have to be sent out of the class • Is it safer to keep the student in the classroom and remove the class? Where will the class go? • Who will be contacted in case of emergency and how will they be contacted? • How to approach student while they are agitated? • How will you prevent injury? • What de-escalation strategies will you use? De-Escalation Strategies • Remove all demands in a crisis • Avoid physical contact or re-direction • Minimize verbal interaction (this is not a time to problem solve • Speak softly • Send student to safe area • Get assistance from other staff • Remove other students from the area • Clear away dangerous items • GOAL is ALWAYS for the student to remain in class and benefit from instruction Punishment • Is effective in the moment, but doesn’t last • Mild consequences consistently delivered are more effective than punitive consequences Barriers to BIPs • Idea that strong consequences are effective • Belief that differentiated interventions are unfair • Belief that students with problem behaviors are better served elsewhere Overcoming these Barriers • Engage the staff in decision-making process • Provide examples of successful situations • Be persistent • Share progress and data with teachers and parents • Staff needs support, encouragement, and celebration Controls for success of a BIP • Collaboration among team members, the student, and the FAMILY is imperative to improve student outcome • Are most effective in environments that are well managed • Have to deal with the classroom environment FIRST • Plans are most effective when teachers ask for help earlier on, the longer the behavior occurs, the more complicated it becomes to assess and work on the behavior Controls for success • It is expected that a BIP will need to be modified shortly after it is implemented • Periodic meetings with team (every 4 to 6 weeks) to answer questions, listen to their frustrations, modify plan, etc • Need good data collection to assess effectiveness of the plan • Team should have opportunities for ongoing problem solving Successful BIPs • One of the most common reasons that a BIP fails to be effective is due to poor implementation (Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, & Potterton, 2005). • It is important that the BIP creation be a collaborative process. Teachers are more likely to implement the plan with fidelity if they took part in its creation. • A student is more likely to respond positively to the plan if s/he had some input in its creation. This is particularly pertinent in choosing the reinforcers the student will receive for the new positive alternative behavior. • It is also important to explain the reason for the plan to teachers, and that behavior change takes time and can sometimes get worse before it gets better. You do not want teachers or parents to stop implementing the plan because they don’t see an automatic change. They may become frustrated with the plan and/or waiting for the change, so it is also important to motivate and rejuvenate them through the process (Lohrmann, 2007). Successful BIPs • A key thing to remember in the process is using behavioral definitions that are as objective as possible. The clearer the behavior is, the more readily anyone can be involved with the plan. • Consistency is key to a successful BIP. Ideally, all teachers would deliver the same consequence at any instance of the problem behavior. This is the most effective way to make a change. • With these things in mind, an FBAs and BIPs can be very successful behavioral techniques to transform problem behavior. With the school staff working together, and with the right expectations, one can see change across a number of behaviors and students with a behavior plan that is created with FBA results in mind. References • Horner, R. (1994). Functional assessment: Contributions and future directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 401 – 404. • Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer,T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA function- based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224- 236. • Lohrmann, S. (2007, October). Functional behavior assessment and behavior intervention planning. Presentation presented at St. John’s University, Jamaica, NY. • Van Acker, R., Boreson, L., Gable, R. A., & Potterton, T. (2005). Are we on the right course? Lessons learned about current FBA/BIP practices in school. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1), 35 – 56.
Pages to are hidden for
"Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans"Please download to view full document