Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans by HC120730003351

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									   Functional Behavior
Assessments and Behavior
    Intervention Plans
           What is an FBA
• It is the process of determining why a
  student engages in challenging behavior
  and how the student’s behavior relates to
  the environment
           What is an FBA?
• A problem solving process
• uses information from a variety of sources
  collected over time
• identifies the variables contributing to the
  occurrence of the problem behavior
• Helps us to understand why the behavior
  is occurring
When do you need an FBA/BIP
• Not every student who has behavioral
  challenges requires and FBA/BIP, in Fact
  most students will not

• About 1-5% of the students in a school
  building need these individualized
  assessments and plans
  When do you need an FBA/BIP
             con’t
• CSE or 504 referral

• Before or not later than 10 days after
  disciplinary action is taken

• Cases when child’s behavior impedes their
  learning or learning of others’
 Who is involved in this process
• It is a TEAM PROCESS, Includes
  – Student
  – Parents
  – Team of Teachers
  – Guidance counselor
  – Social worker
  – Psychologist
  – Administrators
           Teacher Roles
• Responsible for the daily implementation
  and maintenance of the behavior plan
• Reports back to a case manager who is
  responsible for analyzing the data and
  modifying the plan
• Understanding that many of the behaviors
  targeted will take considerable time and
  effort to change
               Parent Roles
• BIP’s are most effective when parents are
  involved in its development
• Follow through at home is important; e.g. outside
  counseling, if needed; using the same language
  the school is using, consistency with motivators,
  rewards, and reinforcement.
• Parents are more willing to participate in this
  process when they receive consistent progress
  monitoring
     How to develop an FBA
• Meet with team members who are most
  informed about the student
• Teachers should complete Interview tools
  and help team understand what is
  motivating to the student
• Examples of student behaviors should be
  specific and well defined, measurable
  terms
• Discussion of student’s STRENGTHS
     How to develop an FBA
• Discuss what are the precursors to the
  student’s behavior, what does the student
  do that signals the behavior is coming
  (antecedents)
• What are TRIGGERS to the behavior
• Discuss whether a safety plan is needed
  (remove students, remove other students,
  who to contact when assistance is
  needed)
Common Frustrations experienced
        by the team
• “There’s nothing we can do”
• “It happens out of the blue”
• “Nothing was happening before the
  behavior occurred”
• What is the student trying to communicate
  or tell you with their behavior
Look out for Setting (Influencing)
             Events
– Medical issues
– Sensory issues
– Sleeping/eating patterns
– Major life events
– What is the mode of instruction
– What is going on during transitions
– What is the student’s mood coming in
– What skills are required for the activity and does the
  student possess those skills
– Does student have the correct materials for class
– What other students are in the class
– Where is the student sitting, who is sitting next to him
What are the Consequences of the
       student’s behavior
• What are teachers or other students
  saying or doing after the behavior
• What is Reinforcing the behavior
• What is the PAYOFF for the behavior,
  what does the student get or get out of
  Data Collection is imperative
• Psychologist, social worker, and/or teacher
  should collect date until they see a pattern of
  behavior
• When observing, you need to vary classes and
  the time of day
• Frequency data
• Antecedent-behavior-consequence frequency
  data
• Duration data – how long does the behavior last
         Data collection con’t
• Interval Data- how many intervals was the
  behavior present during a period of time?
  (Percent of on or off task behavior)
• Anecdotal data- used for low frequency/ high
  intensity behavior (fight, lifting student’s desk)
• Latency data- how long does it take a behavior
  to start following a cue, how much time goes by
  between the stimulus cue and the response (e.g.
  how long can student work before shutting
  down, when a student is asked to do work, how
  long do you have to wait before he self-initiates)
    Summarize the assessment data
•   Questions to ask:
•   Does the student Get something? (ACCESS)
•   Does the student GET OUT OF something? (ESCAPE)
•   What is the Function of the behavior?
    – What is the purpose or the reason why the student is engaging
      in the problem behavior?
    – All behavior serves a FUNCTION
    – The FUNCTION is reinforcing (Increases the behavior)
    – Positive reinforcement- provide the student with something they
      want (attention, an item, an activity, stimulation)
    – Negative Reinforcement- take away something they don’t want
      (work, demand, activity)
How do we reinforce behavior?
• Students misbehave,
  teacher sends them out
  of room to administrator
  or detention
  – get attention from adults
    (positive reinforcer)
  – look cool in front of peers
  – Get out of class
    (negative reinforcer)
 Examples of how we reinforce
• Student can’t read, teacher asks them to
  read in front of class, student tosses book
  and is sent out of room
• Which is worse for student:
• Detention or being embarrassed in front of
  his class?
      What is the function of the
              behavior?
• Student is constantly speaking in class,
  teacher reprimands student, that is
  reinforcing to student if the function of the
  behavior is to get attention from adults.
• All behavior is motivated by a need that is
  UNMET, therefore our responses will
  reinforce or extinguish the behavior;
  therefore we have to be sure that our
  response corrects the behavior
• How can you prevent the behavior from
  occurring?
    Common Reasons for ESCAPE
        Motivated Behavior
•   Lack of motivation for the task demand
•   Difficulty coping
•   Difficult tasks
•   Over-stimulating environment
•   Interpersonal conflicts
    Common Reasons for ACCESS
        Motivated Behavior
•   Attention
•   Something Tangible
•   Event
•   Predictability over the environment
•   Control, need to feel safe
•   Stimulation
 Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP)
• Effective BIPs consist of multiple
  intervention components and support
  strategies
• Multiple components are needed because
  it is highly unlikely that any single
  intervention can address the
  comprehensive, long-term goals of
  behavior support for students who present
  with complex behavioral concerns
• In using an FBA to find out what function a problem
  behavior serves, one can then choose an alternative
  positive behavior to replace it that serves the same
  function.
• In addition, in finding out what variable triggers the
  behavior (antecedent) and what reinforces it
  (consequence), one can then modify the environment to
  help decrease the frequency of future target behavior
• It is the Environment that’s expected to change,
  there is a mismatch in the Environment
     Every BIP should include…

• Prevention Strategies
• Alternative Skill Instruction
• Reinforcement – Strengthening
  Appropriate Skills
• Strategies to diffuse behavior when it
  occurs
• Some plans may include a safety plan
        1. Prevention Strategies
• How will you modify the antecedent triggers to prevent
  the behavior from occurring
• What prompts or scaffolds can you add to the
  environment to help the student overcome or negotiate
  trigger situations
• Examples of some proactive strategies: teach
  organizational skills, provide schedules, extra set of
  materials in class, give student a job when they walk into
  class, modify work, provide visual cues to help save face
  for certain behaviors, provide transition warnings, move
  child’s seat, teacher greeting student at the door, simplify
  language, repeat directions, provide attention when
  student is doing what they are supposed to be doing,
    More Prevention Strategies
• Provide choices to help them feel like they are in charge
  (to avoid power struggle)
• Embed requests within a choice phrase
   – Types of choices:
      •   Choice of materials within an activity
      •   Choice between activities
      •   Refusal to participate
      •   Who to participate with
      •   When to start or end
      •   Choice of how to complete a task
• Honor their choice (it’s reinforcing)
• Intersperse short tasks with long tasks, easy tasks with
  hard tasks, preferred tasks with non-preferred tasks
   2. Alternative Skill Instruction
• Involve a component to teach the student a replacement
  skill that effectively competes with the problem behavior.
  (e.g. if the student has been calling out, he needs to be
  taught how to raise his hand).
• What are some functionally equivalent skills to teach the
  student (e.g. skills that serve the same function as the
  problem behavior)
• Examples: Teaching the student to ask for help when
  they don’t understand the task instead of walking out of
  the room when they are frustrated.
   – teaching the student anger management strategies for when
     they are frustrated with a task
     Alternative Skill Instruction
• Teaching students to get attention from peers/ teachers
  when taking on a leadership role
• Teach self-monitoring so they can become aware of their
  triggers
• Teaching and reinforcing appropriate classroom
  behavior
• Give them a way to escape in a private, appropriate way
• Building extracurricular activities
• Model, Lead, and Teach the skills they need to learn
  when they are in a calm state
• Provide support for the generalization of their skills
           More alternative skills
• Escape examples            • Access examples
  –   Take a break           • Request attention
  –   Ask for help
                             • Schedule an appropriate
  –   Identify trigger
                               time to talk with staff
  –   Problem solving
                             • Ask to schedule time for a
  –   Ask for modification
                               preferred item
                             • Follow and use a
                               schedule
                             • Use a social story or
                               script
 3. Reinforcement – Strengthening
         Appropriate Skills

• How will you provide the student with
  reinforcement for appropriate behavior?
• How often and what will people say to provide
  social praise throughout the day?
• Use a system that provides incentives beyond
  just social praise.
  – How often should the student receive reinforcement
  – What is the criteria the student needs to meet to earn
    the reinforcement
  – What kind of privileges can student earn
  – Be specific, what does the student have to do.
 Strategies to Strengthen Behavior
• Social Praise (Validating statements)
• Prompts and reminders to used alternative skills
• Incentive Systems (the system has to be
  successful right off the bat, give more
  reinforcement up front)
• Deliver reinforcement consistently and
  immediately
• Self-monitoring; Self-reinforcement
• Natural Consequences
Incentive Systems – Student needs
       to feel EMPOWERED
•   Should be tangible (points, tokens, tickets)
•   Make it visual (consider privacy)
•   Make it simple
•   Rewards should be interesting to the student
    (Interest inventory, Motivation Assessment
    Scale)
    – Social rewards (phone call to parents, time with
      friends)
    – Privileges (video games, computer time)
    – Tangibles (points or tickets to cash in for something)
  4. Strategies to diffuse behavior
           when it occurs
• How will the staff act when unwanted
  behaviors occur?
• What to consider:
  – What are the strategies that can be used
    when the student first starts to get agitated
  – What strategies can be used for behaviors
    that occur repeatedly?
  – What strategies should be used for
    unmanageable behaviors
   Things to consider with regard to
         student misbehaver:
• Don’t zero in on student misbehaving, make sure the rest of the
  class is working
• Ask questions, consider the function of the behavior, is it to get
  attention
• How will you keep your cool in front of the class
• Need to problem solve with the student, but not in a moment of
  agitation
• Use discipline strategies that preserve the dignity of the student
    –   Speak privately
    –   Use language that focuses on the behavior, not the student
    –   Provide student with options
    –   Acknowledge positive behavior or choices
    –   Provide assistance
             5. Safety Plans
• Does the student have to be sent out of the
  class
• Is it safer to keep the student in the classroom
  and remove the class? Where will the class go?
• Who will be contacted in case of emergency and
  how will they be contacted?
• How to approach student while they are
  agitated?
• How will you prevent injury?
• What de-escalation strategies will you use?
       De-Escalation Strategies
• Remove all demands in a crisis
• Avoid physical contact or re-direction
• Minimize verbal interaction (this is not a time to problem
  solve
• Speak softly
• Send student to safe area
• Get assistance from other staff
• Remove other students from the area
• Clear away dangerous items
• GOAL is ALWAYS for the student to remain in class and
  benefit from instruction
               Punishment

• Is effective in the moment, but doesn’t last
• Mild consequences consistently delivered
  are more effective than punitive
  consequences
            Barriers to BIPs
• Idea that strong consequences are
  effective
• Belief that differentiated interventions are
  unfair
• Belief that students with problem
  behaviors are better served elsewhere
   Overcoming these Barriers
• Engage the staff in decision-making
  process
• Provide examples of successful situations
• Be persistent
• Share progress and data with teachers
  and parents
• Staff needs support, encouragement, and
  celebration
  Controls for success of a BIP
• Collaboration among team members, the
  student, and the FAMILY is imperative to
  improve student outcome
• Are most effective in environments that are well
  managed
• Have to deal with the classroom environment
  FIRST
• Plans are most effective when teachers ask for
  help earlier on, the longer the behavior occurs,
  the more complicated it becomes to assess and
  work on the behavior
        Controls for success
• It is expected that a BIP will need to be
  modified shortly after it is implemented
• Periodic meetings with team (every 4 to 6
  weeks) to answer questions, listen to their
  frustrations, modify plan, etc
• Need good data collection to assess
  effectiveness of the plan
• Team should have opportunities for
  ongoing problem solving
                  Successful BIPs
• One of the most common reasons that a BIP fails to be effective is
  due to poor implementation (Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, &
  Potterton, 2005).
• It is important that the BIP creation be a collaborative process.
  Teachers are more likely to implement the plan with fidelity if they
  took part in its creation.
• A student is more likely to respond positively to the plan if s/he had
  some input in its creation. This is particularly pertinent in choosing
  the reinforcers the student will receive for the new positive
  alternative behavior.
• It is also important to explain the reason for the plan to teachers,
  and that behavior change takes time and can sometimes get worse
  before it gets better. You do not want teachers or parents to stop
  implementing the plan because they don’t see an automatic change.
  They may become frustrated with the plan and/or waiting for the
  change, so it is also important to motivate and rejuvenate them
  through the process (Lohrmann, 2007).
              Successful BIPs
• A key thing to remember in the process is using
  behavioral definitions that are as objective as possible.
  The clearer the behavior is, the more readily anyone can
  be involved with the plan.
• Consistency is key to a successful BIP. Ideally, all
  teachers would deliver the same consequence at any
  instance of the problem behavior. This is the most
  effective way to make a change.
• With these things in mind, an FBAs and BIPs can be
  very successful behavioral techniques to transform
  problem behavior. With the school staff working
  together, and with the right expectations, one can see
  change across a number of behaviors and students with
  a behavior plan that is created with FBA results in mind.
                       References
• Horner, R. (1994). Functional assessment: Contributions and future
  directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 401 – 404.
• Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer,T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based
  intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA function-
  based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of
  Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224- 236.
• Lohrmann, S. (2007, October). Functional behavior assessment
  and behavior intervention planning. Presentation presented at
  St. John’s University, Jamaica, NY.
• Van Acker, R., Boreson, L., Gable, R. A., & Potterton, T. (2005). Are
  we on the right course? Lessons learned about current FBA/BIP
  practices in school. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1), 35 – 56.

								
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