PrivateGroundSchool 7 Flight Planing by I0FVNFi

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									     Flight Planning in the 21st Century
     (a lot like the last century)



Welcome to Flight Planning
   Flight Planning in the 21st Century
   (a lot like the last century)

Airport Information
Route information
Airplane data
Weather
Pilot
    Flight Planning in the 21st Century
    (a lot like the last century)



Airport Information from:
Sectional chart
Airport Information Guide
Internet – Airnav.com and others
     Flight Planning in the 21st Century
     (a lot like the last century)

Airport Information:
Runway information (length, width,
surface type, lighting,
obstructions)
Comm frequencies
Nav frequencies
Fuel availability
(Restaurants?)
              Flight Planning in the 21st Century
              (a lot like the last century)

FAA Airport
Facilities
Directory
          Flight Planning in the 21st Century
          (a lot like the last century)


Various websites and commercial
sources
    AOPA, print and aopa.org

    Airnav.com
          Flight Planning in the 21st Century
          (a lot like the last century)




Sectional Charts
                         AIRPORT INFORMATION




                      SKY       SFC
NAME    ELEVATION   CONDITION   WIND     TWR      GND      ATIS     NOTAMS
LXT          1004                        122.8    122.8   124.175
SZL          870                         132.4
COU          889                         119.3
SUS          463                         124.75   121.7    134.8


 Approach control
 Kansas City                    118.4
 Whiteman                       127.45
 St. Louis                      124.2


Can be calculated in advance
       Flight Planning in the 21st Century
       (a lot like the last century)



Route Information from
VFR sectional chart
VFR terminal chart

Duats, AOPA flight planner, or similar
         Flight Planning in the 21st Century
         (a lot like the last century)



Route Information
Distance
Magnetic course (true course if desired)
Altitude restrictions
Special use airspace – MOA; Class B, C, D
Radio freq. – Comm., VOR
          Flight Planning in the 21st Century
          (a lot like the last century)

Airplane data
Enroute performance data (true
airspeed, fuel flow, power setting)
Take-off and landing data
Weight and balance computation
FAR part 91.205, 207, 209, 215, 409, 411,
413, 171
                            WEIGHT AND BALANCE


                                    WT      Moment (lb-in)
                                    (lbs)     / 1000)
Licensed Empty Weight (sample      1660          57.9
airplane)
Oil 12 qts **                        22          -.03
Pilot and Passenger                 340          12.2
Fuel (60 Gal at 6 # / gal           360          17.3
Rear Passengers                     340          24.1
Baggage (or passenger on             78          7.6
auxiliary seat
Total Aircraft Weight              2800         118.8
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
                  CRUISE PERFORMANCE
                       LEAN MIXTURE
Standard Conditions -- Zero Wind – Gross Weight 2800 Pounds

   RPM       MP     %bhp     GAL/ HR    tas mph    end.      range
                                                  (hours)   (miles)

                           7,500 FEET
   2450      21      71        13.1      161        6        960
             20      67        12.4      157       6.4       1005
             19      62        11.7      152       6.8       1025
             18      58         11       147       7.2       1055
   2300      21      66        12.2      156       6.5       1005
             20      62        11.6      151       6.8       1025
             19      58         11       147       7.2       1050
             18      54        10.5      142       7.5       1065
   2200      21      62        11.4      152       6.9       1055
             20      58        10.7      148       7.4       1090
             19      54        10.2      143       7.7       1105
             18      51         9.7      138       8.1       1130
   2000      19      47         8.7      131       9.1       1185
    **       18      43         8.1      123       9.8       1200
             17      39         7.6      116       10.4      1210
             16      36         7        107       11.3      1210
        ----------------- TAKE – OFF DISTANCE ------------------
 TAKEOFF DISTANCE WITH 20° FLAPS FROM HARD SURFACE RUNWAY


GROSS   IAS      HEAD          At Sea Level, 59°F            At 2,500 ft, 50°F
 WT     MPH      WIND
 LBS             MPH        GROUND            TO         GROUND              TO
                              RUN           CLEAR          RUN             CLEAR
                                           50’ OBS.                       50’ OBS.
 2000    52        0           295           655             350            745
                   15          160           425             195            490
                   30          65            235              80            280
 2400    57        0           440           895             525           1035
                   15          255           600             310            705
                   30          115           355             150            425
 2800    61        0           625          1,205            745           1,420
                   15          380           830             460            990
                   30          190           515             240            630


GROSS   IAS      HEAD           At 5,000 ft, 41°F            At 7,500 ft, 32°F
 WT     MPH      WIND
 LBS             MPH        GROUND            TO         GROUND              TO
                              RUN           CLEAR          RUN             CLEAR
                                           50’ OBS.                       50’ OBS.
 2000    52        0           415           855             500           1005
                   15          235           570             290            680
                   30          105            35             135            405
 2400    57        0           630           1210            765           1400
                   15          380            835            470           1020
                   30          190            515            245            645
 2800    61        0           895           1695           1095           2090
                   15          565           1200            700           1505
                   30          305            780            390           1000
NOTE    Increase distance 10% for each 25° F above standard temperature
                                             LANDING DISTANCE

Landing Distance with 40 degrees of flaps on hard surface runway
 GROSS      APROACH,
 WT LBS     AS, MPH       At Sea Level, 59 deg F     At 2,500 ft, 50 deg F      at 5,000 ft, 41 deg F     At 7,500 ft, 32 deg F
                                                                    to clear
                                         to clear                      50'                    to clear                  to clear
                                            50'                     Obstacl                      50'                       50'
                         Ground Roll     Obstacle   Ground Roll         e      Ground Roll    Obstacle   Ground Roll    Obstacle
  2800          69           590           1350        640            1430        680           1505        740           1595




    NOTE:   Distances are based on zero wind, power off, and heavy braking


            Reduce landing distances ten per cent for each 6 MPH headwind.
                         Flight Planning in the 21st Century
                         (a lot like the last century)
                             Can be calculated in advance

Hobbs time Out:                                   Takeoff time:
                  Magnetic           Distance                       Time              Fuel
                                                    ground
from:      Course     Heading   leg       total     speed         leg   total   leg      total   ETA   ATA
ANX 180
/ 9.0      091                  10       10
COU 180
/ 0.5      088                  91       101

FTZ        093                  59      160
SUS        092                  15      175



 Proposed: Manifold Pressure __18”_ RPM __2000 IAS_______
 Alt___7,500__ Fuel Flow ___8.1 gph____       TAS ___123___
         Flight Planning in the 21st Century
         (a lot like the last century)


With E6B Computer, calculate
Groundspeed
Wind-drift correction
Time Enroute
Fuel consumption
        Flight Planning in the 21st Century
        (a lot like the last century)

Groundspeed / Wind-drift correction
Flight Planning in the 21st Century
(a lot like the last century)
Flight Planning in the 21st Century
(a lot like the last century)

          1. Under the top index,
             place the Magnetic
             Direction the wind is
             coming from.
          2. Measure and mark the
             velocity of the wind
             DOWN from the center
             mark.
                 Flight Planning in the 21st Century
                 (a lot like the last century)
1. Slide the back plate up or
   down until the True Airspeed
   is under the center mark
2. Rotate the outer ring until the
   Ground track heading is
   located under the top index.
   (for starters, we will assume
   that the air line is the same
   as the ground line.)
3. At this point, the end of the
   wind line will indicate the drift
   and the ground speed
                      Flight Planning in the 21st Century
                      (a lot like the last century)

1. Here comes the tricky part. In
   the example shown, we are
   showing that if we fly a heading
   of 320°, we will drift 10° to the
   right. However, we want to know
   the heading to fly to get a
   ground track of 320°.
2. So, since the wind is blowing us
   10° right, we will want to alter
   our heading 10° to the left, or to
   310°.
3. Then, our actual ground speed
   will read at the end of the wind
   leg, and our magnetic heading
   will read at the top, under the
   index.
Computing flight times, knowing ground speed
Computing fuel usage, knowing flow rate
Computing True Airspeed, know Calibrated Airspeed
Converting between MPH and Knots
                        Flight Planning in the 21st Century
                        (a lot like the last century)
 Add this information after wind information is
 available
Hobbs time Out:                                   Takeoff time:
                  Magnetic           Distance                           Time              Fuel
                                                    ground
from:      Course     Heading   leg       total     speed          leg     total    leg      total   ETA   ATA
ANX 180
/ 9.0      091         082      10       10         110           :06      :06     .8        .8
COU 180
/ 0.5      088         078      91       101         136          :40      :46     5.4       6.2

FTZ        093        086       59      160          141          :25     1:11     3.2       9.4
SUS        092        087       15      175          140          :06     1:17     .8        10.2

 Proposed: Manifold Pressure __18”_ RPM __2000 IAS___118____
 Alt___7,500__ Fuel Flow ___8.1 gph____        TAS ___123___
                     Flight Planning in the 21st Century
                     (a lot like the last century)
   ETA and ATA, calculated as flight progresses

Hobbs time Out: 1205.6                           Takeoff time: 09:35
                 Magnetic           Distance                      Time                 Fuel
                                                  ground
from:      Course    Heading   leg       total    speed       leg        total   leg     total   ETA      ATA
ANX 180
/ 9.0      091        082      10       10       110        :06          :06     .8      .8      09:41   09:43
COU 180
/ 0.5      088        078      91       101      136        :40          :46     5.4     6.2     10:25   10:25

FTZ        093       086       59      160       141        :25        1:11      3.2     9.4     10:50   10:52
SUS        092       087       15      175       140        :06        1:17      .8      10.2    10:58

 Proposed: Manifold Pressure __18”_ RPM __2000 IAS___118____
 Alt___7,500__ Fuel Flow ___8.1 gph____        TAS ___123___
   Flight Planning in the 21st Century
   (a lot like the last century)

Weather
Available from:
Weather channel (tv)
Newspaper
Flight Service Station
Duats.com or similar
   Flight Planning in the 21st Century
   (a lot like the last century)

Weather
Big Picture for departure,
enroute, and arrival
Current weather
Forecast weather
        Flight Planning in the 21st Century
        (a lot like the last century)

Weather - Big Picture for
departure, enroute, and arrival
Fronts
Precipitation
Cloud coverage
Winds at altitude
Freezing level
    Flight Planning in the 21st Century
    (a lot like the last century)

Weather
Current weather –
departure and arrival points
Ceiling, visibility, winds,
dewpoint - temperature
         Flight Planning in the 21st Century
         (a lot like the last century)


Weather (FAR part 91.155; 1,000 ft
and 3 miles? Not really)
Forecast weather –arrival point
Ceiling, visibility, winds, dewpoint -
temperature
    Flight Planning in the 21st Century
    (a lot like the last century)

Weather, enroute
Winds at altitude, sky
conditions, visibility,
Temperatures (freezing
level)
                             AIRPORT INFORMATION




                       SKY            SFC
NAME    ELEVATION    CONDITION        WIND     TWR         GND             ATIS      NOTAMS
LXT          1004                              122.8       122.8      124.175
SZL          870                               132.4
COU          889                               119.3
SUS          463                               124.75      121.7       134.8



 Approach control                Winds Aloft       3,000           6,000          9,000
 Kansas City        118.4        Kansas City
 Whiteman           127.45       Columbia
 St. Louis          124.2        St. Louis
           Flight Planning in the 21st Century
           (a lot like the last century)
Pilot
How do you feel physically?
How do you feel mentally?
What are the ramifications to not flying this trip?
What alternate arrangements could you make prior to
takeoff? When enroute?
How do your passengers feel about canceling?
          Flight Planning in the 21st Century
          (a lot like the last century)
File a flight plan?
(FAR part 91.151 and 91.153 for VFR,
and 91.167 and 91.169 for IFR)

Use flight following?
What are benefits of each?
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Let’s Go Fly !
Before takeoff:
Normal “before takeoff” checklist,
plus
Recheck all comm and nav
frequencies
Re-confirm first heading
       Flying in the 21st Century
       (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute:
Navigation
Communication
Emergencies
Passenger considerations
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute:

Find and establish first checkpoint,
within five miles of departure
airport.

Establish pre-determined heading.
Flying in the 21st Century
(still, a lot like the last century)
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute navigation:

Pick a “fly – to” point
Calculate ETA to next major
checkpoint
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute - Map reading
For checkpoints, find three
identifying features.
Town – road feature,
railroad, airport location
Roads – bends, intersections
Flying in the 21st Century
(still, a lot like the last century)
Flying in the 21st Century
(still, a lot like the last century)
Flying in the 21st Century
(still, a lot like the last century)
Flying in the 21st Century
(still, a lot like the last century)
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute - GPS navigation
Set “go t0” prior to takeoff

Use to cross-check other
information
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute - Time and Heading
Cross check HI with mag. Compass
Calculate eta’s.
If heading is close, you won’t be far
off course. 10 degrees off course
for 60 miles is only a 3.3 mile error
       Flying in the 21st Century
       (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute - Time and Heading
 60 knots = 1 nm per min
 90 knots = 1 ½ nm per min
120 knots = 2 nm per min
         Flying in the 21st Century
         (still, a lot like the last century)

Approaching Destination:
Confirm current weather with atis or
asos \ awos
Contact approach contral (Class B \ C)
Contact tower (Class D)
Announce position on CTAF, non-
towered airports
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Approaching Destination:
Review field elevation and downwind
altitude; review entry procedures;
review how winds will affect you in
pattern and on landing
Close flight plan (automatically done
for you for IFR arrival at towered
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication
Center
Approach Control
Tower
Unicom \ CTAF
FSS (“radio”) 122.2 or on chart
Flight Watch (wx info. 122.0)
       Flying in the 21st Century
       (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication
Who you are talking to
Who you are (your call sign)
Where you are
What you want
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute communication:

Open Flight Plan with Flight Service
 (“Columbia Radio”)
   122.2 always available
     and not shown on chart
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Other Flight Service
frequencies:
        Flying in the 21st Century
        (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication – Center
vfr pilots are never required to call
“Center”. However, “Center”
controllers can provide flight
following info.
Freq. found in Airport Facilities
Guide and on IFR enroute charts.
         Flying in the 21st Century
         (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute:
Communication –
Kansas City Center
frequency, found on
IFR enroute chart
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication –
  Approach Control
Must call PRIOR to entering Class B or
Class C airspace. Otherwise, optional.
Freq. found in Airport Facilities Guide,
IFR enroute charts, and VFR sectional
charts.
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication –
Class C airspace. Must establish radio
contact prior to entry. (Approach
must acknowledge your presence.)
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication –
Class B airspace. Must receive specific
clearance to enter.
Other requirements for travel in Class
B airspace found in AIM 3-2-3. (for
VFR, nothing needed but radio and
x-ponder
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Communication –
Class D airspace. Must establish radio
contact with control tower prior to
entry. (Tower must acknowledge your
presence.)
      Flying in the 21st Century
      (still, a lot like the last century)


Enroute Emergencies:
Weather
Aircraft
Passenger
          Flying in the 21st Century
          (still, a lot like the last century)

Enroute: Passenger considerations
Early morning or evening, if possible.
Water, light snacks
Ear protection
Brief per FAR 91-159
           Flying in the 21st Century
           (still, a lot like the last century)

Other websites of interest:
  Flying Club Kansas City aviation links:
  FAR Part 91:
  FAR Part 61:
  Aviation Safety Reporting System:
  Airport diagrams from AOPA:
  Internet aviation magazine:
  Accident synopsis:
  Airman’s Information Manual:
  The CFI.com (lots of great info, and links to more)

								
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